Ironsides Jr., occasionally called simply Ironsides, was a bark chartered by the Navy at Port Royal, S.C. in August 1863. She was used as a storeship at Port Royal until 1 June 1864, the date of the last reference to her in the Official Records of the Union and Gonfederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion.
Raymond Burr, Actor, 76, Dies Played Perry Mason and Ironside
Raymond Burr, the burly, impassive actor who played the defense lawyer Perry Mason and the police detective Robert T. Ironside on television, died on Sunday at his ranch in Dry Creek Valley, near Healdsburg, Calif. He was 76.
The cause was kidney cancer, said his doctor, Paul J. Marguglio.
Mr. Burr started his career playing Hollywood heavies, most notably in Alfred Hitchcock's film "Rear Window." But he captivated television audiences with his portrayal of the Los Angeles trial lawyer Perry Mason, who won his first case in September 1957 and continued an unbroken winning streak that lasted nine seasons.
Gravelly-voiced and unrelentingly stern, with a habit of exhaling resonantly through his nostrils, Mason got to the bottom of seemingly unfathomable mysteries every week, relying on the private investigator Paul Drake (played by William Hopper) and his faithful secretary, Della Street (Barbara Hale), to defeat the hapless prosecutor Hamilton Burger (William Talman). To pull off his last-minute courtroom triumphs, Mason often broke down witnesses on the stand or produced surprise witnesses that left the prosecution's case a shambles.
One year after "Perry Mason" went off the air in September 1966, Mr. Burr stepped into the role of Robert Ironside, the chief of detectives for the San Francisco police department, who worked from a wheelchair after a would-be assassin's bullet left him paralyzed from the waist down. A Peripatetic Youth
Mr. Burr was born in New Westminster, British Columbia, not far from Vancouver. His father was a hardware dealer, and his mother was a pianist and music teacher. Soon after he was born, the family moved to China and lived there for five years. When Raymond was 6, his parents divorced, and his mother took him to live in a hotel that her father owned in Vallejo, Calif. He attended the San Rafael Military Academy but dropped out at 13 to help support his family in the Depression. After a year working on a cattle and sheep ranch, he returned to school, but he quit before completing junior high school.
After leaving school, he ran a weather station for the Forest Service and for a time worked in China, where his family owned property. He took extension courses, taught school, worked as a traveling salesman and wrote short stories.
Mr. Burr made his stage debut at 12 with a Vancouver stock company, and throughout his teen-age years he picked up occasional acting work.
In 1941, he made his Broadway debut in the musical "Crazy With the Heart." He also appeared in "The Duke in Darkness" on Broadway in 1944 before entering the Navy.
Mr. Burr left the Navy in 1946 weighing nearly 350 pounds, and he immediately landed work in films as a villain. His first screen role, in "Without Reservations" (1946), starring John Wayne and Claudette Colbert led to steady work. In all, he appeared in 90 films.
He first made an impression in "Pitfall" (1948), a suspense film starring Dick Powell, and won critical praise as the district attorney who hounds Montgomery Clift in "A Place in the Sun" (1951) and as the murderer in "Rear Window" (1954). One of his most unusual credits was an appearance in the first Godzilla film as a journalist who relays an account of Godzilla's rampage.
His other films include "San Quentin" (1947), "The Adventures of Don Juan" (1948), "A Cry in the Night" (1956) and "Desire in the Dust" (1960). More recently, he appeared in "Airplane II: The Sequel"(1982) and "Delirious" (1985). Landing His Biggest Role
In 1957, Mr. Burr was chosen over contenders including Fred MacMurray and Efrem Zimbalist Jr. to play the starring role in "Perry Mason," a CBS-TV series based on the mystery novels of Erle Stanley Gardner. In the 1960-61 season, the show was among the five most popular on television, and Mr. Burr twice won Emmy Awards for best actor in a series.
Even after the show was canceled, Mason lived on in syndication. Mr. Burr recreated the role in "The New Perry Mason" in 1973, and in a television movie, "Perry Mason Returns," that was the second-highest-rated television movie in the 1985-86 season. It led to 25 more Perry Mason vehicles.
After appearing as Ironside on NBC from 1967 to 1975, Mr. Burr played a journalist in "Kingston: Confidential" in 1977. The next year, he appeared in the mini-series "Centennial," and in the late 80's he also was one of the hosts of "Unsolved Mysteries."
In August, he completed location work in Denver for "The Case of the Killer Kiss," a Perry Mason television movie.
According to the reference work Current Biography, Mr. Burr was married three times. His first wife, Annette Sutherland, an Englishwoman, was killed in 1943 when the plane in which she was traveling was shot down by the Germans. His second marriage, to Isabella Ward, ended in divorce, and his third wife, Laura Andrina Morgan, died of cancer in 1955. His only child, Michael Evan, by his first marriage, died of leukemia in 1953.
Mr. Burr, who was a cooking enthusiast and once owned an art gallery in Beverly Hills, Calif., bought a ranch and vineyard in Sonoma County in 1981, where he raised orchids, tended his vines and fruit trees, and kept sheep.
Ironstone was patented by the British potter Charles James Mason in 1813.  His father, Miles Mason (1752–1822) married the daughter of Richard Farrar, who had a business selling imported Oriental porcelain in London. Subsequently, Mason continued this business, but after the East India Company ceased the bulk importation of Oriental porcelain in 1791 he began to manufacture his own wares.  His first manufacturing venture was a partnership with Thomas Wolfe and John Lucock in Liverpool, and he later formed a partnership with George Wolfe to manufacture pottery in Staffordshire. 
Subsequently other manufacturers produced ironstone,  with James Edwards (1805–1867) of the Dalehall Pottery in Staffordshire also credited as its pioneer.  Other sources also attribute the invention of ironstone to William Turner of Longton,  and Josiah Spode  who is known to have been producing ironstone ware by 1805, "which he exported in immense quantities to France and other countries".  The popularity of Spode's ironstone surpassed the traditional faience pottery in France. 
A variety of ironstone types was being produced by the mid-19th century. "Derbyshire ironstone" became a particularly popular variety in the 19th century, as well as "yellow ironstone". Patterns with raised edges became popular in the mid-19th century, including "cane-coloured" Derbyshire ironstone. Some of the most well-known and collectable British ironstone manufacturers of the 19th century include: 
United States Edit
In the United States, ironstone ware was being manufactured from the 1850s onward. The earliest American ironstone potters were in operation around Trenton, New Jersey.  Before this, white ironstone ware was imported to the United States from England, beginning in the 1840s. Undecorated tableware was most popular in the United States, and British potteries produced white ironstone ware, known as "White Ironstone" or "White Granite" ware, for the American market. During the mid-19th century it was the largest export market for Staffordshire's potteries.  In the 1860s, British manufacturers began adding agricultural motifs, such as wheat, to their products to appeal to the American market. These patterns became known as "farmers' china" or "threshers' china". Plain white ironstone ware was widely marketed in the United States until the end of the 19th century. 
Notable 19th-century ironstone manufacturers in the United States include:
Transfer-printed designs were applied to ironstone by Mason's in an attempt to copy Chinese porcelain cheaply. Transferware is most often in one colour against a white background, such as blue, red, green or brown. Some patterns included detail colours that were added on top of the main transfer after the glaze had been applied. 
Transferware designs range from dense patterns that cover the piece, to small motifs applied sparingly to give a delicate appearance, as with floral motifs.
In 1785, Barbary pirates began to seize American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea, most notably from Algiers. In 1793 alone, 11 American ships were captured and their crews and stores held for ransom. To combat this problem, proposals were made for warships to protect American shipping, resulting in the Naval Act of 1794.   The act provided funds to construct six frigates, but it included a clause that the construction of the ships would be halted if peace terms were agreed to with Algiers. 
Joshua Humphreys' design was unusual for the time, being deep,  long on keel, narrow of beam (width), and mounting very heavy guns. The design called for a diagonal riders intended to restrict hogging and sagging while giving the ships extremely heavy planking. This design gave the hull a greater strength than a more lightly built frigate. It was based on Humphrey's realization that the fledgling United States could not match the European states in the size of their navies, so they were designed to overpower any other frigate while escaping from a ship of the line.   
Her keel was laid down on 1 November 1794 at Edmund Hartt's shipyard in Boston, Massachusetts under the supervision of Captain Samuel Nicholson, master shipwright Colonel George Claghorn and Foreman Prince Athearn of the Martha's Vineyard Athearns.   Constitution ' s hull was built 21 inches (530 mm) thick and her length between perpendiculars was 175 ft (53 m), with a 204 ft (62 m) length overall and a width of 43 ft 6 in (13.26 m).   In total, 60 acres (24 ha) of trees were needed for her construction.  Primary materials consisted of pine and oak, including southern live oak which was cut from Gascoigne Bluff and milled near St. Simons, Georgia. 
A peace accord was announced between the United States and Algiers in March 1796, and construction was halted in accordance with the Naval Act of 1794.  After some debate and prompting by President Washington, Congress agreed to continue funding the construction of the three ships nearest to completion: United States, Constellation, and Constitution.   Constitution ' s launching ceremony on 20 September 1797 was attended by President John Adams and Massachusetts Governor Increase Sumner. Upon launch, she slid down the ways only 27 feet (8.2 m) before stopping her weight had caused the ways to settle into the ground, preventing further movement. An attempt two days later resulted in only an additional 31 feet (9.4 m) of travel before the ship again stopped. After a month of rebuilding the ways, Constitution finally slipped into Boston Harbor on 21 October 1797, with Captain James Sever breaking a bottle of Madeira wine on her bowsprit.  
Constitution was rated as a 44-gun frigate, but she often carried more than 50 guns at a time.  Ships of this era had no permanent battery of guns such as those of modern Navy ships. The guns and cannons were designed to be completely portable and often were exchanged between ships as situations warranted. Each commanding officer outfitted armaments to his liking, taking into consideration factors such as the overall weight of stores, complement of personnel aboard, and planned routes to be sailed. Consequently, the armaments on ships changed often during their careers, and records of the changes were not generally kept. 
During the War of 1812, Constitution ' s battery of guns typically consisted of 30 long 24-pounder (11 kg) cannons, with 15 on each side of the gun deck. Another 22 guns were deployed on the spar deck, 11 per side, each a short 32-pounder (15 kg) carronade. Four chase guns were also positioned, two each at the stern and bow. 
All of the guns aboard Constitution have been replicas since her 1927–1931 restoration. Most were cast in 1930, but two carronades on the spar deck were cast in 1983.  A modern 40 mm (1.6 in) saluting gun was hidden inside the forward long gun on each side during her 1973–1976 restoration in order to restore the capability of firing ceremonial salutes. 
President John Adams ordered all Navy ships to sea in late May 1798 to patrol for armed French ships and to free any American ship captured by them. Constitution was still not ready to sail and eventually had to borrow sixteen 18-pound (8.2 kg) cannons from Castle Island before finally being ready.  She put to sea on the evening of 22 July 1798 with orders to patrol the Eastern seaboard between New Hampshire and New York. She was patrolling between Chesapeake Bay and Savannah, Georgia a month later when Nicholson found his first opportunity for capturing a prize. They intercepted Niger off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina on 8 September, a 24-gun ship sailing with a French crew en route from Jamaica to Philadelphia, claiming to have been under the orders of Great Britain.  Nicholson had the crewmen imprisoned, perhaps not understanding his orders correctly. He placed a prize crew aboard Niger and brought her into Norfolk, Virginia.
Constitution sailed south again a week later to escort a merchant convoy, but her bowsprit was severely damaged in a gale and she returned to Boston for repairs. In the meantime, Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Stoddert determined that Niger had been operating under the orders of Great Britain as claimed, and the ship and her crew were released to continue their voyage. The American government paid a restitution of $11,000 to Great Britain.  
Constitution departed Boston on 29 December. Nicholson reported to Commodore John Barry, who was flying his flag in United States near the island of Dominica for patrols in the West Indies. On 15 January 1799, Constitution intercepted the English merchantman Spencer, which had been taken prize by the French frigate L'Insurgente a few days prior. Technically, Spencer was a French ship operated by a French prize crew but Nicholson released the ship and her crew the next morning, perhaps hesitant after the affair with Niger.   Upon joining Barry's command, Constitution almost immediately had to put in for repairs to her rigging due to storm damage, and it was not until 1 March that anything of note occurred. On this date, she encountered HMS Santa Margarita   whose captain was an acquaintance of Nicholson. The two agreed to a sailing duel, which the English captain was confident he would win. But after 11 hours of sailing, Santa Margarita lowered her sails and admitted defeat, paying off the bet with a cask of wine to Nicholson.  Resuming her patrols, Constitution managed to recapture the American sloop Neutrality on 27 March and, a few days later, the French ship Carteret. Secretary Stoddert had other plans, however, and recalled Constitution to Boston. She arrived there on 14 May, and Nicholson was relieved of command. 
Change of command Edit
Captain Silas Talbot was recalled to duty to command Constitution and serve as Commodore of operations in the West Indies. After repairs and resupply were completed, Constitution departed Boston on 23 July with a destination of Saint-Domingue via Norfolk and a mission to interrupt French shipping. She took the prize Amelia from a French prize crew on 15 September, and Talbot sent the ship back to New York City with an American prize crew. Constitution arrived at Saint-Domingue on 15 October and rendezvoused with Boston, General Greene, and Norfolk. No further incidents occurred over the next six months, as French depredations in the area had declined. Constitution busied herself with routine patrols and Talbot made diplomatic visits.  It was not until April 1800 that Talbot investigated an increase in ship traffic near Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo, and discovered that the French privateer Sandwich had taken refuge there. On 8 May the squadron captured the sloop Sally, and Talbot hatched a plan to capture Sandwich by utilizing the familiarity of Sally to allow the Americans access to the harbor.  First Lieutenant Isaac Hull led 90 sailors and Marines into Puerto Plata without challenge on 11 May, capturing Sandwich and spiking the guns of the nearby Spanish fort.  However, it was later determined that Sandwich had been captured from a neutral port she was returned to the French with apologies, and no prize money was awarded to the squadron.  
Routine patrols again occupied Constitution for the next two months, until 13 July, when the mainmast trouble of a few months before recurred. She put into Cap Français for repairs. With the terms of enlistment soon to expire for the sailors aboard her, she made preparations to return to the United States and was relieved of duty by Constellation on 23 July. Constitution escorted 12 merchantmen to Philadelphia on her return voyage, and on 24 August put in at Boston, where she received new masts, sails, and rigging. Even though peace was imminent between the United States and France, Constitution again sailed for the West Indies on 17 December as squadron flagship, rendezvousing with Congress, Adams, Augusta, Richmond, and Trumbull. Although no longer allowed to pursue French shipping, the squadron was assigned to protect American shipping and continued in that capacity until April 1801, when Herald arrived with orders for the squadron to return to the United States. Constitution returned to Boston, where she lingered she was finally scheduled for an overhaul in October, but it was later canceled. She was placed in ordinary on 2 July 1802. 
The United States paid tribute to the Barbary States during the Quasi-War to ensure that American merchant ships were not harassed and seized.  In 1801, Yusuf Karamanli of Tripoli was dissatisfied that the United States was paying him less than they paid Algiers, and he demanded an immediate payment of $250,000.  In response, Thomas Jefferson sent a squadron of frigates to protect American merchant ships in the Mediterranean and to pursue peace with the Barbary States.  
The first squadron under the command of Richard Dale in President was instructed to escort merchant ships through the Mediterranean and to negotiate with leaders of the Barbary States.  A second squadron was assembled under the command of Richard Valentine Morris in Chesapeake. The performance of Morris's squadron was so poor, however, that he was recalled and subsequently dismissed from the Navy in 1803. 
Captain Edward Preble recommissioned Constitution on 13 May 1803 as his flagship and made preparations to command a new squadron for a third blockade attempt. The copper sheathing on her hull needed to be replaced and Paul Revere supplied the copper sheets necessary for the job.   She departed Boston on 14 August, and she encountered an unknown ship in the darkness on 6 September, near the Rock of Gibraltar. Constitution went to general quarters, then ran alongside the unknown ship. Preble hailed her, only to receive a hail in return. He identified his ship as the United States frigate Constitution but received an evasive answer from the other ship. Preble replied: "I am now going to hail you for the last time. If a proper answer is not returned, I will fire a shot into you." The stranger returned, "If you give me a shot, I'll give you a broadside." Preble demanded that the other ship identify herself and the stranger replied, "This is His Britannic Majesty's ship Donegal, 84 guns, Sir Richard Strachan, an English commodore." He then commanded Preble, "Send your boat on board." Preble was now devoid of all patience and exclaimed, "This is United States ship Constitution, 44 guns, Edward Preble, an American commodore, who will be damned before he sends his boat on board of any vessel." And then to his gun crews: "Blow your matches, boys!" [Note 2] Before the incident escalated further, however, a boat arrived from the other ship and a British lieutenant relayed his captain's apologies. The ship was in fact not Donegal but instead HMS Maidstone, a 32-gun frigate. Constitution had come alongside her so quietly that Maidstone had delayed answering with the proper hail while she readied her guns.  This act began the strong allegiance between Preble and the officers under his command, known as "Preble's boys", as he had shown that he was willing to defy a presumed ship of the line.  
Constitution arrived at Gibraltar on 12 September where Preble waited for the other ships of the squadron. His first order of business was to arrange a treaty with Sultan Slimane of Morocco, who was holding American ships hostage to ensure the return of two vessels that the Americans had captured. Constitution and Nautilus departed Gibraltar on 3 October and arrived at Tangiers on the 4th. Adams and New York arrived the next day. With four American warships in his harbor, the Sultan was glad to arrange the transfer of ships between the two nations, and Preble departed with his squadron on 14 October, heading back to Gibraltar.   
Battle of Tripoli Harbor Edit
Philadelphia ran aground off Tripoli on 31 October under the command of William Bainbridge while pursuing a Tripoline vessel. The crew was taken prisoner Philadelphia was refloated by the Tripolines and brought into their harbor.   To deprive the Tripolines of their prize, Preble planned to destroy Philadelphia using the captured ship Mastico, which was renamed Intrepid. Intrepid entered Tripoli Harbor on 16 February 1804 under the command of Stephen Decatur, disguised as a merchant ship. Decatur's crew quickly overpowered the Tripoline crew and set Philadelphia ablaze.  
Preble withdrew the squadron to Syracuse, Sicily and began planning for a summer attack on Tripoli. He procured a number of smaller gunboats that could move in closer to Tripoli than was feasible for Constitution, given her deep draft.  Constitution, Argus, Enterprise, Scourge, Syren, the six gunboats, and two bomb ketches arrived the morning of 3 August and immediately began operations. Twenty-two Tripoline gunboats met them in the harbor Constitution and her squadron severely damaged or destroyed the Tripoline gunboats in a series of attacks over the coming month, taking their crews prisoner. Constitution primarily provided gunfire support, bombarding the shore batteries of Tripoli—yet Karamanli remained firm in his demand for ransom and tribute, despite his losses.  
Preble outfitted Intrepid as a "floating volcano" with 100 short tons (91 t) of gunpowder aboard in a final attempt of the season. She was to sail into Tripoli harbor and blow up in the midst of the corsair fleet, close under the walls of the city. Intrepid made her way into the harbor on the evening of 3 September under the command of Richard Somers, but she exploded prematurely, killing Somers and his entire crew of thirteen volunteers.  
Constellation and President arrived at Tripoli on the 9th with Samuel Barron in command Preble was forced to relinquish his command of the squadron to Barron, who was senior in rank.  Constitution was ordered to Malta on the 11th for repairs and, while en route, captured two Greek vessels attempting to deliver wheat into Tripoli.  On the 12th, a collision with President severely damaged Constitution ' s bow, stern, and figurehead of Hercules. The collision was attributed to an act of God in the form of a sudden change in wind direction.  
Peace treaty Edit
Captain John Rodgers assumed command of Constitution on 9 November 1804 while she underwent repairs and resupply in Malta. She resumed the blockade of Tripoli on 5 April 1805, capturing a Tripoline xebec, along with two prizes that the xebec had captured.  Meanwhile, Commodore Barron gave William Eaton naval support to bombard Derne, while a detachment of US Marines under the command of Presley O'Bannon was assembled to attack the city by land. They captured it on 27 April.  A peace treaty with Tripoli was signed aboard Constitution on 3 June, in which she embarked the crew members of Philadelphia and returned them to Syracuse.  She was then dispatched to Tunis and arrived there on 30 July. Seventeen additional American warships had gathered in its harbor by 1 August: Congress, Constellation, Enterprise, Essex, Franklin, Hornet, John Adams, Nautilus, Syren, and eight gunboats. Negotiations went on for several days until a short-term blockade of the harbor finally produced a peace treaty on 14 August.  
Rodgers remained in command of the squadron, sending warships back to the United States when they were no longer needed. Eventually, all that remained were Constitution, Enterprise, and Hornet. They performed routine patrols and observed the French and Royal Navy operations of the Napoleonic Wars.  Rodgers turned over the command of the squadron and Constitution to Captain Hugh G. Campbell on 29 May 1806. 
James Barron sailed Chesapeake out of Norfolk on 15 May 1807 to replace Constitution as the flagship of the Mediterranean squadron but he encountered HMS Leopard, resulting in the Chesapeake–Leopard affair and delaying the relief of Constitution.  Constitution continued patrols, unaware of the delay. She arrived in late June at Leghorn, where she took aboard the disassembled Tripoli Monument for transport back to the United States. Campbell learned the fate of Chesapeake when he arrived at Málaga, and he immediately began preparing Constitution and Hornet for possible war against Britain. The crew became mutinous upon learning of the delay in their relief and refused to sail any farther unless the destination was the United States. Campbell and his officers threatened to fire a cannon full of grapeshot at the crewmen if they did not comply, thereby putting an end to the conflict. Campbell and the squadron were ordered home on 18 August and set sail for Boston on 8 September, arriving there on 14 October. Constitution had been gone for more than four years.  
Constitution was recommissioned in December with Captain John Rodgers again taking command to oversee a major refitting. She was overhauled at a cost just under $100,000 however, Rodgers inexplicably failed to clean her copper sheathing, leading him to later declare her a "slow sailer". She spent most of the following two years on training runs and ordinary duty.  Isaac Hull took command in June 1810, and he immediately recognized that she needed her bottom cleaned. "Ten waggon loads" of barnacles and seaweed were removed. 
Hull departed for France on 5 August 1811, transporting the new Ambassador Joel Barlow and his family they arrived on 1 September. Hull remained near France and the Netherlands through the winter months, continually holding sail and gun drills to keep the crew ready for possible hostilities with the British. Tensions were high between the United States and Britain after the events of the Little Belt affair the previous May, and Constitution was shadowed by British frigates while awaiting dispatches from Barlow to carry back to the United States. They arrived home on 18 February 1812.  
War was declared on 18 June and Hull put to sea on 12 July, attempting to join the five ships of a squadron under the command of Rodgers in President. He sighted five ships off Egg Harbor, New Jersey on 17 July and at first believed them to be Rodgers' squadron but, by the following morning, the lookouts determined that they were a British squadron out of Halifax: HMS Aeolus, Africa, Belvidera, Guerriere, and Shannon. They had sighted Constitution and were giving chase.  
Hull found himself becalmed, but he acted on a suggestion from Charles Morris. He ordered the crew to put boats over the side to tow the ship out of range, using kedge anchors to draw the ship forward and wetting the sails to take advantage of every breath of wind.  The British ships soon imitated the tactic of kedging and remained in pursuit. The resulting 57-hour chase in the July heat forced the crew of Constitution to employ myriad tactics to outrun the squadron, finally pumping overboard 2,300 US gal (8.7 kl) of drinking water.  Cannon fire was exchanged several times, though the British attempts fell short or overshot their mark, including an attempted broadside from Belvidera. On 19 July, Constitution pulled far enough ahead of the British that they abandoned the pursuit.  
Constitution arrived in Boston on 27 July and remained there just long enough to replenish her supplies. Hull sailed without orders on 2 August to avoid being blockaded in port,  heading on a northeast route towards the British shipping lanes near Halifax and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Constitution captured three British merchantmen, which Hull burned rather than risk taking them back to an American port. On 16 August, he learned of a British frigate 100 nmi (190 km 120 mi) to the south and sailed in pursuit.  
Constitution vs. Guerriere Edit
A frigate was sighted on 19 August and subsequently determined to be HMS Guerriere (38) with the words "Not The Little Belt" painted on her foretopsail.  [Note 3] Guerriere opened fire upon entering range of Constitution, doing little damage. After a few exchanges of cannon fire between the ships, Captain Hull maneuvered Constitution into an advantageous position within 25 yards (23 m) of Guerriere. He then ordered a full double-loaded broadside of grape and round shot which took out Guerriere ' s mizzenmast.   Guerriere ' s maneuverability decreased with her mizzenmast dragging in the water, and she collided with Constitution, entangling her bowsprit in Constitution ' s mizzen rigging. This left only Guerriere ' s bow guns capable of effective fire. Hull's cabin caught fire from the shots, but it was quickly extinguished. With the ships locked together, both captains ordered boarding parties into action, but the sea was heavy and neither party was able to board the opposing ship. 
At one point, the two ships rotated together counter-clockwise, with Constitution continuing to fire broadsides. When the two ships pulled apart, the force of the bowsprit's extraction sent shock waves through Guerriere ' s rigging. Her foremast collapsed, and that brought the mainmast down shortly afterward.  Guerriere was now a dismasted, unmanageable hulk with close to a third of her crew wounded or killed, while Constitution remained largely intact. The British surrendered. 
Hull had surprised the British with his heavier broadsides and his ship's sailing ability. Adding to their astonishment, many of the British shots had rebounded harmlessly off Constitution ' s hull. An American sailor reportedly exclaimed "Huzzah! her sides are made of iron!" and Constitution acquired the nickname "Old Ironsides". 
The battle left Guerriere so badly damaged that she was not worth towing to port, and Hull ordered her to be burned the next morning, after transferring the British prisoners onto Constitution.  Constitution arrived back in Boston on 30 August, where Hull and his crew found that news of their victory had spread fast, and they were hailed as heroes. 
Constitution vs Java Edit
William Bainbridge, senior to Hull, took command of "Old Ironsides" on 8 September and prepared her for another mission in British shipping lanes near Brazil, sailing with Hornet on 27 October. They arrived near São Salvador on 13 December, sighting HMS Bonne Citoyenne in the harbor.  Bonne Citoyenne was reportedly carrying $1.6 million in specie to England, and her captain refused to leave the neutral harbor lest he lose his cargo. Constitution sailed offshore in search of prizes, leaving Hornet to await the departure of Bonne Citoyenne.  On 29 December, she met with HMS Java under Captain Henry Lambert. At the initial hail from Bainbridge, Java answered with a broadside that severely damaged Constitution ' s rigging. She was able to recover, however, and returned a series of broadsides to Java. A shot from Java destroyed Constitution ' s helm (wheel), so Bainbridge directed the crew to steer her manually using the tiller for the remainder of the engagement.  Bainbridge was wounded twice during the battle. Java ' s bowsprit became entangled in Constitution ' s rigging, as in the battle with Guerriere, allowing Bainbridge to continue raking her with broadsides. Java ' s foremast collapsed, sending her fighting top crashing down through two decks below. 
Bainbridge drew off to make emergency repairs and re-approached Java an hour later. She lay in shambles, an unmanageable wreck with a badly wounded crew, and she surrendered.  Bainbridge determined that Java was far too damaged to retain as a prize and ordered her burned, but not before having her helm salvaged and installed on Constitution.  Constitution returned to São Salvador on 1 January 1813 to disembark the prisoners of Java, where she met with Hornet and her two British prizes. Bainbridge ordered Constitution to sail for Boston on 5 January,  being far away from a friendly port and needing extensive repairs, leaving Hornet behind to continue waiting for Bonne Citoyenne in the hopes that she would leave the harbor (she did not).  Java was the third British warship in as many months to be captured by the United States, and Constitution ' s victory prompted the British Admiralty to order its frigates not to engage the heavier American frigates one-on-one only British ships of the line or squadrons were permitted to come close enough to attack.   Constitution arrived in Boston on 15 February to even greater celebrations than Hull had received a few months earlier. 
Marblehead and blockade Edit
Bainbridge determined that Constitution required new spar deck planking and beams, masts, sails, and rigging, as well as replacement of her copper bottom. However, personnel and supplies were being diverted to the Great Lakes, causing shortages that kept her in Boston intermittently with her sister ships Chesapeake, Congress, and President for the majority of the year.  Charles Stewart took command on 18 July and struggled to complete the construction and recruitment of a new crew,  finally making sail on 31 December. She set course for the West Indies to harass British shipping and had captured five merchant ships and the 14-gun HMS Pictou by late March 1814. She also pursued HMS Columbine and HMS Pique, though both ships escaped after realizing that she was an American frigate. 
Her mainmast split off the coast of Bermuda on 27 March, requiring immediate repair. Stewart set a course for Boston, where British ships HMS Junon and Tenedos commenced pursuit on 3 April. Stewart ordered drinking water and food to be cast overboard to lighten her load and gain speed, trusting that her mainmast would hold together long enough for her to make her way into Marblehead, Massachusetts.  The last item thrown overboard was the supply of spirits. Upon Constitution ' s arrival in the harbor, the citizens of Marblehead rallied in support, assembling what cannons they possessed at Fort Sewall, and the British called off the pursuit.  Two weeks later, Constitution made her way into Boston, where she remained blockaded in port until mid-December. 
HMS Cyane and HMS Levant Edit
Captain George Collier of the Royal Navy received command of the 50-gun HMS Leander and was sent to North America to deal with the American frigates that were causing such losses to British shipping.  Meanwhile, Charles Stewart saw his chance to escape from Boston Harbor and made it good on the afternoon of 18 December, and Constitution again set course for Bermuda.  Collier gathered a squadron consisting of Leander, Newcastle, and Acasta and set off in pursuit, but he was unable to overtake her.  On 24 December, Constitution intercepted the merchantman Lord Nelson and placed a prize crew aboard. Constitution had left Boston not fully supplied, but Lord Nelson ' s stores supplied a Christmas dinner for the crew. 
Constitution was cruising off Cape Finisterre on 8 February 1815 when Stewart learned that the Treaty of Ghent had been signed. He realized, however, that a state of war still existed until the treaty was ratified, and Constitution captured the British merchantman Susanna on 16 February her cargo of animal hides was valued at $75,000. 
On 20 February, Constitution sighted the small British ships Cyane and Levant sailing in company and gave chase.  Cyane and Levant began a series of broadsides against her, but Stewart outmaneuvered both of them and forced Levant to draw off for repairs. He concentrated fire on Cyane, which soon struck her colors.  Levant returned to engage Constitution but she turned and attempted to escape when she saw that Cyane had been defeated.  Constitution overtook her and, after several more broadsides, she struck her colors.  Stewart remained with his new prizes overnight while ordering repairs to all ships. Constitution had suffered little damage in the battle, though it was later discovered that she had twelve 32-pound British cannonballs embedded in her hull, none of which had penetrated.  The trio then set a course for the Cape Verde Islands and arrived at Porto Praya on 10 March. 
The next morning, Collier's squadron was spotted on a course for the harbor, and Stewart ordered all ships to sail immediately  he had been unaware until then of Collier's pursuit.  Cyane was able to elude the squadron and make sail for America, where she arrived on 10 April, but Levant was overtaken and recaptured. Collier's squadron was distracted with Levant while Constitution made another escape from overwhelming forces. 
Constitution set a course towards Guinea and then west towards Brazil, as Stewart had learned from the capture of Susanna that HMS Inconstant was transporting gold bullion back to England, and he wanted her as a prize. Constitution put into Maranhão on 2 April to offload her British prisoners and replenish her drinking water.  While there, Stewart learned by rumor that the Treaty of Ghent had been ratified, and set course for America, receiving verification of peace at San Juan, Puerto Rico on 28 April. He then set course for New York and arrived home on 15 May to large celebrations.  Constitution emerged from the war undefeated, though her sister ships Chesapeake and President were not so fortunate, having been captured in 1813 and 1815 respectively.   Constitution was moved to Boston and placed in ordinary in January 1816, sitting out the Second Barbary War. 
Mediterranean Squadron Edit
Charlestown Navy Yard's commandant Isaac Hull directed a refitting of Constitution to prepare her for duty with the Mediterranean Squadron in April 1820. They removed Joshua Humphreys' diagonal riders to make room for two iron freshwater tanks, and they replaced the copper sheathing and timbers below the waterline.  At the direction of Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson, she was also subjected to an unusual experiment in which manually operated paddle wheels were fitted to her hull. The paddle wheels were designed to propel her at up to 3 knots (5.6 km/h 3.5 mph) if she was ever becalmed, by the crew using the ship's capstan.  Initial testing was successful, but Hull and Constitution ' s commanding officer Jacob Jones were reportedly unimpressed with paddle wheels on a US Navy ship. Jones had them removed and stowed in the cargo hold before he departed on 13 May 1821 for a three-year tour of duty in the Mediterranean.  On 12 April 1823, she collided with the British merchant ship Bicton in the Mediterranean Sea, and Bicton sank with the loss of her captain. 
Constitution otherwise experienced an uneventful tour, sailing in company with Ontario and Nonsuch, until crew behavior during shore leave gave Jones a reputation as a commodore who was lax in discipline. The Navy grew weary of receiving complaints about the crews' antics while in port and ordered Jones to return. Constitution arrived in Boston on 31 May 1824, and Jones was relieved of command.  Thomas Macdonough took command and sailed on 29 October for the Mediterranean under the direction of John Rodgers in North Carolina. With discipline restored, Constitution resumed uneventful duty. Macdonough resigned his command for health reasons on 9 October 1825.  Constitution put in for repairs during December and into January 1826, until Daniel Todd Patterson assumed command on 21 February. By August, she had been put into Port Mahon, suffering decay of her spar deck, and she remained there until temporary repairs were completed in March 1827. Constitution returned to Boston on 4 July 1828 and was placed in reserve.  
Constitution was built in an era when a ship's expected service life was 10 to 15 years.  Secretary of the Navy John Branch made a routine order for surveys of ships in the reserve fleet, and commandant of the Charlestown Navy Yard Charles Morris estimated a repair cost of over $157,000 for Constitution.  On 14 September 1830, an article appeared in the Boston Advertiser which erroneously claimed that the Navy intended to scrap Constitution.  [Note 4] Two days later, Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem "Old Ironsides" was published in the same paper and later all over the country, igniting public indignation and inciting efforts to save "Old Ironsides" from the scrap yard. Secretary Branch approved the costs, and Constitution began a leisurely repair period while awaiting completion of the dry dock then under construction at the yard.  In contrast to the efforts to save Constitution, another round of surveys in 1834 found her sister ship Congress unfit for repair she was unceremoniously broken up in 1835.  
On 24 June 1833, Constitution entered dry dock. Captain Jesse Elliott, the new commander of the Navy yard, oversaw her reconstruction. Constitution had 30 in (760 mm) of hog in her keel and remained in dry dock until 21 June 1834. This was the first of many times that souvenirs were made from her old planking Isaac Hull ordered walking canes, picture frames, and even a phaeton that was presented to President Andrew Jackson. 
Meanwhile, Elliot directed the installation of a new figurehead of President Jackson under the bowsprit, which became a subject of much controversy due to Jackson's political unpopularity in Boston at the time.  Elliot was a Jacksonian Democrat,  and he received death threats. Rumors circulated about the citizens of Boston storming the navy yard to remove the figurehead themselves.  
A merchant captain named Samuel Dewey accepted a small wager as to whether he could complete the task of removal.  Elliot had posted guards on Constitution to ensure the safety of the figurehead, but Dewey crossed the Charles River in a small boat, using the noise of thunderstorms to mask his movements, and managed to saw off most of Jackson's head.  The severed head made the rounds between taverns and meeting houses in Boston until Dewey personally returned it to Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson it remained on Dickerson's library shelf for many years.   The addition of busts to her stern escaped controversy of any kind, depicting Isaac Hull, William Bainbridge, and Charles Stewart the busts remained in place for the next 40 years. 
Mediterranean and Pacific Squadrons Edit
Elliot was appointed captain of Constitution and got underway in March 1835 to New York, where he ordered repairs to the Jackson figurehead, avoiding a second round of controversy.  Departing on 16 March Constitution set a course for France to deliver Edward Livingston to his post as Minister. She arrived on 10 April and began the return voyage on 16 May. She arrived back in Boston on 23 June, then sailed on 19 August to take her station as flagship in the Mediterranean, arriving at Port Mahon on 19 September. Her duty over the next two years was uneventful as she and United States made routine patrols and diplomatic visits.   From April 1837 into February 1838, Elliot collected various ancient artifacts to carry back to America, adding various livestock during the return voyage. Constitution arrived in Norfolk on 31 July. Elliot was later suspended from duty for transporting livestock on a Navy ship.  
As the flagship of the Pacific Squadron under the command of Captain Daniel Turner, she began her next voyage on 1 March 1839 with the duty of patrolling the western coast of South America. Often spending months in one port or another, she visited Valparaíso, Callao, Paita, and Puna while her crew amused themselves with the beaches and taverns in each locality.  The return voyage found her at Rio de Janeiro, where Emperor Pedro II of Brazil visited her about 29 August 1841. Departing Rio, she returned to Norfolk on 31 October. On 22 June 1842, she was recommissioned under the command of Foxhall Alexander Parker for duty with the Home Squadron. After spending months in port she put to sea for three weeks during December, then was again put in ordinary. 
Around the world Edit
In late 1843, she was moored at Norfolk, serving as a receiving ship. Naval Constructor Foster Rhodes calculated that it would require $70,000 to make her seaworthy. Acting Secretary David Henshaw faced a dilemma. His budget could not support such a cost, yet he could not allow the country's favorite ship to deteriorate. He turned to Captain John Percival, known in the service as "Mad Jack". The captain traveled to Virginia and conducted his own survey of the ship's needs. He reported that the necessary repairs and upgrades could be done at a cost of $10,000. On 6 November, Henshaw told Percival to proceed without delay, but stay within his projected figure. After several months of labor, Percival reported Constitution ready for "a two or even a three-year cruise." 
She got underway on 29 May 1844 carrying Ambassador to Brazil Henry A. Wise and his family, arriving at Rio de Janeiro on 2 August after making two port visits along the way. She sailed again on 8 September, making port calls at Madagascar, Mozambique, and Zanzibar, and arriving at Sumatra on 1 January 1845. Many of her crew began to suffer from dysentery and fevers, causing several deaths, which led Percival to set course for Singapore, arriving there 8 February. While in Singapore, Commodore Henry Ducie Chads of HMS Cambrian paid a visit to Constitution, offering what medical assistance his squadron could provide. Chads had been the Lieutenant of Java when she surrendered to William Bainbridge 33 years earlier. 
Leaving Singapore, Constitution arrived at Turon, Cochinchina (present-day Da Nang, Vietnam) on 10 May. Not long after, Percival was informed that French missionary Dominique Lefèbvre was being held captive under sentence of death. He went ashore with a squad of Marines to speak with the local Mandarin. Percival demanded the return of Lefèbvre and took three local leaders hostage to ensure that his demands were met. When no communication was forthcoming, he ordered the capture of three junks, which were brought to Constitution. He released the hostages after two days, attempting to show good faith towards the Mandarin, who had demanded their return. During a storm, the three junks escaped upriver a detachment of Marines pursued and recaptured them. The supply of food and water from shore was stopped, and Percival gave in to another demand for the release of the junks in order to keep his ship supplied, expecting Lefèbvre to be released. He soon realized that no return would be made, however, and Percival ordered Constitution to depart on 26 May. 
She arrived at Canton, China on 20 June and spent the next six weeks there, while Percival made shore and diplomatic visits. Again the crew suffered from dysentery due to poor drinking water, resulting in three more deaths by the time that she reached Manila on 18 September, spending a week there preparing to enter the Pacific Ocean. She then sailed on 28 September for the Hawaiian Islands, arriving at Honolulu on 16 November. She found Commodore John D. Sloat and his flagship Savannah there Sloat informed Percival that Constitution was needed in Mexico, as the United States was preparing for war after the Texas annexation. She provisioned for six months and sailed for Mazatlán, arriving there on 13 January 1846. She sat at anchor for more than three months until she was finally allowed to sail for home on 22 April, rounding Cape Horn on 4 July. Arriving in Rio de Janeiro, the ship's party learned that the Mexican War had begun on 13 May, soon after their departure from Mazatlán. She arrived home in Boston on 27 September and was mothballed on 5 October. 
Mediterranean and African Squadrons Edit
Constitution began a refitting in 1847 for duty with the Mediterranean Squadron. The figurehead of Andrew Jackson that caused so much controversy 15 years earlier was replaced with another likeness of Jackson, this time without a top hat and with a more Napoleonic pose. Captain John Gwinn commanded her on this voyage, departing on 9 December 1848 and arriving at Tripoli on 19 January 1849. She received King Ferdinand II and Pope Pius IX on board at Gaeta on 1 August, giving them a 21-gun salute. This was the first time that a Pope set foot on American territory or its equivalent. 
At Palermo on 1 September, Captain Gwinn died of chronic gastritis and was buried near Lazaretto on the 9th. Captain Thomas Conover assumed command on the 18th and resumed routine patrolling for the rest of the tour, heading home on 1 December 1850. She was involved in a severe collision with the English brig Confidence, cutting her in half, which sank with the loss of her captain. The surviving crew members were carried back to America, where Constitution was put in ordinary once again, this time at the Brooklyn Navy Yard in January 1851. 
Constitution was recommissioned on 22 December 1852 under the command of John Rudd. She carried Commodore Isaac Mayo for duty with the African Squadron, departing the yard on 2 March 1853 on a leisurely sail towards Africa and arriving there on 18 June. Mayo made a diplomatic visit in Liberia, arranging a treaty between the Gbarbo and the Grebo tribes. Mayo resorted to firing cannons into the village of the Gbarbo in order to get them to agree to the treaty. About 22 June 1854, he arranged another peace treaty between the leaders of Grahway and Half Cavally. 
Constitution took the American ship H.N. Gambrill as a prize near Angola on 3 November. Gambrill was involved in the slave trade and proved to be Constitution's final capture.  The rest of her tour passed uneventfully and she sailed for home on 31 March 1855. She was diverted to Havana, Cuba, arriving there on 16 May and departing on the 24th. She arrived at Portsmouth Navy Yard and was decommissioned on 14 June, ending her last duty on the front lines. 
Civil War Edit
Since the formation of the US Naval Academy in 1845, there had been a growing need for quarters in which to house the students (midshipmen). In 1857, Constitution was moved to dry dock at the Portsmouth Navy Yard for conversion into a training ship. Some of the earliest known photographs of her were taken during this refitting, which added classrooms on her spar and gun decks and reduced her armament to only 16 guns. Her rating was changed to a "2nd rate ship". She was recommissioned on 1 August 1860 and moved from Portsmouth to the Naval Academy.  
At the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, Constitution was ordered to relocate farther north after threats had been made against her by Confederate sympathizers.  Several companies of Massachusetts volunteer soldiers were stationed aboard for her protection.  R. R. Cuyler towed her to New York City, where she arrived on 29 April. She was subsequently relocated, along with the Naval Academy, to Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island for the duration of the war. Her sister ship United States was abandoned by the Union and then captured by Confederate forces at the Gosport Shipyard, leaving Constitution the only remaining frigate of the original six.  
The Navy launched an ironclad on 10 May 1862 as part of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and they bestowed on her the name New Ironsides to honor Constitution ' s tradition of service. However, New Ironsides ' s naval career was short, as she was destroyed by fire on 16 December 1865.  In August 1865, Constitution moved back to Annapolis, along with the rest of the Naval Academy. During the voyage, she was allowed to drop her tow lines from the tug and continue alone under wind power. Despite her age, she was recorded running at 9 knots (17 km/h 10 mph) and arrived at Hampton Roads ten hours ahead of the tug.  Andersonville Prisoners- "Thorp and his fellow soldiers were transported to Jacksonville, Fla., then on USS Constitution to “Camp Parole” in Annapolis, Md. There, they were issued rations, clothing and back pay before being sent to their respective regimental headquarters for discharge." 
Settling in again at the Academy, a series of upgrades was installed that included steam pipes and radiators to supply heat from shore, along with gas lighting. From June to August each year, she would depart with midshipmen for their summer training cruise and then return to operate for the rest of the year as a classroom. In June 1867, her last known plank owner William Bryant died in Maine. George Dewey assumed command in November and he served as her commanding officer until 1870. In 1871, her condition had deteriorated to the point where she was retired as a training ship, and then towed to the Philadelphia Navy Yard where she was placed in ordinary on 26 September. 
Paris Exposition Edit
Constitution was overhauled beginning in 1873 in order to participate in the centennial celebrations of the United States. Work began slowly and was intermittently delayed by the transition of the Philadelphia Navy Yard to League Island. By late 1875, the Navy opened bids for an outside contractor to complete the work, and Constitution was moved to Wood, Dialogue, and Company in May 1876, where a coal bin and a small boiler for heat were installed. The Andrew Jackson figurehead was removed at this time and given to the Naval Academy Museum where it remains today.  Her construction dragged on during the rest of 1876 until the centennial celebrations had long passed, and the Navy decided that she would be used as a training and school ship for apprentices. 
Oscar C. Badger took command on 9 January 1878 to prepare her for a voyage to the Paris Exposition of 1878, transporting artwork and industrial displays to France.  Three railroad cars were lashed to her spar deck and all but two cannons were removed when she departed on 4 March. While docking at Le Havre, she collided with Ville de Paris, which resulted in Constitution entering dry dock for repairs and remaining in France for the rest of 1878. She got underway for the United States on 16 January 1879, but poor navigation ran her aground the next day near Bollard Head. She was towed into the Portsmouth Naval Dockyard, Hampshire, England, where only minor damage was found and repaired. 
Her problem-plagued voyage continued on 13 February when her rudder was damaged during heavy storms, resulting in a total loss of steering control with the rudder smashing into the hull at random. Three crewmen went over the stern on ropes and boatswain's chairs and secured it. The next morning, they rigged a temporary steering system. Badger set a course for the nearest port, and she arrived in Lisbon on 18 February. Slow dock services delayed her departure until 11 April and her voyage home did not end until 24 May.  Carpenter's Mate Henry Williams, Captain of the Top Joseph Matthews, and Captain of the Top James Horton received the Medal of Honor for their actions in repairing the damaged rudder at sea.  Constitution returned to her previous duties of training apprentice boys,  and Ship's Corporal James Thayer received a Medal of Honor for saving a fellow crew member from drowning on 16 November. 
Over the next two years, she continued her training cruises, but it soon became apparent that her overhaul in 1876 had been of poor quality and she was determined to be unfit for service in 1881. Funds were lacking for another overhaul, so she was decommissioned, ending her days as an active-duty naval ship. She was moved to the Portsmouth Navy Yard and used as a receiving ship. There, she had a housing structure built over her spar deck, and her condition continued to deteriorate, with only a minimal amount of maintenance performed to keep her afloat.   In 1896, Massachusetts Congressman John F. Fitzgerald became aware of her condition and proposed to Congress that funds be appropriated to restore her enough to return to Boston.  She arrived at the Charlestown Navy Yard under tow on 21 September 1897  and, after her centennial celebrations in October, she lay there with an uncertain future.  
In 1900, Congress authorized the restoration of Constitution but did not appropriate any funds for the project funding was to be raised privately. The Massachusetts Society of the United Daughters of the War of 1812 spearheaded an effort to raise funds, but they ultimately failed.  In 1903, the Massachusetts Historical Society's president Charles Francis Adams requested of Congress that Constitution be rehabilitated and placed back into active service. 
In 1905, Secretary of the Navy Charles Joseph Bonaparte suggested that Constitution be towed out to sea and used as target practice, after which she would be allowed to sink. Moses H. Gulesian read about this in a Boston newspaper he was a businessman from Worcester, Massachusetts, and he offered to purchase her for $10,000.   The State Department refused, but Gulesian initiated a public campaign which began from Boston and ultimately "spilled all over the country."  The storms of protest from the public prompted Congress to authorize $100,000 in 1906 for the ship's restoration. First to be removed was the barracks structure on her spar deck, but the limited amount of funds allowed just a partial restoration.  By 1907, Constitution began to serve as a museum ship, with tours offered to the public. On 1 December 1917, she was renamed Old Constitution to free her name for a planned, new Lexington-class battlecruiser. The name Constitution was originally destined for the lead ship of the class, but was shuffled between hulls until CC-5 was given the name construction of CC-5 was canceled in 1923 due to the Washington Naval Treaty. The incomplete hull was sold for scrap and Old Constitution was granted the return of her name on 24 July 1925. 
1925 restoration and tour Edit
Admiral Edward Walter Eberle, Chief of Naval Operations, ordered the Board of Inspection and Survey to compile a report on her condition, and the inspection of 19 February 1924 found her in grave condition. Water had to be pumped out of her hold on a daily basis just to keep her afloat, and her stern was in danger of falling off. Almost all deck areas and structural components were filled with rot, and she was considered to be on the verge of ruin. Yet the Board recommended that she be thoroughly repaired in order to preserve her as long as possible. The estimated cost of repairs was $400,000. Secretary of the Navy Curtis D. Wilbur proposed to Congress that the required funds be raised privately, and he was authorized to assemble the committee charged with her restoration. 
The first effort was sponsored by the national Elks Lodge. Programs presented to schoolchildren about "Old Ironsides" encouraged them to donate pennies towards her restoration, eventually raising $148,000. In the meantime, the estimates for repair began to climb, eventually reaching over $745,000 after costs of materials were realized.  In September 1926, Wilbur began to sell copies of a painting of Constitution at 50 cents per copy. The silent film Old Ironsides portrayed Constitution during the First Barbary War. It premiered in December and helped spur more contributions to her restoration fund. The final campaign allowed memorabilia to be made of her discarded planking and metal. The committee eventually raised more than $600,000 after expenses, still short of the required amount, and Congress approved up to $300,000 to complete the restoration. The final cost of the restoration was $946,000. 
Lieutenant John A. Lord was selected to oversee the reconstruction project, and work began while fund-raising efforts were still underway. Materials were difficult to find, especially the live oak needed Lord uncovered a long-forgotten stash of live oak (some 1,500 short tons [1,400 t]) at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida that had been cut sometime in the 1850s for a ship-building program that never began. Constitution entered dry dock with a crowd of 10,000 observers on 16 June 1927. Meanwhile, Charles Francis Adams had been appointed as Secretary of the Navy, and he proposed that Constitution make a tour of the United States upon her completion as a gift to the nation for its efforts to help restore her. She emerged from dry dock on 15 March 1930 approximately 85 percent of the ship had been "renewed" (i.e. replaced) to make her seaworthy.  Many amenities were installed to prepare her for the three-year tour of the country, including water piping throughout, modern toilet and shower facilities, electric lighting to make the interior visible for visitors, and several peloruses for ease of navigation.  40 miles (64,000 m) of rigging was made for Constitution at Charlestown Navy Yard ropewalk. 
Constitution recommissioned on 1 July 1931 under the command of Louis J. Gulliver with a crew of 60 officers and sailors, 15 Marines, and a pet monkey named Rosie that was their mascot. The tour began at Portsmouth, New Hampshire with much celebration and a 21-gun salute, scheduled to visit 90 port cities along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts. Due to the schedule of visits on her itinerary, she was towed by the minesweeper Grebe. She went as far north as Bar Harbor, Maine, south and into the Gulf of Mexico then through the Panama Canal Zone, and north again to Bellingham, Washington on the Pacific Coast. Constitution returned to her home port of Boston in May 1934 after more than 4.6 million people visited her during the three-year tour. 
1934 return to Boston Edit
Constitution returned to serving as a museum ship, receiving 100,000 visitors per year in Boston. She was maintained by a small crew who were berthed on the ship, and this required more reliable heating. The heating was upgraded to a forced-air system in the 1950s, and a sprinkler system was added that protects her from fire. Constitution broke loose from her dock on 21 September 1938 during the New England Hurricane and was blown into Boston Harbor where she collided with the destroyer Ralph Talbot she suffered only minor damage. 
With limited funds available, she experienced more deterioration over the years, and items began to disappear from the ship as souvenir hunters picked away at the more portable objects.  Constitution and USS Constellation were recommissioned in 1940 at the request of President Franklin Roosevelt.   In early 1941, Constitution was assigned the hull classification symbol IX-21  and began to serve as a brig for officers awaiting court-martial. 
The United States Postal Service issued a stamp commemorating Constitution in 1947, and an Act of Congress in 1954 made the Secretary of the Navy responsible for her upkeep. 
In 1970, another survey was performed on her condition, finding that repairs were required but not as extensively as those which she had needed in the 1920s. The US Navy determined that a Commander was required as commanding officer—typically someone with about 20 years of seniority this would ensure the experience to organize the maintenance that she required.  Funds were approved in 1972 for her restoration, and she entered dry dock in April 1973, remaining until April 1974. During this period, large quantities of red oak were removed and replaced. The red oak had been added in the 1950s as an experiment to see if it would last better than the live oak, but it had mostly rotted away by 1970. 
Bicentennial celebrations Edit
Commander Tyrone G. Martin became her captain in August 1974, as preparations began for the upcoming United States Bicentennial celebrations. He set the precedent that all construction work on Constitution was to be aimed towards maintaining her to the 1812 configuration for which she is most noted.  In September 1975, her hull classification of IX-21 was officially canceled. 
The privately run USS Constitution Museum opened on 8 April 1976, and Commander Martin dedicated a tract of land as "Constitution Grove" one month later, located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Indiana. The 25,000 acres (100 km 2 ) now supply the majority of the white oak required for repair work.  On 10 July, Constitution led the parade of tall ships up Boston Harbor for Operation Sail, firing her guns at one-minute intervals for the first time in approximately 100 years.  On 11 July, she rendered a 21-gun salute to Her Majesty's Yacht Britannia, as Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip arrived for a state visit.  The royal couple were piped aboard and privately toured the ship for approximately 30 minutes with Commander Martin and Secretary of the Navy J. William Middendorf. Upon their departure, the crew of Constitution rendered three cheers for the Queen. Over 900,000 visitors toured "Old Ironsides" that year. 
1995 reconstruction Edit
Constitution entered dry dock in 1992 for an inspection and minor repair period that turned out to be her most comprehensive structural restoration and repair since she was launched in 1797. Multiple refittings over the 200 years of her career had removed most of her original construction components and design, as her mission changed from a fighting warship to a training ship and eventually to a receiving ship. In 1993, the Naval History & Heritage Command Detachment Boston reviewed Humphreys' original plans and identified five main structural components that were required to prevent hogging of the hull,  as Constitution had 13 in (330 mm) of hog at that point. Using a 1:16 scale model of the ship, they were able to determine that restoring the original components would result in a 10% increase in hull stiffness. 
Three hundred scans were completed on her timbers using radiography to find any hidden problems otherwise undetectable from the outside—technology that was unavailable during previous reconstructions. The repair crew used sound wave testing, aided by the United States Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory, to determine the condition of the remaining timbers that may have been rotting from the inside.  The 13 in (330 mm) of hog was removed from her keel by allowing the ship to settle naturally while in dry dock. The most difficult task was the procurement of timber in the quantity and sizes needed, as was the case during her 1920s restoration, as well. The city of Charleston, South Carolina donated live oak trees that had been felled by Hurricane Hugo in 1989, and the International Paper Company donated live oak from its own property.  The project continued to reconstruct her to 1812 specifications, even as she remained open to visitors who were allowed to observe the process and converse with workers.  The $12 million project was completed in 1995. 
The Life of Raymond Burr
Raymond Burr was born in 1917 in New Westminster, Canada. At the age of 6, his parents divorced, and he went with his mother to California and graduated from Berkeley High School. After spending some time traveling along with a theatre group, he moved to New York and began appearing in Broadway until his film career began in 1946. He generally appeared as a villain. His biggest role that he was most well-known for was for Rear Window in 1954.
Many people know Raymond Burr for his role in Perry Mason, which ran from 1957 to 1966. With performances in legal shows on his resume, the executive producer said to Burr that he was the perfect fit to play Perry Mason, except that he was too fat. Ever committed to his role, Burr dropped over 60 pounds and winded up with the starring role. For the next nine years, he would grace the screens in living rooms around the country, even winning two Emmy’s in 1959 and 1961.
After Perry Mason, Raymond Burr moved onto another famous show, Ironside. Here, he played a disabled police officer, and he ended the show in 1975 with an impressive six Emmy nominations and two nominations for Golden Globes. His impressive career gave him a net worth estimated at around $15 million.
Eventually, Burr would return to his bread and butter, and star in a successful line of 26 Perry Mason made-for-TV films. He actually signed a contract to make 12 more, but his health was in decline, and he passed away before he was able to complete them.
Ironsides Jr. - History
The USS New Ironsides, a 4120-ton broadside ironclad, was built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As the final build, heaviest and largest of three ‘blue-water’ armoured warships in a building programme that began in 1861. In fact, all three ironclad ships differed substantially in design and with varying degrees of risk. The USS Monitor was the most innovative design by virtue of its low freeboard, shallow-draft iron hull, and total dependence on steam power. The riskiest element of its design was its rotating gun turret, something that had not previously been built or tested by any navy. Its designer John Ericsson’s guarantee of delivery in 100 days proved to be decisive in choosing this design despite the risk involved. The second ship, the wooden-hulled USS Galena's most novel feature was her armor of interlocking iron rails but the New Ironsides design was much influenced by the French ironclad, the ‘Gloire’ and was the most conservative design of the three.
The ‘New Ironside’ indeed copied many of the features of the French ship and the well-established Philadelphia based, engineering firm of Merrick & Sons, made their proposal for ‘New Ironsides’ on that basis, despite the fact they themselves had no suitable slip-road. Subsequently, the firm’s owners decided to sub-contract construction to William Cramp and Sons but retained supervisory control of the project. William Cramp actually claimed credit for the detailed design of the ship's hull but the general design work was done by Merrick & Sons.
The vessel’s construction was much influenced, as a direct consequence of intelligence received regarding the construction of the Confederate casemate ironclad, CSS Virginia. Regarded by most as a proper response to meet the needs of the Civil War, she was finally commissioned in August 1862 and, following a lengthy fitting-out period, she joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in January 1863. For the next year, she operated in support of the blockade of Charleston, South Carolina and took part in several attacks on the Confederate fortifications defending that city. The USS New Ironsides's heavy broadside battery of eight heavy guns on each side coupled with her iron protection, made her a uniquely valuable ship for these bombardment assaults.
The first of these actions took place on 7th April 1863, when nine Federal ironclads entered Charleston harbour and conducted a prolonged, though inclusive, bombardment of Fort Sumter. The USS New Ironsides was repeatedly hit by enemy cannon fire, but suffered no serious damage unlike several of her consorts. This fact aside from all others would fix her construction criteria for future ship-building for several years to come. During the summer of 1863 ‘New Ironside’ bombarded Confederate positions during the successful campaign to take Fort Wagner. During this effort, on 21st August, she was the target of a torpedo boat attack by the innovative, CSS David during the night of 5th October 1863, which damaged the ironclad but not sufficiently to prevent her remaining on station until May 1864, when she was finally returned to Philadelphia for repairs and a general overhaul.
Upon completion of this work in late August, the USS New Ironsides was re-commissioned to join the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. In December she participated in a major assault on Fort Fisher, North Carolina in an effort to stop blockade running into the port of Wilmington. Though this attack was called off on Christmas Day after an extensive bombardment, the Federal fleet returned to renew the operation in mid-January 1865. The ‘New Ironsides’ was one of dozens of warships that vigorously shelled Fort Fisher, preparing the way for a ground assault that eventually overran the position on 15th January. For the next few months, 'New Ironsides' supported Union activities in the Hampton Roads area until decommissioned in April 1865 when she was laid up at Philadelphia. There, on 16th December 1866, USS New Ironsides was accidently (?) destroyed by fire.
Ironsides Jr. - History
[Distributed by Way of Life Literature's Fundamental Baptist Information Service. Copyright 1998. These articles cannot be stored on BBS or Internet sites without express permission from the author. The articles cannot be sold or placed by themselves or with other material in any electronic format for sale, but may be distributed for free by e-mail or by print. They must be left intact and nothing removed or changed, including these informational headers. This is a listing for Fundamental Baptists and other fundamentalist, Bible-believing Christians. Our goal is not devotional. OUR PRIMARY PURPOSE IS TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO ASSIST PREACHERS IN THE PROTECTION OF THE CHURCHES IN THIS APOSTATE HOUR. If you desire to receive this type of material on a regular basis, e-mail us, tell us who you are and where you are located, and request to be placed on the list. Also include your postal address and the name of the church of which you are a member. Please note that we take up a quarterly offering to fund this ministry, and you will be expected to participate. Some of these articles are from the "Digging in the Walls" section of O Timothy magazine. David W. Cloud, Editor. O Timothy is a monthly magazine in its 14th year of publication. Subscription is $20/yr. Way of Life Literature, 1701 Harns Rd., Oak Harbor, WA 98277. The Way of Life web site is http://wayoflife.org/
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August 3, 1998 (David W. Cloud, Fundamental Baptist Information Service, 1701 Harns Rd., Oak Harbor, WA 98277) - The following is Part 2 of 3 of "The Strange History of Pentecostalism" by David W. Cloud--
AIMEE SEMPLE MCPHERSON
Another very influential Pentecostal evangelist and faith healer was AIMEE SEMPLE MCPHERSON (1890-1944), founder of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. The Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements calls her "the most prominent woman leader Pentecostalism has produced to date." She was married three times and divorced twice. Her first husband, Robert Semple, died in China in 1910, where the young couple had gone as missionaries. In 1911 she married Harold Stewart McPherson. He complained about her hysterical behavior and her neglect of him, and in 1921 the marriage ended in divorce (Eve Simson, The Faith Healer, p. 36). Aimee had left Harold to attend to her preaching. Interestingly, Aimee's associate pastor, Rheba Crawford, also left her husband to preach, and Rheba's husband also divorced her.
In May 1926, McPherson disappeared and was thought to have been drowned while swimming off the California coast. A month later she turned up in Mexico, claiming to have been kidnapped, but the evidence led most people to believe that she had an affair with a former employee, Kenneth Ormiston, who was married at the time. The two had been seen together earlier in the year during Aimee McPherson's trip to Europe. At the same time Aimee sailed for Europe, Ormiston disappeared from his job, and his wife, Ruth, registered a missing-person report at police headquarters. She told police a certain prominent woman was responsible for her husband's disappearance (Lately Thomas, The Vanishing Evangelist, p. 29). They had also been seen together checking into the same hotels at various times in California, after her return from Europe, prior to the alleged kidnapping. Though McPherson claimed to have wandered for 14 hours across roughly 20 miles of cruel desert covered with mesquite, cactus, and catclaw to escape her captors, when she was found she showed no sign of having been through such an ordeal. Her shoes were not scuffed or worn there were grass stains on the insteps (there was no grass in the desert through which she claims to have wandered) she was not dehydrated or sunburned her lips were not parched, cracked, or swollen her tongue was not swollen her color was normal her dress was not torn and bore no dust or perspiration stains. The dress collar and cuffs, though white in color, were barely soiled. Further, she was wearing a watch her mother had given her--a watch she had not taken with her to the beach! (Epstein, Sister Aimee, p. 299 Thomas, The Vanishing Evangelist, p. 59,66,78). Aimee told reporters that her ankles were bruised and torn by ropes from her captivity, but there had been no sign of such injuries when she was examined. An exhaustive search was made to find the adobe shack with a wooden floor where she claimed she had been held captive and which she described in detail to the authorities, but no such shack was found in a 46-square-mile area. Experienced desert men and trackers (one had ridden that country as a cowboy for 37 years, another for 20), who attempted to find her attackers, traced her footsteps, and they found where she apparently had gotten out of an automobile on a road not far from where she was found. The senior tracker testified that he examined every foot of the ground over which she had claimed to have walked and that her tracks had been found nowhere. As for the shack, he said: "I do not know of an adobe house such as the one described by Mrs. McPherson within a hundred and fifty miles of Agua Prieta, and I know every house in this vast area" (Lately, The Vanishing Evangelist, p. 84). A grocery receipt signed by McPherson was found in a Carmel, California, cottage where it appears Aimee had met Ormiston during the time she was alleged to have been kidnapped. Several eye-witnesses testified that they saw the two together during that period.
The year after this episode, McPherson rejected the social taboos preached against by Bible-believing churches of that day. She bobbed her hair and started drinking, dancing, and wearing short skirts. In her early years she had preached against such things. Her choir director, Gladwyn Nichols, and the entire 300-member choir resigned because of her lifestyle. He told the press that they left because of "Aimee's surrender to worldliness--her wardrobe of fancy gowns and short skirts, jewelry, furs, her new infatuation with cosmetics and bobbed hair, all specifically condemned by the Scriptures" (Robert Bahr, Least of All Saints, p. 259).
In 1931 the divorced McPherson married the divorced David Hutton. He divorced Aimee in 1934.
McPherson's ministry featured the unscriptural spirit slaying phenomenon. One of her biographies, Least of All Saints by Robert Bahr, contains a photo of McPherson followers lying on the floor after she had laid hands on them and they were allegedly "baptized of the Holy Spirit." There were also cases of "spiritual drunkenness" in her early meetings (Epstein, Sister Aimee, p. 162), though her later ministry was not characterized by such displays.
McPherson taught that healing is guaranteed in the atonement. She falsely promised to the eager crowds: "Your chains will be shattered, your fetters crushed, your troubles healed, if you only believe--for where the spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty" (Epstein, Sister Aimee, p. 221). It is blessedly true, of course, that the Lord is a very present help in time of trouble and that He goes with His children through all their trials, but to promise that in this present life all problems will be removed and all sicknesses healed if one only has enough faith is a deception. McPherson warned that the attitude "if it is His will to heal me, I am willing" brings no results (Epstein, p. 224). In fact, McPherson claimed that physical healing is part of the gospel. The "foursquare" gospel she promoted was Jesus Christ as Savior, Baptizer in the Holy Spirit, Healer, and Coming King. She claimed that she had obtained this gospel through a vision in 1922, in which God showed her that the Gospel was for body and soul and spirit. It was the same "foursquare gospel" being preached by the Elim Foursquare Gospel Association in Ireland (McPherson had worked with Elim's founder, George Jeffrys), the Assemblies of God in the United States, and other Pentecostal groups. The "full" Gospel, though, is simply the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ for our sins (1 Corinthians 15:1-4).
Aimee McPherson promised that physical healing is available to those who have complete faith. In spite of this, most who came to her meetings in search of healing left disappointed. To go through McPherson's healing line required that one obtain a card, and these were normally limited to 75 people.
The following sad case of a little girl who attended a McPherson revival crusade illustrates the plight of those who are duped by this false teaching:
McPherson preached an unscriptural positive-only message which predated the New Evangelical approach by many decades. Consider the following descriptions of her message by her biographer:
"Anticipating the 'creation theology' of Matthew Fox by sixty years, Aimee would stress grace above original sin, with the bait of love she would go 'fishing for whales.' Her preaching was anecdotal and affectionate, never threatening" (Epstein, p. 118).
"And she took the opportunity to condemn the method of Billy Sunday, the teetotaler who yelled at sinners and threatened them with damnation and hellfire. 'Let us lead them by kindness and sympathy,' Aimee advised" (Epstein, pp. 221,222).
"Aimee built her career by replacing the 'Gospel of Fear, Hellfire, and Damnation' with the 'Gospel of Reconciliation and Love'" (Epstein, p. 283).
Another of the early Pentecostal leaders was A.J. TOMLINSON (1865-1943), founder of the CHURCH OF GOD OF PROPHECY. Tomlinson was one of the most influential men in the formation of the Pentecostal movement. As a young man, Tomlinson, a mystical Quaker, accepted the teaching on healing in the atonement taught by Holiness-Pentecostal female evangelist Carrie Judd Montgomery. Before the turn of the century, he also accepted the false holiness doctrine of entire sanctification, that the dedicated Christian can be free from sin, and claimed that he had attained this experience. In 1901 he visited Frank Sandford's work in Maine and was baptized by Sandford. He joined a group which called itself "The Church of the Living God for the Evangelization of the World, Gathering of Israel, New Order of Things at the Close of the Gentile Age." The extreme latter rain position of this group was evident in its name. In 1903 he joined a congregation named the Holiness Church at Camp Creek, Tennessee, and was soon elected the pastor. In June of that year he claimed to have a vision that the true church of Jesus Christ was restored in his Holiness Church. Tomlinson believed the true church was lost in A.D. 325 and that it was restored in layers, beginning with the 16th-century Protestant Reformation and culminating with the founding of the Church of God in 1903. "To Tomlinson the group he was associated with was the only true and valid Christian communion 'this side of the Dark Ages'" (Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, p. 76). Their meetings were often characterized by pandemonium, i.e., shouting, jerking, falling, writhing like serpents, trances. There were long lists of unscriptural prohibitions, including Coca Cola, pork, chewing gum, rings, bracelets, and neckties. Not only were such things forbidden, but those who used them were considered unsaved.
In 1907 the group officially adopted the name Church of God. In 1923 Tomlinson left the original Church of God group (which became the mainline Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) and formed his own organization, later called the Church of God of Prophecy. Tomlinson claimed that physical healing is guaranteed in the atonement and he taught against the use of medicine. He believed that tongues speaking is the evidence of salvation. He taught that a person can lose his salvation and then be reconverted, at which time he must be rebaptized. Tomlinson defended the practice of women preachers, and the Church of God of Prophecy has a large number of women pastors and denominational leaders. The unscriptural spirit slaying phenomenon has been a part of the Church of God of Prophecy from its inception. In 1940 Tomlinson purchased a 216-acre parcel and named it Field of the Woods, in recognition of the vision he was alleged to have had in 1903 by which he rediscovered the true church of God. After Tomlinson's death in 1943, the courts decreed that the denomination would be called Church of God of Prophecy to differentiate it from other groups which used the name Church of God. Tomlinson's successor was selected by a message allegedly given in tongues, then interpreted. Tomlinson's oldest son, Homer, started his own church after his father's death, and between 1954 and 1966 he traveled to the capitals of 101 countries and crowned himself as King of the World, promising peace and prosperity. He claimed that many national miracles followed these coronation ceremonies, and he took credit for stopping wars, halting massacres, and ending droughts.
Though hailed today by Benny Hinn and other Laughing Revival leaders as a great evangelist and healer, Pentecostal latter rain healing- evangelist A.A. ALLEN (1911-1970) was a drunkard and a charlatan. His Miracle Magazine was filled with incredible claims, such as the cure of a woman who allegedly shed 200 pounds instantly during one of his healing services. In 1956 he began claiming that miracle oil flowed from the hands and heads of those attending his meetings. This allegedly began when God poured supernatural oil on the hands of Lewin Burchan, a seven-year-old boy who was being used as a Pentecostal evangelist. In the 1960s, Allen launched a "raise the dead" campaign, urging his followers to believe God for resurrections. He had to stop this when some refused to bury their dead loved ones (Harrell, p. 199). Allen also claimed to have the authority to lay hands on those who gave to his ministry, granting them "the power to get wealth." Many of his books promised prosperity. Three of these were The Secret to Scriptural Financial Success (1953), Power to Get Wealth (1963), and God's Guarantee to Bless and Prosper You Financially (1968). In one story often related by Allen, he was praying for the money to pay a $410 printing bill when the $1 bills in his pocket were instantly changed to $20 bills. Allen told his followers: "I believe I can command God to perform a miracle for you financially." Allen built his own 2400-acre community called Miracle Valley, in Arizona. His vast evangelistic empire took in about $3.5 million annually, a massive amount of money for that time. Allen was arrested for drunk driving during a revival in 1955. He divorced his wife in 1967, in spite of the fact that she had stood by him during the many troubles he had brought upon himself, and three years later he died alone at a motel in San Francisco while his team was conducting a crusade in West Virginia. He was 59 years old and he had himself with liquor.
Another famous Pentecostal latter days healing evangelist was JACK COE (1918-1956). His ministry, too, was characterized by false teaching and outrageous and untrue claims. Though the Assemblies of God expelled him in 1953 for extremism, Coe's false teaching that healing is guaranteed in the atonement is shared by the Assemblies of God. He claimed that consulting physicians was connected with the mark of the beast (Simson, The Faith Healer, p. 164). In February 1956, at a healing crusade in Miami, Florida, Coe laid hands on a little boy who was stricken with polio. The boy's mother, Ann Clark, was told by Coe: "If you believe Jesus heals the child, take the braces off, and leave them off." She immediately removed the braces from the boy's feeble legs, but as he attempted to take a step, he collapsed to the floor. Believing the false teaching that Coe and the other faith healers preached that God had promised her boy's healing through faith, Mrs. Clark determined not to put the braces back on. Soon the boy's legs began to swell and she took him to a doctor, who ordered the braces to be put back on. Her letter to Jack Coe, seeking his counsel, was ignored. She contacted the police and Coe was charged with practicing medicine without a license. After a highly publicized trial, the judge dismissed the case. Mrs. Clark's sad experience reminds us that the path of the Pentecostal movement is strewn with this type of heartache because it promises things which God has not promised.
Though he taught that healing was guaranteed in the atonement and warned his followers against using medicine and consulting physicians, Coe went to the hospital when he fell ill with polio only a few months after the aforementioned trial. He succumbed to this disease a few weeks later, and it would be difficult not to see the hand of God in such a remarkable coincidence. After Coe's death, his widow published a series of articles exposing the fraud of key healing evangelists.
CHARLES PRICE (1880-1947) was another of the famous latter day rain theology healing evangelists of the first half of the 20th century. He turned his back on modernistic theology after attending Aimee Semple McPherson's meeting in early 1920 and was "baptized in the Spirit" soon thereafter. Beginning in 1922 he conducted healing crusades in many parts of the world. In 1923, following a Price crusade in Vancouver, British Columbia, a group of physicians, professors, lawyers, and ministers followed up on the alleged healings. Of the 350 people who had claimed to be healed, they could not find any physical change in the conditions of 301, 39 had died within six months of the meeting, five had become insane, and five others appeared to be cured of "nervous disorders" (D. Richard Wolfe, "Faith Healing and Healing Faith," Journal of the Indiana Medical Association, 53, April 1959, cited from Eve Simson, The Faith Healer, St. Louis: Concordia, 1977, p. 166).
Some of the Pentecostal healing evangelists of the 1950s reported that hundreds of deaf people were healed during meetings in JAMAICA. In 1962 G.H. Montgomery, associated with Jack Coe's widow, Juanita, exposed this fraud with the following report: "Some of these same evangelists reported that literally hundreds of deaf people were healed and received their hearing in the Jamaica meetings. Now, it so happens that we have a missionary daughter in Jamaica who works exclusively with deaf people. In five years of work with these people, neither she nor her colleagues have ever found so much as one person who was healed of total deafness" (Harrell, All Things Are Possible, p. 142).
Many of the more amazing healings and resurrections and other miracles reported by the latter rain people allegedly occur in AFRICA and Asia and South America, far away from those who are being told about the miracles. Oftentimes when someone has occasion to follow-up on these miracles, they are found to be false. In 1984 evangelist Duncan Leighton followed the DEREK PRINCE team through Zambia where thousands of miracle healings were claimed. Leighton's efforts to document genuine miracle healings were fruitless (Leighton, Signs, One Wonders, cited in The Healing Epidemic, p. 216). A missionary doctor who followed up on reports of miracle healings in Africa in the mid 1940s also could not find any genuine organic healings. "I have not come across a single case of undoubted cure proved by medical examination of the clinical condition before and after the alleged healing" (Ibid., p. 219).
Another example of the confusion which has characterized the Pentecostal movement throughout its history is the ministry of DAVID DUPLESSIS (1905-1987), one of the key men in bringing together Pentecostals and Roman Catholics. Duplessis' parents came under the influence of Pentecostal missionaries out of John Dowie's Zion City. They were put out of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa when they accepted the heretical doctrines of the latter rain miracle revival, healing in the atonement, and spirit baptism with the evidence of tongues. Duplessis' father became a part-time Pentecostal preacher and refused to allow his family to take medicines or visit doctors. He even refused veterinary care for his livestock and was briefly jailed for causing the needless deaths of plagued cattle. David Duplessis claimed that he had a Pentecostal spirit baptism experience in 1918 and in 1930 he was ordained as a Pentecostal preacher. Six years later Pentecostal evangelist Smith Wigglesworth prophesied over Duplessis that he would be one of God's instruments in a coming worldwide ecumenical revival. By the 1950s Duplessis became immersed in the task of ecumenism. He preached that God was pouring out the latter rain power just preceding Christ's return. He traveled widely, visiting the apostate leaders of the various mainline denominations. He became friends with the modernistic leaders of the World Council of Churches and participated in the second assembly of the WCC in 1954 and in the third assembly in 1961. He was invited to the Vatican to speak personally with Pope John XXIII and was the only Pentecostal invited to attend the Roman Catholic Vatican II Council of the mid-1960s. In his autobiography he testified that his heart broke and he literally wept during the performance of the Catholic mass (A Man Called Mr. Pentecost, p. 215). Throughout these experiences, Duplessis thought he was led by the Lord because of the "prophecies" he had received and also because of various powerful emotional and spiritual experiences. When he met with 24 modernistic ecumenical leaders in 1956, for example, he said he "felt a warm glow come over me" and his attitude of judging doctrine melted away. "I felt such love and compassion for those ecclesiastical leaders that I would rather have died for them than pass sentence upon them." He contrasted this with the "old days" when he would have denounced their false theology (A Man Called Mr. Pentecost, p. 181). When he first visited the Vatican, Duplessis claimed that a similar experience caused his prejudice against Catholicism to melt away so that thereafter he could readily accept Catholic priests as brothers in Christ without any judgmentalism whatsoever regarding their doctrine. Through powerful emotional experiences at mass during the Vatican II council, Duplessis says he was purged entirely from suspicion about Catholic doctrine (p. 216).
As a young man Duplessis was prepared for the deception he experienced in the ecumenical movement. He claimed that he got his guidance from God in direct revelations and also through "tongues." In his autobiography, he said that in his early spiritual life God showed him that tongues was a means for determining the divine will. ". the light clicked on. I was speaking to God in tongues, and He was speaking back to me in my mind. I began to find beautiful revelation that way. . Praying in tongues proved to be a wonderful step in working my way out of such an impasse [in not being able to discern God's will]. I would merely pray in tongues, and if the idea held firm, then I knew it was real" (A Man Called Mr. Pentecost, pp. 76-78). This testimony reflects the deep and frightful spiritual ignorance which caused Duplessis to be led from deception to deception throughout his life. The Pentecostal movement has been characterized by this confusion and deception throughout the century. Though Duplessis lost his ministerial credentials with the Assemblies of God for awhile for his radical ecumenism, he retained his membership in an Assembly of God congregation and his ministerial credentials were formally reinstated with the AOG in 1980.
SMITH WIGGLESWORTH (1859-1947) was a famous Pentecostal evangelist and faith healer. Many books have been written about his unusual life. He was converted in a Methodist church, confirmed as an Anglican, and as a young man was associated with the Salvation Army and Plymouth Brethren. In 1907 he claimed that he was "baptised in the Holy Spirit" after hands were laid on him by Mary Boddy, who alleged to have had a Pentecostal experience only a month prior to that. Mrs. Boddy believed in the doctrine of healing in the atonement, but she spent the last sixteen years of her life as an invalid. Wigglesworth, too, believed that physical healing is guaranteed in the atonement of Christ. He taught against the use of all medicine. He believed that signs and wonders should always follow the preaching of the Gospel. He taught that a Christian can be justified and sanctified but still not have everything necessary from God. "People are never safe until they are baptized with the Holy Ghost" (Wigglesworth, "The Place of Power," June 1916, reprinted in The Anointing of His Spirit, p. 151). He taught that handkerchiefs which are prayed over will bring life if carried in faith to the sick (The Anointing of His Spirit, p. 231). He taught: "Jesus came to set us free from sin, to free us from sickness, so that we should go forth in the power of the Spirit and minister to the needy, sick, and afflicted" (Wigglesworth, "Divine Life Brings Divine Health," Pentecostal Evangel, Jan. 17, 1942). He claimed that the Christian has the power to speak things into existence: "God declares, 'You have an anointing.' Believe God and you will see this happen. What you say will come to pass. Speak the word and the bound shall be free, the sick shall be healed" (Wigglesworth, "Power from on High," Pentecostal Evangel, May 27, 1944).
Like today's Word-Faith preachers, Wigglesworth failed to make a proper distinction between the person and ministry of Jesus Christ and that of the Christian. He claimed that Jesus Christ increased in the fullness of God and in the power of the Holy Spirit. "I want you to understand that after the trials, after all the temptations and everything, Jesus comes out more full of God, more clothed in the Spirit, more ready for the fight" (Wigglesworth, "The Place of Power," June 1916, reprinted in The Anointing of His Spirit, p. 146). This is heresy. The Lord Jesus Christ was God the Son. He could not be "more full of God." Further, He was given the Spirit without measure (John 3:34). The Lord Jesus Christ did not come to be our example He came to be our Savior (Lk. 19:10). Wigglesworth also taught that the Christian can operate in the same omnipotent power that Christ exercised. "Dare you come into the place of omnipotence? . God's design is to bring you to the place where you will be a son clothed with the power of gifts and graces, ministries and operations, to bring you into glory, clothed with the majesty of heaven. For he shall bring many sons and daughters unto glory--unto son-likeness, son-perfection" (Wigglesworth, "The Privileges of Sonship," August 1924, reprinted in The Anointing of His Spirit, p. 221). This is very similar to the false Manifest Sons of God theology of the perfectibility of certain saints, and it is the same heresy as that taught today by Kenneth Hagin, Kenneth Copeland, and other Word-Faith teachers. Again, it is a confusion of this present life with that which is to come. They would mock this statement, claiming that my problem is unbelief and spiritual blindness, but the fact remains that they cannot do the miracles that Christ performed. The Lord Jesus Christ never conducted a healing crusade and He never took up an offering before He performed His signs and wonders. He did not have any rock music to stir up the crowd. He did not laugh hysterically or stagger about like a drunk man. He could raise the dead and heal every sickness without fail. No Pentecostal preacher has ever been able to do this.
Wigglesworth taught a form of sinless perfection. He stated: "I am realizing very truly these days that there is a sanctification of the Spirit where the thoughts are holy, where the life is beautiful, with no blemish" (Wigglesworth, "Count It All Joy," August 1925, reprinted in The Anointing of His Spirit, p. 226). Oh, that this were the truth, but it is not. The Apostle Paul described his experience in these words: "For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me but how to perform that which is good I find not. . O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death" (Rom. 8:18,24). There is spiritual victory through the Holy Spirit in this life, but it is not the experience described by Wigglesworth. It is not a life in which the thoughts are perfectly holy and in which there is no blemish. This is the destructive heresy of perfectionism, of complete sanctification, which has led multitudes of sincere people down the road of confusion and despair. To encourage people to seek and demand that which God has not promised is to expose them to demonic delusion and fleshly fanaticism.
The popular Bible commentator Harry Ironside began his ministry as a young man with the Salvation Army. He earnestly sought the sinless perfection experience, and at one point he thought he "had it." Alas, though, he soon realized that his old sin nature was still present and active. In great despair he was committed to a hospital in a state of emotional and spiritual breakdown. There God brought him into contact with literature which taught the way of biblical sanctification and with Christians who could help him understand his salvation correctly. He became established in the Faith and went on to have a long and fruitful ministry of the Word of God. His testimony is in the book Holiness: The False and the True, which is published by Loizeaux Brothers, P.O. Box 277, Neptune, NJ 07754-0277. 800- 526-2796 (orders), 908-774-0641 (fax). This book is also available in the "Charismatic" section of the End Times Apostasy Database at the Way of Life Literature web site -- http://www.wayoflife.org/
Wigglesworth preached constantly on the power of faith, but he failed to balance his teaching with the absolute necessity of submitting one's faith to the sovereign will of God. He failed to distinguish properly between this present life and the resurrection life which is to come (Romans 8:18- 25). Instead he taught: "Jesus would have us come forth in divine likeness, in resurrection force, in the power of the Spirit, to walk in faith and understand his Word, what he meant when he said he would give us power over all the power of the enemy. Christ will subdue all things till everything comes into perfect harmony with his will" (Wigglesworth, "The Substance of Things Hoped For," Pentecostal Evangel, Oct. 25, 1924). This is a destructive doctrinal error which causes people to be confused about what they can and cannot expect from God in this present time. Such false teaching produces great confusion and results in the overthrowing of the faith of great numbers of people who, having tried to exercise the faith spoken of by the Pentecostal preacher and having failed to achieve the desired miracle, give up in great despair. Faith is trusting God and His Word NO MATTER WHAT THE CIRCUMSTANCES, whether He does miracles or whether He does not do miracles. Faith is waiting on God to bring His promises to pass, regardless of what I am experiencing in this present life. Hebrews 11 reminds us that there are two kinds of faith: that which overcomes difficulties (Heb. 11:32- 35a) and that which endures difficulties (Heb. 11:35b-40).
In spite of his teaching that God promises perfect physical wholeness and that the Christian can operate in the same sign gifts that Christ exhibited, very few of those who sought Wigglesworth's healing ministrations were ever healed. His own wife died a mere six years after he became a Pentecostal, and his son died two years after that. His daughter, who assisted in his meetings, was never healed of her deafness. For three years Wigglesworth himself suffered with gallstones.
In 1936 Wigglesworth gave a prophecy to the aforementioned David DuPlessis that God would pour out His Spirit upon all denominations and that the Pentecostal experience would sweep the world. DuPlessis was told that he would play a significant role in this movement. The fulfillment of the prophecy has proven that it was not of God. The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Truth (Jn. 14:17 15:27 16:13 1 John 4:6), and wherever He holds sway in men's lives He enlightens their minds to the truth and causes them to abhor error. In contrast, the ecumenical-Charismatic "renewal" with which David DuPlessis was associated, is a movement which confirms people in their doctrinal error. Catholics remained committed to Roman heresies. Modernists remained committed to their unbelief. Members of apostate denominations remained committed to the apostasy. The ecumenical- Charismatic renewal has broken down the walls between truth and error and has been one of the chief glues of the end-times one-world church movement.
KENNETH HAGIN, SR. (1917- ) is one of the most influential Pentecostal leaders today. He claims that his teaching was given to him by God, but in fact he plagiarized heavily from the writings of E.W. KENYON (1867-1948). D.R. McConnell, in his book A Different Gospel, documents this with pages of comparisons proving beyond question that Hagin plagiarized Kenyon's writings. McConnel introduces this section of his book by saying: "Hagin has, indeed, copied word-for-word without documentation from Kenyon's writings. The following excerpts of plagiarisms from no less than eight books by E.W. Kenyon are presented as evidence of this charge. This is only a sampling of such plagiarisms. Many more could be cited." Plagiarism is not only deceit it is a criminal offense.
Kenyon was a Baptist pastor and never joined the Pentecostal movement (though he did move in Pentecostal circles toward the end of his life), but his pioneer radio broadcasts and voluminous writings had broad influence in the Deeper Life and Pentecostal-Charismatic movements. Though he did not use the term "revelation" to describe his teaching, he presented his doctrine as new and history-changing. He claimed that if his message were followed it would create a master race of Christians who would have complete power over demons and disease. In his book Identification, he stated: "When these truths really gain the ascendancy in us, they will make us spiritual supermen, masters of demons and disease. . It will be the end of weakness and failure" (Identification, Seattle: Kenyon's Gospel Publishing Society, 1968, p. 68). In his early years Kenyon was influenced by Methodist sinless perfectionism and by New Thought doctrine. It is obvious that he borrowed heavily from the latter. D.R. McConnell masterfully traces this connection in his book A Different Gospel. In 1892 Kenyon enrolled in the Emerson College of Oratory, "an institution that was absolutely inundated with metaphysical, cultic ideas and practices" (McConnell, A Different Gospel, p. 34). Charles Wesley Emerson, the head of Emerson College, was a Unitarian minister and eventually joined Mary Baker Eddy's Christian Science movement. A number of Emerson graduates went on to become prominent Christian Science practitioners. One graduate of Emerson compiled The Complete Concordance of the Writings of Mary Baker Eddy. Another graduate wrote the book Twelve Years with Mary Baker Eddy. Emerson's "religion was a veritable smorgasbord of the sources underlying New Thought metaphysics: Platonism, Swedenborgianism, New England Unitarianism, and Emersonian Transcendentalism. All of these various elements were held together by heavy proof-texting from the Bible and a quasi-Darwinian view of the religious evolution of humanity which ended in man becoming a god" (Ibid., p. 35). Though Kenyon claimed to be opposed to the New Thought cults and though he claimed to derive his teaching strictly from the Bible, there is no question that he incorporated many New Thought ideas into his doctrine. Like New Thought, Kenyon taught that the spiritual is the cause of all physical effects and that positive confession has the power to create its own reality. He believed that healing and other ongoing miracles are necessary to demonstrate the reality of Christianity. He considered his writings "to be a wonderful new interpretation of the Scriptures, a 'new type of Christianity,' which would bring healing and prosperity to all who possessed his revelation knowledge of the Bible" (McConnell, p. 50).
Kenneth Hagin's positive-confession teachings, which he derived at least partially from Kenyon, have spawned an entire movement within modern Pentecostalism, and its proponents have vast influence. The Dictionary of the Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements admits that "Kenyon's writings became seminal for the ministries of Kenneth Hagin, Kenneth Copeland, Don Gossett, Charles Capps, and others in the Word of Faith and Positive Confession movements." This Dictionary also notes that Kenyon influenced Ern Baxter, F.F. Bosworth, David Nunn, T.L. Osborn, Jimmy Swaggart, "and many others." In a survey taken by Charisma magazine in 1985, seven Word-Faith teachers ranked among the top 24 most influential Charismatic leaders. Kenneth Hagin, Sr., ranked third. Hagin protege Kenneth Copeland ranked second. Other Word-Faith teachers listed in the survey were Marilyn Hickey, Fred Price, Robert Tilton, John Osteen, and Norvel Hayes.
Hagin teaches that Christ's physical death did not remove sin. Rather, it was Christ's alleged spiritual death and his alleged struggles in hell which removed sin. Hagin teaches that Christ was sent to hell and there he struggled against Satan and the demons and by his victory over them he was born again. This is heresy of the greatest sort. The Bible plainly states that we are redeemed by Christ's death and blood (Acts 20:28 Heb. 9:14 10:10). The atonement was finished on the cross. When Christ dismissed His spirit from his body, He cried, "It is finished" (John 19:30). The Lord Jesus Christ was not born again He was never lost. He bore our sin, but He was never a sinner. He was never tormented in hell by Satan and the demons. Nowhere does the Bible say that Satan is in hell or that he has any influence in hell. One happy day in the future he will be bound for 1,000 years in the bottomless pit (Rev. 20:1-3) and ultimately he will be cast into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:10), but nowhere does the Bible say Satan is the master of hell.
Hagin further teaches that the Christian is an incarnation of God like Jesus was. "The believer is as much an incarnation as was Jesus of Nazareth" (Hagin, "The Incarnation," The Word of Faith, Dec. 1980, cited from Hank Hanegraaff, Christianity in Crisis, pp. 175, 397). This is a gross heresy. The Lord Jesus Christ is God manifest in the flesh. He is the eternal Son of God. Nowhere is the believer said to be an incarnation of Almighty God. The Lord Jesus Christ performed miracles to demonstrate that He was the Son of God, the promised Messiah. No Christian can do the things that Christ did. Not one Pentecostal preacher has ever been able to perform the miracles that Christ performed. It is blasphemous confusion to claim that the believer is an incarnation of God like Christ was.
Hagin has been guided by alleged visitations of angels and of the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. His book I Believe in Visions describes eight of these. The seventh occurred December 12, 1962. Hagin claims the Lord prophesied to him in this visitation that He would soon begin to move among all denominations to "bring them into a full salvation and into the baptism of the Holy Ghost." Hagin claims that Jesus Christ told him that he would play a part in this ecumenical miracle revival. As we have seen, a similar prophecy was given to David DuPlessis by Smith Wigglesworth in 1936. The ecumenical-Charismatic movement which has since swept through the Roman Catholic Church and the mainline Protestant denominations would appear to be a fulfillment of these prophecies. DuPlessis was the first to carry Pentecostal experiences to the Roman Catholic Church. He was the only Pentecostal to attend Rome's Vatican II Council in the mid 1960s. The succeeding ecumenical-Charismatic movement has not been based on the Word of God, though. Charismatic Catholics who have received the "baptism of the Holy Spirit" have not turned away from Rome's heresies but instead have found that their love for heresy has been rekindled. They have fallen in love with the false Catholic Mary and with the false Catholic mass and with the blasphemous office of the pope. I have witnessed the unscriptural fruit of the ecumenical Charismatic movement firsthand. In 1987 and again in 1990 I attended with press credentials two of the largest Charismatic conferences ever held. They were organized by the North America Congress on the Holy Spirit & World Evangelization. Roughly 40 denominations were represented. Fifty percent of the attendees were Roman Catholic. A Catholic mass was featured every morning. Catholic priest Tom Forrest from Rome brought the concluding message at both meetings. In Indianapolis Forrest preached a message on why he was thankful for Roman Catholicism, and he said that he praised the Lord for Mary the Queen of Heaven and for purgatory! Upon the authority of the Bible I can testify that the ecumenical-Charismatic "revival" is demonically inspired because it produces doctrinal error instead of truth. The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of TRUTH.
Hagin has taught a health-prosperity gospel. He says: "Like salvation, healing is a gift, already paid for at Calvary. All we need to do is accept it. All we need to do is possess the promise that is ours. As children of God, we need to realize that healing belongs to us" (Hagin, Healing Belongs to Us, p. 32). He further says: "God is glorified through healing and deliverance, not sickness and suffering" (Hagin, The Key to Scriptural Healing, p. 17). Hagin's claims do not match reality, though. A few years ago he claimed that he hadn't been sick in 60 years, but actually he has had several cardiovascular crises, one lasting six weeks. Heart disease is a sickness, dear friends!
As for prosperity, Hagin claims that the Lord spoke to him in a vision in 1959 with the words: "If you will learn to follow that inward witness I will make you rich. I will guide you in all the affairs of life, financial as well as spiritual" (Hagin, How to Be Led by the Holy Spirit). In an article "How God Taught Me about Prosperity," Hagin claims that Jesus Christ taught him not to think that it is wrong to have riches. Allegedly Christ told him not to "pray about money anymore that is, the way you've been praying. CLAIM WHATEVER YOU NEED." Christ allegedly further taught Hagin that he has personal angels who can be commanded to do his bidding. Hagin says Christ told him in 1963 that the angels were waiting for his command to provide his material desires. "They are waiting on you to give them the order, just as the waitress cannot do anything for you until you give her the order" (Hagin, I Believe in Visions, p. 126).
This is the source for the terms "word-faith" or "positive confession." That which the believer confesses with his mouth will be true in reality. Various forms of this false idea have spread throughout many parts of the Pentecostal-Charismatic movement today.
Hagin's ministry has been characterized by phenomena which we would characterize as demonic. The unscriptural "spirit slaying" phenomenon has been a major part of his ministry. He describes many people who have fallen into trances during his meetings. He claims one teenage girl was in a trance for almost nine hours, and that when he and a pastor tried to move her, the two of them were unable to budge her off the floor, in spite of the fact that this pastor was a large man weighing more than 200 pounds. He tells of other people being glued to the floor so that no one could move them. On one occasion, when someone was levitated in a meeting, Hagin's wife and two other people questioned whether it was of the Lord. He claims that God instructed him to touch all three of them on the forehead with his little finger, and when he did so, they were knocked to the floor and paralyzed so that they could not get up. They were not allowed to rise until they acknowledged that Hagin's power was of God. When they admitted this, Hagin touched them again with his finger and they were released (McConnell, p. 64). Hagin tells of a woman who danced off a platform and levitated in the air while she was "dancing in the Spirit." He claims to have visited both Heaven and Hell.
Hagin has been in the center of the current Laughing Revival. We have previously related that it was during a Rodney Howard-Browne crusade at Hagin's church that Vineyard pastor Randy Clark received the "anointing" which he subsequently carried to Toronto. I have seen video recordings of a conference conducted by Kenneth Hagin, Sr., Kenneth Hagin, Jr., and Kenneth Copeland in Chesterfield, Missouri, October 12-24, 1997. It is one of the strangest and most unscriptural things I have ever witnessed. Hagin, Sr. staggers around like a drunk, sticking his tongue out and wiggling it like a serpent. He blows and hisses and pants, blowing on people, waving his arms at them, striking them on the head, while entire rows of people fall down or slide out of their seats in a drunken stupor as he lurches by. Women fall to the floor in all sorts of compromising positions and have to be covered with the assistance of ladies who are assigned that task. Kenneth Copeland and Kenneth Hagin, Jr., are right in the middle of the insanity, acting as if they were completely drunken on liquor, rolling on the floor, making strange noises, laughing hysterically for no apparent reason. One of Hagin's helpers, a large man who is attempting to hold the senior Hagin upright, is overcome with drunkenness and falls into the lap of an attractive woman. Pandemonium and confusion reign. Four men are required to help the drunken Hagin get back onto the speaker's platform.
Hagin's influence has been phenomenal. Thousands of students have graduated from his Rhema Bible Training Center and have gone throughout the world planting churches patterned after his ministry. The stated purpose of Rhema is "to produce graduates who will carry forth the great charismatic renewal that God has sent into our time." His daily radio program is broadcast on more than 180 stations in the States and by short-wave to about 80 other countries. By the late 1980s, more than three million of his 85 books and a half million of his sermons on audio cassette were being distributed each year. His monthly Word of Faith magazine goes to 190,000 homes.
Suit of Sails
“[Our frigates] should combine such qualities of strength, durability, swiftness of sailing, and force, as to render them equal, if not superior, to any frigates belonging to any of the European Powers.”
– Secretary of War Henry Knox, December 27, 1794.
The rig aloft is a sailing warship’s engine, and USS Constitution‘s speed and maneuverability during her active years were the result not only of a sleek hull, but also of her very tall sailing rig. Shipbuilder Joshua Humphreys designed the original six frigates to be “the most powerful, and, at the same time, the most useful ships…it is expected the commanders of them will have it in their power to engage, or not, any ship, as they may think proper…” [Report by Joshua Humphreys, Naval Constructor, December 23, 1794.] “Old Ironsides'” numerous sails supplied the power needed to drive the ship in ocean passages and the swiftness needed to escape or chase the enemy as required.
The earliest known painting of Constitution (below), attributed to Michele Felice Cornè, shows the ship with much of her complement of sails set. The painting gives a sense of the size and power of Constitution‘s rig. The ship’s main sail measured 77 feet wide at the top, over 87 feet at the bottom, and 45 feet tall. The impressive scale of the sails is illustrated in the detail below, which depicts the crew working aloft and barely visible amongst the enormous sails.
USS Constitution, attributed to Michele Felice Corne, 1803. [USS Constitution Museum Collection, U.S. Navy Loan, 296.1] Detail of USS Constitution, by Michele Felice Corne, 1803. [USS Constitution Museum Collection, U.S. Navy Loan, 296.1]
Before, during, and after battle, nearly half of Constitution‘s approximately 450-man crew would be actively engaged with the setting and furling of select sails. In his August 28, 1812 letter to Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton, Captain Isaac Hull wrote of the preparations for battle with HMS Guerriere: “I immediately ordered the light sails taken in…took two reefs in the topsails, hauled up the foresail, and the mainsail and see [sic] all clear for action…” These sail preparations are illustrated in a painting below by George Ropes, Jr. in 1813.
Constitution & Guerriere, by George Ropes, Jr., 1813. This is the first of four paintings in a series depicting the battle with HMS Guerriere. [USS Constitution Museum Collection, 2094.1] Detail of Constitution & Guerriere, by George Ropes, Jr., 1813. [USS Constitution Museum Collection, 2094.1]
The detail above from Ropes’ painting clearly illustrates the vast manpower needed to reef (shorten the sail area exposed to the wind) or furl the big, deep topsails on Constitution. First Lieutenant Ellie Vallette, who served aboard Constitution in the mid-1820s, kept a “watch and quarter bill” (shown below), delineating the duties of every officer and sailor aboard ship at all times. Three pages of the manuscript not only show how many men were required on each yard when setting and furling sail, but also lists the names of the individuals assigned to each position. The main top yard from which the main top sail hangs required a minimum of 32 men on each side–to bring in the heavy flax sail.
Watch and Quarter Bill kept by First Lieutenant Ellie Vallette, 1824-1833. The manuscript is open to the pages delineating the crew needed to set and furl the sails on the main and mizen [sic] masts. [USS Constitution Museum Collection, 1783.3]
Vessels rigged as a ship are the most complicated of all sailing rigs, and the task of setting and furling sail was physically taxing for the crew. Sailors were required to train extensively both on the guns and aloft in the rigging. When a battle or storm occurred, each person knew his station and the tasks expected of him. Hours of training, however, made the job no less dangerous. The crew who worked aloft wore no safety harnesses or any other gear to protect them from the wildly pitching motion of the masts or the snapping and billowing of the sail over their heads.
“The boatswain’s whistle was heard, followed by the shrill cry for ‘All hands take in sail! jump, men, and save ship!’…We found the frigate leaning over…so steeply…The vessel seemed to be sailing on her side…With every lurch to leeward the yard-arm-ends seemed to dip in the sea, while forward the spray dashed over the bows in cataracts, and drenched the men who were on the fore-yard.”
– White-Jacket, or The World in a Man-of-War, by Herman Melville, 1850.
Sailors working aloft, c.1830. This illustration shows sailors aloft on an anonymous ship. The sailors appear to be attempting to reefing a topgallant sail high aloft on a square-rigged vessel. Note the extreme angle of the mast and that the men climbing aloft to assist are climbing only on the windward side, with the wind at their backs pushing them into the rigging. [USS Constitution Museum Collection, 2112.1]
Constitution‘s original sails were made from flax, a heavy and durable fiber that was used by the U.S. Navy well into the 19th century. Each of the six frigates was “provided [with] one suit of sails… [The sail cloth] was contracted for, and manufactured in the United States, in the year 1794.” [Report by Timothy Pickering, War Office, December 12, 1795.] By the end of the 1800s, the Navy, like the merchant service, made the transition to cotton canvas. The term “duck” was frequently used in reference to sail material, denoting a super quality of fiber. The word “duck” comes from the 17th century Dutch doeck denoting ‘linnen or linnen cloath’ [Oxford English Dictionary]. Constitution‘s original suit of sails were sewn in the Granary, at the present-day location of the Park Street Church in the center of Boston.
The Navy was rapidly transitioning to steam power by the late 19th century, yet learning to sail on a traditional square-rigged sailing vessel remained essential training for midshipmen. The only known photograph of “Old Ironsides” under sail was taken at the end of her active sailing career in the summer of 1881 when she sailed with midshipmen. By this time, Constitution‘s flax sails had been replaced with heavy cotton canvas.
A detail of the only known photograph of USS Constitution under sail taken by Army Private Hendrickson in the summer of 1881. The ship was standing into Hampton Roads, Virginia. [Courtesy Naval History & Heritage Command Detachment Boston]
After USS Constitution‘s substantial 1927-1931 restoration, the U.S. Navy recommissioned the ship on July 1, 1931. She was sent out on her three-coast National Cruise to thank American school children who had given pennies to the cause and others who had donated materials to aid in the rebuilding. Before departing from Boston, the ship was outfitted with 32 sails, nearly her full complement, made with donated cotton duck from Wellington, Sears & Co. of New York.
Advertisement for Wellington, Sears & Co., of Boston and New York, the donor of the cotton duck sail cloth for USS Constitution. Textile World, Volume 60, Issues 14-27, October 1, 1921. [Courtesy Google Books]
Twenty-four different sail lofts from Maine to Texas, from New York to Chicago, assisted 21 Boston Navy Yard sailmakers in manufacturing Constitution‘s first suit of sails since 1881.
This 1931 broadside listing the sail lofts around the U.S. that helped to make USS Constitution‘s new suit of sails was displayed below decks on the ship. [Courtesy Naval History Heritage Command Detachment Boston]
The staged photograph below from 1930-1931 shows two sailmakers who likely worked in the Boston Navy Yard sail loft. Note the “Oceanic Cotton Duck” logo stamped on the sail. This was the material that was supplied by the Wellington, Sears & Co.
Sail makers working on a sail in 1930-1931. [Courtesy USS Constitution Museum]
Although Constitution was outfitted with a nearly full suit of sail for the 1931-1934 three-coast National Cruise, she was towed by the minesweeper USS Greebe from port to port. However, in late 1933 while the ship was in San Diego, Lieutenant William F. Royall was transferred to Constitution to become her sailing master. Royall organized the crew for dockside sail handling demonstrations with the intention of actually sailing “Old Ironsides” under her own power. Several opportunities to sail the ship were lost due to unforeseen circumstances, but on the day before Constitution returned to Boston on May 7, 1934, Commander Louis J. Gulliver announced that the ship would sail into Boston Harbor. As Royall recounted 63 years later, “…as we approached Boston, the wind failed us and fell into an absolute calm. Our sailing days were over.”
USS Constitution crew aloft furling the mainsail c. 1933-1934. [Courtesy Naval History & Heritage Command Detachment Boston]
“Old Ironsides” was given another chance to sail under her own power on July 21, 1997 under the command of CDR Michael C. Beck. It was the ship’s 200th anniversary, and Beck used this opportunity to celebrate the ship’s embodiment of the U.S. Navy’s ideals of honor, courage, and commitment. It had been 116 years since Constitution‘s last sail. Beginning in the spring of 1996, Constitution‘s crew trained aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Eagle, Brig Niagara and HMS Bounty to relearn how to sail a sailing frigate.
Constitution was rigged with six sails: two jibs, three topsails, and the spanker. The three topsails were made by Nathaniel Wilson of East Boothbay, Maine, one of the last sailmakers capable of manufacturing square sails of the size needed for USS Constitution. The Naval History & Heritage Command Detachment Boston made the spanker and flying jib, and James Brink of Brooklyn, New York made the jib. The new sails were made from a Dacron fiber called Oceanus, by North Cloth of Milford, Connecticut. This synthetic material closely resembles natural canvas but, unlike cotton duck, does not absorb water and therefore weighs the same wet or dry. This is a clear advantage when handling sails as large as Constitution‘s.
USS Constitution sailing under her own power on July 21, 1997 off the coast of Marblehead, Massachusetts. [Courtesy U.S. Navy] A Constitution sailor aloft at the fore topsail in the summer of 2011. The six sails made in 1996 have since been augmented by five more, also made of Oceanus. [Courtesy Naval History & Heritage Command Detachment Boston]
USS Constitution sailed again for the 200th anniversary of the War of 1812, commemorating 200 years of peace between Great Britain and the United States and Canada and the United States. This short sail took place at the entrance to Boston Harbor on August 19, 2012. Joshua Humphreys would be astonished and proud to know that, over 200 years later, one of his six frigates is the world’s oldest ship capable of sailing under her own power.
The activity that is the subject of this blog article has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Maritime Heritage Grant program, administered by the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the Massachusetts Historical Commission, Secretary of the Commonwealth William Francis Galvin, Chairman. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior, or the Massachusetts Historical Commission, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation by the Department of the Interior, or the Massachusetts Historical Commission.
Margherita M. Desy
Historian, Naval History & Heritage Command
Margherita M. Desy is the Historian for USS Constitution at Naval History and Heritage Command Detachment Boston.
Manager of Curatorial Affairs, USS Constitution Museum
Kate Monea is the Manager of Curatorial Affairs at the USS Constitution Museum.
1st Armored Division "Old Ironsides"
On 17 April 2013, US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel announced the deployment of elements of the 1st Armored Division headquarters to Jordan in response to the ongoing crisis in Syria. The elements from 1st Armored Division would join forces that already in Jordan, providing a cohesive command and control element in cooperation with Jordan forces. If directed, this element could establish a joint task force headquarters that would provide command and control for chemical weapons response, humanitarian assistance efforts, and stability operations. US personnel already in Jordan were facilitating the exchange of information with the Jordanians and supporting US humanitarian assistance efforts in Jordan.
The 1st Armored Division is one of the oldest and most prestigious armored division in the United States Army. From its desert tank battles against Field Marshall Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps, to its stunning victories in the Persian Gulf War, in peace or war, the "Old Ironsides" Division has amassed a proud record of service to America.
Soon after the activation of the 1st Armored Division at Fort Knox on 15 July 1940, its first commander, Major General Bruce R. Magruder, began searching for an appropriate nickname for the division. In 1941, General George S. Patton Jr. had just named his 2nd Armored Division "Hell on Wheels" and everyone thought that the 1st Armored Division needed a name too. General Bruce Magruder, the Commander of the 1st Armored Division, announced a contest to find a suitable name for his Division. Approximately 200 names were submitted including "Fire and Brimstone" and "Kentucky Wonders." The General took them home to study over the weekend, but failed to find any that appealed to him. While mulling the matter over, he happened to glance at a picture of the USS Constitution that he had bought during a drive for funds for the preservation of that famous fighting ship known as "Old Ironsides." That ended the search for a name. Impressed with the parallel between the early development of the tank and the Navy's "Old Ironsides" spirit of daring and durability he decided the 1st Armored Division should also be named "Old Ironsides." Thus a famous warship of the US Navy and the famous 1st Armored Division of the US Army are historically and appropriately welded by name "Old Ironsides."
The 1st Armored Division participated in Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French Northwest Africa, beginning on 8 November 1942. In doing so, Old Ironsides became the first American Armored Division to see combat. Although encountering unexpectedly heavy Vichy-French opposition, the Allied invasion force suppressed all resistance in the beachhead within 3 days. The Division then advanced toward Tunisia where it clashed with Axis forces and learned many hard lessons in armored warfare. Harsh conditions and primitive roads spoiled an early opportunity to capture Tunisia and cut off Rommel's supply lines.
January 1943 found the Division under control of the II Corps. Old Ironsides received the mission of defending central Tunisia against an Axis counterattack. A month later, the 1st Armored Division collided with a superior German armored force at Kasserine Pass. Sustaining heavy personnel and equipment losses, Old Ironsides withdrew, battered but wiser. Outrunning his supply lines and facing stiffening Allied resistance, Rommel's advance ground to a halt. Regardless, 3 more months of fierce fighting followed before the Allies could finally claim victory in North Africa.
The fall of Sicily in the summer of 1943 cleared the way for an Allied Invasion of the Italian mainland. As part of General Mark Clark's Fifth Army, the 1st Armored Division crushed enemy resistance in an assault landing at Salerno on 9 September 1943, and led the drive to Naples. The city fell on 1 October 1943, and the Allies pressed onto the Volturno River.
In November 1943, the 1st Armored Division attacked the infamous Winter Line. Although breaching the line, the Allied advance came to a halt in the mountainous country near Cassino. To break the stalemate, the Allies made an amphibious assault well behind enemy lines at Anzio on 23 January 1944. Beating back repeated German counterattacks, the 1st Armored Division led the Allied breakout from the beachead on 23 May 1944, and spearheaded the drive to Rome, liberating the city on 4 June 1944. The 1st Armored Division continued its pursuit of the enemy to the North Apennies where the Germans made their last stand. Rugged mountains and winter weather now stood between the Allies and the open land of the Po Valley. The 1st Armored Division broke into the valley in April 1945 and on 2 May 1945, German forces in Italy surrendered.
In June 1945, the 1st Armored Division was transferred to Germany to serve as part of the Allied occupation forces. Old Ironsides returned to the United States in April 1946 and was inactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey. Several of the Division's units, however, remained in Germany as part of the US Constabulary occupying the nation.
The success of the Russian made T-34 Tank at the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 brought renewed enthusiasm for armor. As part of the Korean War build-up of American forces, the 1st Armored Division was reactivated at Fort Hood, Texas on 7 March 1951. Continuing its tradition of "firsts", Old Ironsides became one of the first divisions in the Army to integrate black soldiers throughout the ranks. It was also the only combat-ready armored division in the continental United States and the first to receive the M48 Patton Tank.
Training for nuclear war became a major theme in the mid-1950s. Accordingly, the 1st Armored Division participated in tests of the "Atomic Field Army" at Fort Hood and in Operation Sagebrush, the largest joint maneuver conducted since World War II. Upon completion of the exercise in February 1956, the 1st Armored Division moved to its new home at Fort Polk, Louisiana.
Toward the end of the 1950s, the Army's preoccupation with a nuclear battlefield waned. The Army experienced years of austere budgets. Reduced in size and moved back to Fort Hood, the 1st Armored Division reverted to a training cadre for new inductees. The start of the 1960s, however, inaugurated a period of military renewal. Important changes in organization, doctrine, and equipment stemmed from the realization that the Army must be prepared to fight anytime, anywhere.
In 1962, the 1st Armored Division was brought back to full strength and reorganized. Brigades replaced its Combat Commands, and the Division's aviation assets doubled. Intense training followed the reorganization. In October 1962, the 1st Armored Division was declared combat ready, just in time for the Cuban Missile Crisis. In response to the Soviet stationing of missiles in Cuba, Old Ironsides deployed from Fort Hood, Texas to Fort Stewart, Georgia. The entire operation took just 18 days. For the next six weeks, the 1st Armored Division conducted live-fire training and amphibious exercises on the Georgia and Florida coasts. One highlight was a visit from President John F. Kennedy on 26 November 1962. Shortly thereafter, tensions eased and the 1st Armored Division returned to Fort Hood.
Although the 1st Armored Division did not participate as a Division in the Vietnam War, 2 units, Company A, 501st Aviation and 1st Squadron, 1st Calvary served with distinction. Both earned Presidential Unit Citations, and 1-1st Cavalry received 2 Valorous Unit Awards and 3 Vietnamese Crosses of Gallantry. Neither unit was officially detached from the 1st Armored Division and veterans of both units were authorized to wear the Old Ironsides as a combat patch. In 1967, the 198th Infantry Brigade was formed from 3 of the Division's Infantry Battalions and deployed from Fort Hood to Vietnam. After the war, 2 of the 3 battalions, 1-6th Infantry and 1-52nd Infantry, returned to the 1st Armored Division.
1968 was a crisis-filled year of domestic unrest. After the assassination of Martin Luther King, several inner cities exploded into violence. The 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division deployed to Chicago to assist in restoring order.
The early 1970's brought the withdrawal of American Forces from Vietnam and a major restructuring of the Army. Old Ironsides was rumored to be on the list of units to be inactivated. Veterans of the Division organized a letter-writing campaign to "save" the 1st Armored Division. Their efforts were rewarded when on 10 May 1971, 1st Armored Division left its home at Fort Hood, Texas to replace the 4th Armored Division in Germany. There Old Ironsides marched into its second half century celebrating victory in the Cold War. This was a triumph symbolized by the fall of the Berlin Wall, the unification of Germany, and the crumbling of East European, communist regimes.
Almost immediately the 1st Armored Division was called upon to meet a new challenge. In November 1990, it was alerted for deployment to the Middle East in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. In less than 2 months the Division moved 17,400 soldiers and 7,050 pieces of equipment by rail, sea, and air to Saudi Arabia for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The Division's own 1st Brigade stayed in Germany and was replaced by 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division. On 24 February 1991, the 1st Armored Division crossed into Iraq, leading VII Corp's main flanking attack. Its mission was to destroy the elite Iraqi Republican Guards Divisions. In its 89-hour blitz across the desert Old Ironsides traveled 250 kilometers destroyed 768 tanks, APCs and artillery pieces and captured 1,064 prisoners of war. Four 1st Armored Division soldiers made the ultimate sacrifice in this historic effort. Old Ironsides marked its successful return to Germany on 8 May 1991, when Major General Griffith uncased the Division Colors in Ansbach. The 1st Armored Division celebrated its triumph with a visit from the Vice President of the United States and attendance at victory parades in Washington, DC and New York City.
On 14 December 1995, the 1st Armored Division was ordered to Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of Operation Joint Endeavor. This task force, known as Task Force Eagle, assumed control of its area of responsibility during a transfer of authority ceremony with United Nations forces at Eagle Base, Tulza on 20 December 1995. After the historic bridging of the Sava River on 31 December 1995, the Old Ironsides Division, with supporting forces from V Corps, was joined by Nordic-Polish, Turkish, and Russian brigades. The units comprised, in total, 12 Nations: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, and the United States.
Task Force Eagle, one of the most powerful military formations ever fielded, enforced the cease-fire, supervised the marking of boundaries and the zone of separation between the former warring factions, enforced withdrawal of the combatants, and the movement of the heavy weapons to designated storage sites. Task Force Eagle also supported the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe's efforts to administer the country's first ever democratic national elections. On 10 November 1996, the 1st Armored Division transferred authority for command and control of Task Force Eagle to the 1st Infantry Division. The 1st Infantry Division deployed as a covering force to allow the safe return of the 1st Armored Division to Germany.
In April 1999, the 1st Armored Division was alerted to send soldiers to Albania as part of Operation Allied Force in response to the ethnic cleansing and fighting in Kosovo. The 1st Armored Division then sent the first soldiers into Kosovo in operation Joint Guardian to uphold the United Nations Security Council resolution to bring peace back to the Kosovo region.
The 1st Armored Division began the year 2000 with a bang as the 1st Brigade Combat Team blasted its way through the rolling fog of Grafenwoehr Training Area in a challenging January gunnery. February 2000 saw 1st Armored Division Headquarters announce the closure of military facilities in Bad Kreuznach and subsequent relocation to Wiesbaden scheduled for June 2001. The 1st Armored Division rocked HTA and GTA in 3 seperate exercises in March 2001. Ready First stormed into Hohenfels Training Area for Mountain Guardian III, a Mission Rehearsal Exercise designed to test the limits of Iron Soldiers preparing to deploy to Task Force Falcon 2A.
The 1st Armored Division's command and control elements pushed the envelope during a highly effective Warfighter in GTA, between March 21 and April 17 2001. The 1st Armored Division took command of Task Force Falcon in Kosovo as Brigadier General Randal Tieszen accepted the colors from 1st Infantry Division's Brigadier General Ricardo Sanchez. The 1st Armored Division celebrated its 60th birthday at home and abroad in Kosovo, on 15 July 2001. Major General George W. Casey, Jr. traveled to Boston Harbor in August 2001 where he forged a new bond with Commander Bill Foster, of the USS Constitution. The meeting rekindled the fires of a 60-year love affair between the prestigious ship "Old Ironsides" and 1st Armored Division.
The 1st Armored Division received orders on 4 March 2003, to deploy to the US Central Command area of responsibility in support of the global war on terrorism and to prepare for future contingencies as may be directed. The deployment was to consist of the whole division. However, on 14 March 2003, Stars and Stripes reported that 1st Armored Division had been ordered to put their deployment on hold as transporting the Division's equipment to the AOR had been complicated by the refusal of Turkey to permit the 4th Infantry Division to stage from its territory. Old Ironsides began moving out on 15 April 2003 in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
The Division and its associated task force marked some major firsts during the 15-month long mission. For Soldiers of the 1st Armored Division, this was longest deployment of any division in Iraq up to that point. Task Force 1st Armored Division was the largest division-based task force in US Army history up to that point. Units serving with the Task Force included brigade-sized elements of the 82nd Airborne and 3rd Infantry and 1st Cavalry Divisions, the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, the 124th Infantry Battalion, the 18th and 89th Military Police Brigades and 168th MP Battalion. Engineer units serving with the task force included the 153rd, 203rd, 389th, 439th, 535th, 842nd and 1457th Engineer Battalions, the 493rd Engineer Group, and the 249th and 671st Engineer Companies. Also serving the task force were the 55th Personnel Service Battalion, the 8th Finance Battalion, the 350th and 354th Civil Affairs Battalions, the 315th and 345th PSYOP Battalions and the 16th Corps Support Group. At its height, more than 39,000 Soldiers were part of the task force.
The task force secured some of Baghdad's roughest neighborhoods and brought stability to the city and its surrounding countryside. The Task Force's accomplishments included planning and executing Operations Iron Hammer, Iron Justice, Iron Grip, Longstreet, Iron Bullet, Iron Promise and Iron Sabre. During these task force operations, soldiers captured more than 700 criminals and former regime insurgents. They also confiscated thousands of rockets, mortars, tank rounds, rocket-propelled grenades and small arms.
In addition to combat, task force Soldiers protected and improved the quality of life for over 5 million Iraqi residents in the city of Baghdad. The task force trained Iraqi police and national guardsmen, renovated schools, established neighborhood councils and spent over $60 million on these and other projects. After turning the city over to the 1st Cavalry Division on 15 April 2004, the task force headed south to pacify the cities of Najaf, Diwaniyah, Al Kut and Karbala.
Extended for 120 days to tackle the new mission, elements of the task force moved south and took over 17,000 square kilometers in southern Iraq to dismantle a radical militia that had taken control of a number of cities and was trying to discredit its nation's new-found freedom. In 60 days of combat operations, Task Force 1st Armored Division defeated the militias and restored stability to the nation's southern region. Those mission successes and achievements did not come without cost. During the opening phases of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 133 Iron Soldiers lost their lives while serving in Iraq and 1,111 were wounded in combat.
In the DoD's 2005 BRAC report, DoD recommended relocating 1st Armored Division from Germany to Fort Bliss, Texas. Relocating 1st Armored Division units and echelons above division (EAD) units to Fort Bliss would transform it from an institutional training installation into a major mounted maneuver training installation and would avoid overcrowding and overuse at other installations. The departure from Germany would subsequently be combined with the reorganization of the Division under the US Army's new modular force structure.
As part of the transformation, various division level assets were made organic to the newly reorganized and redesignated brigade combat teams. The Division Support Command, Division Artillery, Division Engineer Brigade, 1-4th Air Defense Artillery, 501st Militry Intelligence Battalion, 501st Military Police Company, and 141st Signal Battalion were all inactivated. The 1-1st Cavalry was inactivated and reactivated as part of the 2nd Brigade Combat Team. The Aviation Brigade was reorganized and redesignated as Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division, while a fourth brigade, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, was activated. By 2010, all the major units of the 1st Armored Division had relocated to Fort Bliss, Texas.
The 1st Armored Division also became home to the US Army Evaluation Task Force (AETF), also known as 5th Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division. Initially the unit was used to test various elements of the Future Combat Systems program. The 5th Brigade Combat Team became the testbed for improvements under the Army Brigade Combat Team Modernization program after the cancellation of the FCS program in 2009.
On 24 May 2011, a ceremony was held at Fort Bliss, Texas to mark the uncasing of the 1st Armored Division's colors there. This ceremony represented the formal movement of the Headquarters, 1st Armored Division, the last unit of the 1st Armored Division to return to the United States from Germany. It also represented the departure of the last US Army division from Germany as part of the reorganization of US Army forces in Europe.
George was born on June 21, 1926 and passed away on Saturday, October 26, 2019.
George was a resident of Ironsides, Maryland at the time of passing.
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