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Major Event/ Sports /Nobel Prizes/Pulitzer Prizes/Academy/ Popular Movies/ Popular Books /Popular Television Shows/ Popular Music/ Major Events of 2009
- Obama Inaugurated-
- GM Bailout
- Troop Surge
- MLB: 2009 World Series
New York Yankees win 4-2 against the Philadelphia Phillies
- Oct 28& x2026; Philadelphia 6 at New York 1
- Oct 29& x2026; Philadelphia 1 at New York 3
- Oct 31& x2026; New York 8 at Philadelphia 5
- Nov 1& x2026;New York 7 at Philadelphia 4
- Nov 2& x2026; New York 6 at Philadelphia 8
-Nov 4& x2026; Philadelphia 3 at New York 7
- NFL: Super Bowl XLIII
Pittsburgh Steelers win 27-23 against the Arizona Cardinals
-Super Bowl Box Score:
Pittsburgh& x2026; 3 14 3 7= 27
Arizona& x2026;& x2026;0 7 0 16= 23
Men's Majors winners
- The Masters: Angel Cabrera& x2026; 68-68-69-71=276
- US Open: Lucas Glover& x2026; 67-65-70-76=278
- British Open: Stewart Cink& x2026; 4-3-4-3=14 in the playoffs
- PGA Championship: Yang Yong-eun& x2026;73& 150;70& 150;67& 150;70=280
Women's Majors winners
- Kraft Nabisco Championship: Brittany Lincicome& x2026; 66-74-70-69= 279
- US Women's Open: Eun-Hee Ji& x2026;284
- LPGA Championship: Anna Nordqvist& x2026;273
- Weetabix Women's British Open: Catriona Matthew& x2026;285
1 Black Eyed Peas Boom Boom Pow
2 Lady Gaga Poker Face
3 Lady Gaga feat. Colby O'Donis Just Dance
4 Black Eyed Peas I Gotta Feeling
5 Taylor Swift Love Story
6 Flo Rida Right Round
7 Jason Mraz I'm Yours
8 Beyonce Single Ladies (Put A Ring On It)
9 Kanye West Heartless
10 All-American Rejects Gives You Hell
- 1. Avatar Fox $2,749,064,328
2. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Warner Bros. $934,416,487
3. Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs Fox / Blue Sky $886,686,817
4. Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen Paramount / DreamWorks $836,303,693
5. 2012 Columbia $769,679,473
6. Up Disney / Pixar $731,342,744
7. The Twilight Saga: New Moon Summit $709,711,008
8. Sherlock Holmes Warner Bros. $524,028,679
9. Angels & Demons Columbia / Imagine $485,930,816
10. The Hangover Warner Bros. / Legendary $467,483,912
50th Grammy Awards
- Record of the Year: “Please Read the Letter”- Robert Plant and Allison Kraus
- Song of the Year: “Viva la Vida”- Coldplay
- Album of the Year: River: Raising Sand- Robert Plant and Allison Kraus
- Best New Artist: Adele
- Best Picture: Slumdog Millionaire
- Best Director: Danny Boyle for Slumdog Millionaire
- Best actor in a leading role: Sean Penn for Milk
- Best actress in a leading role: Kate Winslet for The Reader
- Best actor in a supporting role: Heath Ledger for Dark Knight
- Best actress in a supporting role: Penelope Cruz for Vicky Cristina Barcelona
• Peace: Barack H. Obama "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”
• Physiology or Medicine: Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak "for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
• Economic Sciences: Elinor Ostrom "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"
• Chemistry: Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"
• Literature: Herta Müller "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"
- • Public Service: The Washington Post
• Breaking News Reporting: Staff of The Washington Post
• Investigative Reporting: Walt Bogdanich and Jake Hooker, The New York Times; Staff of Chicago Tribune
• Explanatory Reporting: Amy Harmon, New York Times
• Local Reporting: David Umhoefer, Milwaukee Journal
• National Reporting: Jo Becker and Barton Gellman, The Washington Post
• International Reporting: Steve Fainaru, The Washington Post
• Feature Writing: Gene Weingarten, The Washington Post
• Commentary: Steven Pearlstein, The Washington Post
• Criticism: Mark Feeny, The Boston Globe
• Editorial Writing: no award
• Editorial Cartooning: Micahel Ramierz, Investor’s Business Daily
• Breaking News Photography: Adrees Ltif, Reuters
• Feature Photography: Preston Gannaway, Concord (NH) Monitor
• Fiction: The Brief Wondorus Life of Oscar Wao, Junot Diaz
• Drama: “August: Osage County”, Tracy Letts
• History: "What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848" by Daniel Walker Howe (Oxford University Press)
• Biography or Autobiography: "Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father" by John Matteson (W. W. Norton)
• Poetry: Time and Materials by Robert Hass (Ecco/HarperCollins) and Failure by Philip Schultz (Harcourt)
• General Nonfiction: The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 by Saul Friedländer (HarperCollins)
Music: "The Little Match Girl Passion" by David Lang
Nobel Prize History
By Beth Rowen
Prizes by Year
Prizes by Category
Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners
Winning a Nobel Prize is a life-changing honor. Whether the laureate is an internationally known figure (such as Mother Teresa or Barack Obama, winners of the 1979 and 2009 Peace Prize, respectively) or a scientist plucked from obscurity (like Richard R. Ernst, who won the 1991 prize in chemistry for refinements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), the award brings with it worldwide recognition that highlights one's life work and provides the funds to continue and further the mission. For academics and institutions, a Nobel Prize is used to attract the best and the brightest minds, whether students or scholars.
Physiology or Medicine
Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young (United States) "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm."
2016 Nobel Prizes
Juan Manuel Santos (Colombia) "for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end." (See also: Past winners in Nobel Peace Prizes.)
Physiology or Medicine
Yoshinori Ohsumi (Japan) and "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy." (See also: Past winners in Physiology or Medicine Nobel Prizes.)
Jointly to David J. Thouless (U.K.) and F. Duncan M. Haldane (U.K.) J. Michael Kosterlitz (U.K.) "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter." (See also: Past winners in Nobel Prizes in Physics.)
Jointly to Jean-Pierre Sauvage (France), Sir J. Fraser Stoddart (U.K.), and Bernard L. Feringa (Netherlands) "for the design and synthesis of molecular machines." (See also: Past winners in Chemistry Nobel Prizes.)
Bob Dylan (U.S.) "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition." (See also: Past winners for Literature Nobel Prizes.)
Oliver Hart (U.K./U.S.) and Bengt Holmstrm (Finland/U.S.) "for their contributions to contract theory." (See also: Past winners in Economics Nobel Prizes.)
Industrialist With a Conscience
Alfred B. Nobel (1833?1896), the Swedish chemist and engineer who invented dynamite, left $9 million in his will to establish the Nobel Prizes, which are awarded annually, without regard to nationality, in six areas (peace, literature, physics,chemistry, physiology or medicine, and economic science) "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind."
At first glance, it seems odd that the inventor of a powerful explosive would endow a group of awards that includes a peace prize. But Nobel was an industrialist with a conscience. He is credited with creating a controllable combustible that made blasting rock and the construction of canals and tunnels a relatively safe process. Nobel also contributed to the inventions of synthetic rubber, artificial silk, and synthetic leather. He held more than 350 patents. His interests were not limited to science. In fact, he was a lover of English literature and poetry and wrote several novels and poems. At his death, he left a library of more than 1,500 books, from fiction to philosophy.
Family Members Contest Last Wishes
Family members were shocked when they learned that Nobel had dictated that his fortune be used to establish the Nobel Prizes. They contested his will, but his final wishes were executed and the first awards were distributed in 1901, on the fifth anniversary of his death. The prize in economics, however, was established in 1968 by Riksbank, the Swedish bank, in honor of its 300th anniversary. Stockholm's Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences administers the award in physics and chemistry, the Royal Caroline Medical Institute awards the prize in physiology or medicine, and the Swedish Academy oversees the prize in literature. The Norwegian Storting, or parliament, awards the peace prize.
The Peace Prize
The first female Nobel Peace prize winner, Baroness Bertha von Suttner, in 1905, was perhaps the inspiration for the award itself. Von Suttner, who organized the Austrian Peace Society and wrote the landmark anti-war novel Lay Down Your Arms, was a close friend of Alfred Nobel. When he established the peace prize, he wrote that it should go "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses"?precisely the work the Baroness had been engaged in.
In 2014, Malala Yousafzai, the 17-year-old Pakistani activist who was shot by the Taliban in 2012 for promoting the education of women, shared the Nobel Peace Prize. She is the youngest recipient of a Nobel Prize.
Each winner of a Nobel Prize, which can go to individuals and institutions, takes home a medal, a diploma, and cash, which varies each year and depends on the income earned on the Nobel Foundation fund. In 2008, winners recipients receive 10 million Swedish kroners, or about $1.72 million.
The awards process begins an entire year before the awards are announced, with the administers of the awards inviting nominations from the fall through January 31 of the next year. On February 1, the six committees begin considering nominees and make recommendations to the prize-awarding subcommittees in September and early October. The winners must be announced by November 15. Nobel week begins in early October. The Nobel Prizes are awarded on Dec. 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.
Posthumous nominations for the prizes are not allowed. This has sparked controversy, with critics saying that people who deserved a Nobel Prize did not receive one because they died before being nominated. In two cases the Prize has been awarded posthumously to people who were nominated when they were still alive. This was the case with UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjld (1961, Peace Prize) and Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1931, Literature)?both of whom were awarded the prize in the years they died. Since 1974, awards have not been allowed for a deceased person. William Vickrey (1996, Economics) died before he could receive the prize, but after it was announced.
Turning Down the Prize
Prizes are not automatically awarded each year. They can be withheld if there are no worthy candidates or when a world situation makes awarding the prizes impractical. Because of World War II, no awards were given from 1940?1942. Prizes can also be declined. Even if a prize is declined, the winner is entered in the books, but the cash gift reverts back to the fund. In 1937, Hitler issued a decree that forbade Germans from accepting Nobel Prizes. He considered pacifist journalist Carl von Ossietzky's 1935 peace prize a slap in the face. In 1973 Le Duc Tho refused the Nobel Peace Prize as he did not believe peace had been reached in Vietnam.
3 win Nobel in physics for digital devices
(CNN) -- Three scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics on Tuesday for two breakthroughs that led to two major underpinnings of the digital age -- fiber optics and digital photography, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
Willard Boyle, left, and George Smith handle a charge-coupled device in 1974.
Charles K. Kao, a British and U.S. citizen, won for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication."
Willard S. Boyle, a Canadian and U.S. citizen, and George E. Smith, a U.S. citizen, "invented the first successful imaging technology using a digital sensor, a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device)."
Kao in 1966 "made a discovery that led to a breakthrough in fiber optics. He carefully calculated how to transmit light over long distances via optical glass fibers," the academy said in a press release.
Today, "optical fibers make up the circulatory system that nourishes our communication society" and "facilitate broadband communication such as the Internet," the academy said.
Boyle and Smith's Charge-Coupled Device -- invented in 1969 -- "is the digital camera's electronic eye" and paved the way for digital photography.
"It revolutionized photography, as light could now be captured electronically instead of on film. The digital form facilitates the processing and distribution of these images. CCD technology is also used in many medical applications, e.g. imaging the inside of the human body, both for diagnostics and for microsurgery."
The Nobel Prizes are being awarded this week and next. The medicine award was handed out on Monday.
The prizes for chemistry and literature will be awarded Wednesday and Thursday. The Nobel Peace Prize winner will be named on Friday, and the award in economics will be issued on Monday.
Actress Felicity Huffman surrounded by reporters as she leaves a Boston courthouse on April 3, 2019 following the college admissions scandal. She was sentenced to two weeks in federal prison but ultimately only served 11 days.
Jessica Rinaldi/The Boston Globe via Getty Image
College admissions cheating scandal: Some 50 people were charged in March by the U.S. Justice Department in connection with Operation Varsity Blues, a massive investigation into a large-scale criminal conspiracy to influence college admissions at elite universities. Wealthy parents, including actors Felicity Huffman and Lori Loughlin, were charged with paying tens to hundreds of thousands of dollars to admissions consultant William “Rick” Singer, the man at the center of the scheme, to help get their kids into college𠅋y bribing coaches to falsely recruit them as athletes, faking standardized test scores and various other methods.
Flames and smoke billow from the roof at Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris, the most visited historic monument in Europe, on April 15, 2019.
Geoffroy van der Hasselt/AFP/Getty Images
Fire at Notre-Dame: On April 15, much of the world watched in horror as fire raged at Notre-Dame de Paris in France, destroying the spire and most of the roof of the beloved 850-year-old cathedral. A subsequent investigation found no evidence that the fire was a deliberate act and suggested that it may have been the result of ongoing renovation work at the cathedral. While President Emmanuel Macron initially called for Notre-Dame to be rebuilt within five years, experts say its reconstruction could take decades.
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, and his wife Meghan, Duchess of Sussex holding their baby son, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor at Windsor Castle on July 6, 2019.
Chris Allerton/AFP/Sussex Royal/Getty Images
Prince Harry and Meghan Markle had a baby: On May 6, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex welcomed their first child, Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor, who is currently seventh in line to the British throne.
USA players lifts their trophy after winning the 2019 FIFA Women&aposs World Cup France Final match between the U.S. and the Netherlands on July 7, 2019.
Jose Breton/NurPhoto/Getty Images
U.S. women’s soccer triumph: In July, the U.S. women’s national soccer team won its second consecutive championship𠅊nd fourth overall—in the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup, held in France. Spurred by goals from team captain Megan Rapinoe and Rose Lavelle, the team capped an impressive undefeated tournament performance with a 2-0 victory over the Netherlands. Many saw the U.S. team’s dominant win as strengthening a gender discrimination lawsuit they had filed against U.S. Soccer, the nation’s governing body for the sport, demanding pay equal to that of their male counterparts.
Toni Morrison died on August 5, 2019. She was 88 years old.
Toni Morrison died: The author of 11 novels that explored black identity in America and put the lives of black women in the spotlight, Morrison died in August at the age of 88. Born Chloe Wofford in 1931, she published her first novel, The Bluest Eye, in 1970, while working full-time as a book editor and raising two young sons on her own. A longtime professor at Princeton University, Morrison won the Pulitzer Prize for her novel Beloved (1987) and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993 for her body of work she was the first black woman to win that prestigious honor. Among the other notable people who died in 2019 were Karl Lagerfeld, Gloria Vanderbilt and Ross Perot.
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern hugs a mosque-goer at the Kilbirnie Mosque on March 17, 2019 in Wellington, New Zealand following the shooting attacks on two mosques in Christchurch on March 15, 2019. The attack is the worst mass shooting in New Zealand&aposs history.
Hagen Hopkins/Getty Images
Gun violence at home and abroad: A gunman opened fire at a mosque and Islamic center in Christchurch, New Zealand, in March, killing 51 people and wounding 49. Six days after the attack, Prime Minister Jacinda Arden announced a nationwide ban on military-style semi-automatic weapons and assault rifles. In the United States, another horrific chapter in the continuing struggle with gun violence unfolded in August, when two mass shootings—in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio—within less than 13 hours claimed the lives of at least 29 people and wounded more than 50. By mid-November, according to data from the nonprofit Gun Violence Archive (GVA), 2019 had seen 369 mass shootings in the United States, including 28 mass murders.
Obama: Nobel Peace Prize is 'call to action'
(CNN) -- President Obama said Friday that he was "surprised and deeply humbled" by the decision of the Norwegian Nobel Committee to award him the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize.
President Obama, speaking Friday, said the award was "an affirmation of American leadership."
The committee said it honored Obama for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."
Obama said he viewed the decision less as a recognition of his own accomplishments and more as "a call to action."
The decision appeared to catch most observers by surprise. Nominations for the prize had to be postmarked by February 1, only 12 days after Obama took office. The committee sent out its solicitation for nominations last September, two months before Obama was elected president.
Obama had not been mentioned as among front-runners for the prize, and the roomful of reporters gasped when Thorbjorn Jagland, chairman of the Nobel committee, announced that the president was the winner.
The Nobel committee recognized Obama's efforts at dialogue to solve complex global problems, including working toward a world free of nuclear weapons. Watch CNN's Christiane Amanpour's analysis »
"Only very rarely has a person to the same extent as Obama captured the world's attention and given its people hope for a better future," the committee said.
Jagland said the decision was "unanimous" and came with ease. Watch the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize announcement »
He rejected the notion that Obama had been recognized prematurely for his efforts and said the committee wanted to promote the president just it had Mikhail Gorbachev in 1990 for his efforts to open up the Soviet Union. Ed Rollins: Obama now must earn it
"His diplomacy is founded in the concept that those who are to lead the world must do so on the basis of values and attitudes that are shared by the majority of the world's population," the committee said of Obama. Listen to Jagland explain why Obama was this year's choice »
Choosing a winner
Obama said he did not feel he deserved "to be in the company" of past Peace Prize winners, but would accept the prize while pushing for a broad range of international objectives, including nuclear nonproliferation, a reversal of the global economic downturn and a resolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
He also acknowledged the ongoing U.S. conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, noting that he is the "commander in chief of a country that is responsible for ending a war and working in another theater to confront a ruthless adversary that directly threatens the American people" and U.S. allies.
"This award is not simply about my administration," he said. It "must be shared" with everyone who strives for "justice and dignity." Watch Obama react to receiving the prize »
It was just before 6 a.m. that the president learned he had won the award, said Robert Gibbs, the White House press secretary. The announcement by the committee caught the White House off guard. One senior administration official said that "we were quite surprised."
Some analysts have speculated that the prize could give Obama additional clout as he forms a new strategy for the war in Afghanistan and attempts to engage Iran and North Korea. Another senior administration official told CNN he hopes the White House can "use it for the positive."
The domestic political consequences are unclear. Obama's supporters hope the prestige associated with the prize will strengthen the president's hand in the health care reform debate. A top Republican from George W. Bush's administration, however, argued that "this will backfire on them for a while" and asserted it was "a gift to the right." Zakaria: Nobel honors Obama's 'bold gambit'
Obama, the first African-American to win the White House, is the fourth U.S. president to win the prestigious prize and the third sitting president to do so.
Former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari, last year's laureate, said it was clear the Nobel committee wanted to encourage Obama on the issues he has been discussing on the world stage.
"I see this as an important encouragement," Ahtisaari said.
The committee wanted to be "far more daring" than in recent times and make an impact on global politics, said Kristian Berg Harpviken, director of the International Peace Research Institute. Praise, skepticism greet Nobel announcement
While most Nobel prizes are awarded by committees based in Sweden, the Peace Prize is determined by a five-member panel appointed by the Norwegian parliament.
Wangari Muta Maathai, the Kenyan environmentalist who won the 2004 Peace Prize, said the win for Obama, whose father was Kenyan, will help Africa move forward.
"I think it is extraordinary," she said. "It will be even greater inspiration for the world. He has shown how we can probably come together, work together in a cooperative way."
Mohamed ElBaradei, who won the 2005 Peace Prize for his efforts to prevent nuclear energy being used for military means, said Obama deserved to win for his efforts to bring Iran to the table for direct nuclear talks with the United States.
"I could not think of anybody who is more deserving," said ElBaradei, the chief of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Listen to ElBaradei react to the announcement »
The award comes at a crucial time for Obama, who has multiple administration officials dispatched on global peace missions.
Obama's envoy to the Middle East, George Mitchell, has returned to the region to advocate for peace negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians. Mitchell met Thursday with Israeli President Shimon Peres. He plans to meet Friday with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu before talking with Palestinian leaders in the West Bank. A view from Egypt: Obama honor premature
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was starting a six-day trip to Russia and Europe on Friday. On the trip, the secretary will discuss the next steps on Iran and North Korea, and international efforts to have the two countries end their nuclear programs.
The centerpiece of the trip will be her visit to Moscow, where she will work toward an agreement to take the place of the Start II arms control pact, which expires December 5. She also will address the new bilateral presidential commission that is working on a broad range of issues, from arms control to health.
"This is an encouragement to this president to continue to follow through on those commitments when, inevitably, he hits the bump in the road," said John King, CNN chief national correspondent .
"The committee is essentially saying, 'Stay at it, Mr. President. You have our prestige behind you now.' " Laureates to Nobel winners: Prepare for 'lightning bolt'
King noted that the Nobel Committee pushes "multilateralism around the world [and] very much disliked the prior U.S. president [George W. Bush]. . This is in part a reflection of that as well."
Bush was heavily criticized during his presidency for what some observers said was an excessive reliance on unilateral action and U.S. military power.
In a statement announcing its decision, the committee said that multilateral diplomacy "has regained a central position, with emphasis on the role that the United Nations and other international institutions can play. Dialogue and negotiations are preferred as instruments for resolving even the most difficult international conflicts." Obama unique among presidential Nobel winners
The decision of the international committee to award Obama the prize highlights the sharp contrast in views toward the president at home and abroad. Watch how online community reacted »
Obama remains extraordinarily popular overseas, particularly in Western Europe. A recent Pew Research Center survey found that more than three-quarters of respondents in Britain, Germany, France and Spain approve of Obama's foreign policy.
In the United States, however, Obama's overall approval ratings have declined. An October 1-5 Associated Press poll showed that 56 percent of Americans approved of Obama's job performance. A September 17-20 NBC/Wall Street Journal poll found that only half of all Americans backed his handling of foreign policy.
The split perception was illustrated earlier this year by a U.S. university's decision to deny Obama an honorary degree when he delivered a commencement address at the school. While the Nobel Committee on Friday praised Obama for his "extraordinary effort," a spokesman for Arizona State University said last spring that Obama's "body of work is yet to come. That's why we're not recognizing him with a degree at the beginning of his presidency." Watch John McCain's reaction to Obama being awarded prize »
The last sitting U.S. president to win the peace prize was Woodrow Wilson in 1919. The other was Theodore Roosevelt in 1906. Jimmy Carter had been out of office for more than two decades when he won in 2002.
This year's Peace Prize nominees included 172 people -- among them three Chinese dissidents, an Afghan activist and a controversial Colombian lawmaker -- and 33 organizations, the highest number of nominations ever.
The Nobel recipient receives a prize of about $1.4 million. Obama plans to donate the money to charity, a White House spokesman said.
Obama's win unique among presidents
(CNN) -- In winning the Nobel Peace Prize, President Obama joins an elite group of U.S. presidents. He is the fourth to win the prize, the third to win it while in office and the first to receive it during his first year in office.
President Obama delivers remarks at the White House on Friday after winning the Nobel Peace Prize.
Unlike his predecessors, Obama was selected not for substantive accomplishments, but for his "vision" and inspiring "hope" at the beginning of his presidency.
"For 108 years, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has sought to stimulate precisely that international policy and those attitudes for which Obama is now the world's leading spokesman," the committee said, explaining its decision.
In comments at the White House on Friday, Obama said he did not view the award "as a recognition of my own accomplishments. But rather as an affirmation of American leadership. . I will accept this award as a call to action." Watch Obama react to receiving the prize »
Obama will donate the roughly $1.4 million award to charity, a White House spokesman said Friday.
President Theodore Roosevelt won the prize in 1906, as did President Woodrow Wilson in 1919. Former President Carter had been out of office for more than 20 years when he won in 2002.
Former Vice President Al Gore shared the prize in 2007.
The Nobel committee's Web site describes Roosevelt as president and "collaborator of various peace treaties." The site points out that he "took the initiative in opening the international Court of Arbitration at The Hague." The United States and Mexico presented a difference before the court, and, "When this example was followed by other powers, the arbitration machinery . was finally called into operation."
Roosevelt also "played a prominent part in extending the use of arbitration to international problems in the Western Hemisphere" and "offered his good offices as mediator between Russia and Japan," which helped lead to a 1905 peace treaty ending the Russo-Japanese War, the Web site said.
The site noted that Wilson was not only president but founder of the League of Nations.
Wilson led the nation through World War I, but "people everywhere saw in his peace aims the vision of a world in which freedom, justice and peace could flourish."
At the 1919 Peace Conference in Versailles, France, he "failed to carry his total conception of an ideal peace, but he did secure the adoption of the Covenant of the League of Nations," the site noted, adding that his "major failure" was at home "when the Senate declined to approve American acceptance of the League of Nations."
The Nobel site said Carter was selected "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development."
"During his presidency (1977-1981), Carter's mediation was a vital contribution to the Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt, in itself a great enough achievement to qualify for the Nobel Peace Prize," the committee said in 2002, adding that after his presidency Carter took on "extensive and persevering conflict resolution on several continents."
And Gore was chosen, along with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."
Gore "is probably the single individual who has done most to create greater worldwide understanding of the measures that need to be adopted," the committee said in its 2007 announcement.
In its announcement Friday, the committee praised Obama for bringing about a shift in tone. Watch as the Nobel committee chairman explains Obama's selection »
"The committee has attached special importance to Obama's vision of and work for a world without nuclear weapons," the statement said.
"Obama has as president created a new climate in international politics. Multilateral diplomacy has regained a central position, with emphasis on the role that the United Nations and other international institutions can play. Dialogue and negotiations are preferred as instruments for resolving even the most difficult international conflicts."
The committee added, "Only very rarely has a person to the same extent as Obama captured the world's attention and given its people hope for a better future."
9 Facts You May Not Know About Malala Yousafzai
1. Using the pseudonym Gul Makai, Malala Yousafzai was only 11 when she started blogging about what life was like under the Taliban for the BBC.
2. On October 9, 2012, Malala boarded a bus to advocate for Pakistani girls&apos education when the Taliban shot her in the head and neck. She was 15. She was not expected to survive her injuries.
3. It was almost two years to the day when Malala was shot that she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. She was 17 and the youngest recipient to receive it. She shared the distinguished award with Kailash Satyarthi, another children&aposs rights activist.
4. Malala had plans to be a doctor but has now taken an interest in politics.
5. Because of the violent assassination attempt on Malala, Pakistan announced the creation of the very first Right to Education Bill.
6. To date, Malala has received over 40 awards and honors for her bravery and activism, includingਊn honorary doctorate from the University of King&aposs College in 2014 andਊ Grammy Award for Best Children&aposs Album (for the audiobook I Am Malala: How One Girl Stood Up for Education and Changed the World) in 2015.
7. When Malala turned 18, she opened an all-girls school for Syrian refugees, calling on leaders from around the world to provide "books not bullets."
In its first gathering on the continent of Africa, the American Academy of Achievement held its 2009 International Achievement Summit in the City of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the rugged natural paradise of the Singita Sabi Sand Game Reserve. From July 3 to July 8, 2009, a group of the world&rsquos most outstanding graduate students joined an assembly of Academy scholars, achievers and honorees to exchange ideas, learn from each other and from the people of South Africa, and understand firsthand the teachings of South Africa&rsquos stirring history.
Dr. Paul Farmer, founder of the medical charity Partners in Health, speaks on the opening night of the Summit.
The Summit Host was the Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, Desmond Tutu. A recipient of the Nobel Prize for Peace, Archbishop Tutu was joined by two of Africa&rsquos Nobel Laureates for Literature, Nadine Gordimer and Wole Soyinka, as well a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics, Dr. Joseph Stiglitz.
Another of the world&rsquos favorite authors, Alexander McCall Smith, joined the Academy in South Africa. The arts were further represented by stage and screen actor Jeremy Irons, a recipient of the Oscar, Emmy and Tony Awards. Grammy-winning musical artists in attendance included concert violinist Joshua Bell, Christian music pioneer Amy Grant and country music legend Vince Gill.
Summit Chairman Catherine B. Reynolds (center) with Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation Fellows from NYU. Clockwise from top: Ben Cokelet, Matt Sisul, Keren Raz, Katherine Otto, Lauren Servin and Magogodi Makhene.
In addition to Archbishop Tutu, the Summit was attended by other heroes of South Africa&rsquos victorious struggle against the apartheid regime of racial discrimination: labor leader Cyril Ramaphosa the Honorable Albie Sachs, Justice of South Africa&rsquos Constitutional Court the Honorable Navanethem Pillay, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights as well as former political prisoner and current South African cabinet minister Barbara Hogan. Prominent public figures from the United States included the Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union, Anthony Romero, and the Mayor of Los Angeles, Antonio Villaraigosa.
Legendary explorers of Africa among the attendees included the paleoanthropologist and conservationist Richard Leakey, documentary filmmakers Dereck and Beverly Joubert, and legendary primate researcher Dame Jane Goodall. Outstanding men of medicine attending the Summit included renowned neurosurgeon Dr. Benjamin Carson the Chief of Surgery of the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Steven Rosenberg and the founder of the international medical charity Partners in Health, Dr. Paul Farmer.
Distinguished journalists in attendance included ABC News veteran Sam Donaldson and MSNBC Hardball host Chris Matthews. Representatives of international business included the founder of South Africa&rsquos two largest hotel chains, Sol Kerzner.
Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation Fellow Kate Otto enjoys her visit with the children of Baphumelele orphanage.
The Host Chairman of the 2009 International Achievement Summit was Catherine B. Reynolds, Chairman and CEO of The Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation. This year&rsquos Summit was made possible by a generous grant from The Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation.
Early arrivals on Friday, July 3, enjoyed a breathtaking tour of Cape Town before convening at the One&Only hotel for the first seminar of the Summit. After a welcome from the Summit&rsquos Host Chairman, Catherine B. Reynolds, Academy members and student delegates heard from one of South Africa&rsquos greatest success stories, the founder and chairman of One&Only Resorts, Sol Kerzner.
Awards Council member Jeremy Irons helps feed a toddler on the visit to Baphumelele Children&rsquos Home.
Two distinguished physicians from the United States took the stage following Mr. Kerzner&rsquos remarks. The Chief of Surgery of the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Steven Rosenberg, introduced the founder of Partners in Health (PIH), Dr. Paul Farmer. Dr. Farmer gave a thorough and inspiring presentation of the work of PIH in creating sustainable medical facilities in the poorest communities on earth.
The Saturday morning program opened with an address by one of the heroes of South Africa&rsquos struggle against apartheid. Once a political prisoner himself, the Honorable Albie Sachs is now a Justice of South Africa&rsquos Constitutional Court. A principal architect of South Africa&rsquos democratic constitution, Justice Sachs gave a moving account of his lifelong struggle for the freedom of his country.
Justice Sachs was followed by one of the great literary voices of South Africa, the Nobel Prize-winning novelist Nadine Gordimer. The last speaker of the morning was the Honorable Navanethem Pillay. As a young attorney, she had to make her way as a woman of East Indian ancestry in a racially segregated society. After a distinguished career as a civil rights advocate and jurist in South Africa, she now serves as the UN&rsquos High Commissioner for Human Rights.
Nigerian playwright Wole Soyinka, Africa&rsquos first Nobel Laureate for Literature, addresses the Academy delegates.
Following the morning session, Summit participants traveled to the Western Cape. Here, the group confronted the sobering reality of township life &mdash cramped makeshift dwellings packed from horizon to horizon, a tragic legacy of the long years of neglect and oppression. In the midst of this struggling community, Academy members and student delegates found an oasis of hope &mdash the Baphumelele Children&rsquos Home, an orphanage that offers a clean, safe refuge for the abandoned children of the district, many of them infected from birth with HIV. Inside the gates of the Children&rsquos Home, the children, most of them barely toddlers, sang a heartfelt welcome to their guests.
Dr. Joseph E. Stiglitz, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics, and his wife Anya, between sessions at La Residence in the Franschhoek Valley during the 2009 International Achievement Summit in South Africa.
The Academy heard first from Rosie Mashale, the resolute founder of the Baphumelele School and Children&rsquos Home. Cape historian Garth Angus spoke on the history of the orphanage and surrounding community, followed by Dr. Mitch Besser, Medical Director of the service organization Mothers2Mothers. The most emotional moment of the session came when Viwe Mgudlwa described her own experience as a young mother, ostracized by her family and neighbors when she was diagnosed with HIV. Today, she has a healthy child, thanks to the work of Mothers2Mothers. Now an active member of the organization, she described the group&rsquos work, teaching mothers in disadvantaged communities to create their own aid networks.
Golden Plate Awards Council member Amy Grant sings &ldquoEl Shaddai&rdquo at the St. George&rsquos Cathedral in Cape Town.
While at Baphumelele, the Academy members and student delegates heard from South African cabinet minister Barbara Hogan. The first South African woman to be convicted of treason, for her principled resistance to the apartheid regime, she has since served as Minister of Health, effecting a complete turnaround in the country&rsquos AIDS policy to prevent the further transmission of the virus from mother to child. Before their departure, Academy members presented the children with books, toys, stuffed animals and art supplies.
Golden Plate Awards Council member and virtuoso violinist Joshua Bell performs the &ldquoMeditation&rdquo by Massenet.
Only halfway through their first full day in South Africa, the Academy&rsquos guests experienced yet another side of this country&rsquos remarkable diversity, traveling to the beautiful countryside for a lunch seminar. Here they heard an inspiring speaker from the United States, Dr. Benjamin Carson, who overcame youthful poverty to become the world&rsquos most distinguished pediatric neurosurgeon. He was followed by the first African to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature, the Nigerian poet and playwright Wole Soyinka.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu addresses the Academy of Achievement at the St. George&rsquos Cathedral in Cape Town.
Returning to Cape Town, the Summit participants gathered in historic St. George&rsquos Cathedral, spiritual home of the struggle for justice and democracy in South Africa. Entering the awe-inspiring interior of the cathedral by candlelight, the group was greeted by the best of South Africa&rsquos celebrated children&rsquos choirs: the internationally renowned Tygerberg children&rsquos choir, the Kenmere Primary School Choir, the Kensington Chorale, the South African Youth Choir and the elite Voices of Angels group. The combined choruses &mdash nearly 300 voices in all &mdash gave a spine-tingling demonstration of South Africa&rsquos distinctive choral tradition, singing songs of praise from South Africa and the United States.
The Academy of Achievement&rsquos Class of 2009 after receiving their Gold Medals from Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
More musical inspiration followed with the best-selling Christian music artist, Amy Grant, singing &ldquoEl Shaddai,&rdquo accompanied by her husband, Vince Gill. Classical violinist Joshua Bell performed as a soloist, playing the transcendent &ldquoMeditation&rdquo from Massenet&rsquos Thaïs, and accompanying South Africa&rsquos most promising young opera singer, Golda Schultz, in Schubert&rsquos &ldquoAve Maria.&rdquo
Archbishop Desmond Tutu presents Cyril Ramaphosa, Executive Chairman of Shanduka Group, with the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement at the 2009 International Achievement Summit in Cape Town, South Africa. On February 15, 2018, Cyril Ramaphosa was elected President of South Africa by parliament.
Following these exhilarating performances, the Academy heard a stirring address from the former dean of St. George&rsquos Cathedral, the Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, Desmond Tutu. From the same pulpit where he courageously led the struggle for justice in South Africa, Tutu asked the student delegates to tap the power of their own imaginations. &ldquoDream! Dream! Dream!&rdquo he exhorted them, urging them to make the most of their talents to create a better world. Concluding a thrilling evening, Archbishop Tutu presented the Gold Medal of the Academy of Achievement to each member of the Class of 2009.
Nobel Prize-winning author Nadine Gordimer receives the Golden Plate Award from Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
That evening, the group returned to the One&Only for the black-tie Banquet of the Golden Plate. Award-winning actor Jeremy Irons read individual citations lauding the Academy&rsquos new honorees, who were presented with the Golden Plate by Desmond Tutu. The long day closed with a performance by South Africa&rsquos premier popular singer, &ldquothe Princess of Africa,&rdquo Yvonne Chaka Chaka, and her band. The pulsating rhythms of the band, along with Yvonne Chaka Chaka&rsquos improvised musical tributes to the Academy members, had student delegates and Academy members dancing for the rest of the evening.
Desmond Tutu presents the Academy&rsquos Golden Plate Award to Albie Sachs of South Africa&rsquos Constitutional Court.
Sunday morning, the Summit participants traveled to the Singita Sabi Sand Game Reserve, deep in the interior. Here they stayed in beautiful rustic lodges, with flocks of wild monkeys playing in the trees surrounding the open &ldquoboma&rdquo dining areas. After traditional high tea in this exotic setting, guests took off in a fleet of Range Rovers for a game drive, bouncing across open country to see the brilliant fauna of Africa &mdash giraffes, lions, rhinos, leopards and elephants &mdash in their native habitat.
Returning to the Boulders Lodge for a dinner discussion and seminar, the assembly watched an astonishing video presentation by Dereck and Beverly Joubert, a husband-wife team of filmmakers who have spent their lives photographing the world&rsquos most dangerous animals at close range in the wild. The Jouberts were followed by a hero of our times, the conservationist, paleoanthropologist and political activist Richard Leakey. When time for questions ran out, Leakey invited the students and guests to join him for an impromptu morning session.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu dances at the 2009 International Achievement Summit in Cape Town, South Africa, with hotel magnate Sol Kerzner during the lively performance of singer Yvonne Chaka Chaka, the &ldquoPrincess of Africa.&rdquo
Early Monday morning, Leakey and the Jouberts were joined by Sam Donaldson, Chris Matthews, Joshua Bell, author Alexander McCall Smith and the Academy&rsquos student delegates for a freewheeling discussion of issues ranging from the challenges of working with wild animals to the philosophical questions of reconciling scientific knowledge and religious faith. The informal conversation continued for over two hours, in the free-flowing cross-disciplinary exchange that is a hallmark of the Achievement Summit.
Delegates enjoy a safari game drive: Jia Cobb, Maura Sullivan, Aminta Ossom, Michael Koldobskiy and Brad Smith.
The day&rsquos formal program began with a friendly discussion of the opportunities for service young people can find in the challenges facing the modern city, with legendary journalist Sam Donaldson and Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa. The morning heated up with an intense discussion between Hardball host Chris Matthews and the Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union, Anthony Romero. As on his popular political discussion program, Matthews pressed his questions vigorously, probing every possible contradiction presented by the defense of civil liberties in a nation divided over so many issues.
This golden lioness, during a game drive at the Singita Game Reserve, went almost unnoticed, resting in the grass.
After lunch, one of the world&rsquos most popular authors, Alexander McCall Smith, charmed the audience, just as he has charmed readers around the world. No stranger to Africa, McCall Smith was born and raised in what is now Zimbabwe. He has set his bestselling tales of The Number 1 Ladies Detective Agency in neighboring Botswana. McCall Smith exercised his talents as a raconteur throughout the Summit, reading aloud first drafts of his latest stories, to gales of appreciative laughter.
Dereck and Beverly Joubert made a stunning presentation of their work in an evening session at Boulders Lodge.
That afternoon, the legendary primatologist Dame Jane Goodall gave an engrossing account of her lifelong study of chimpanzees in the wild. Like Richard Leakey, she spontaneously offered to continue the conversation with the students the following morning. After dinner, the Academy heard a performance from one of its gifted student delegates, violinist Maya Shankar. She was joined in a duet by none other than Joshua Bell, who then played an ingenious set of variations on &ldquoYankee Doodle.&rdquo The evening closed with a stirring performance by the Mkhuhlu Shangaan dance troupe, performing the traditional dances of the Shangaan people.
Paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey traveled from Kenya to address the 2009 International Achievement Summit.
Tuesday morning, Jeremy Irons conducted a spontaneous question-and-answer session with the students, before Jane Goodall returned to discuss her work more deeply with the student delegates. Later that morning, the group traveled by country roads from the game reserve to the nearby town of Justicia, a rural community whose self-sufficient inhabitants live by raising cattle. Riding over rugged country in open Range Rovers, the Academy members arrived at Justicia&rsquos Ntshuxekani Preschool, to be greeted by the school&rsquos children, lining the entrance in their gold and green uniforms, singing and waving palm fronds to greet their visitors.
Alexander McCall Smith, creator of The Number 1 Ladies Detective Agency, enlivened the Summit with his humor.
After a warm greeting from the school&rsquos Headmistress, Miss Vida Ngonyama, the students offered a charming musical performance. They were entertained in turn by the incomparable team of Amy Grant and Vince Gill. &ldquoThey&rsquove sung for us, now let&rsquos put a song together and sing for them,&rdquo Gill said, and led the entire crowd in an improvised song about the Justicia School. The Academy presented the children with a variety of musical equipment &mdash an electric keyboard, a piano bench, a guitar, music stands, and reams of music &mdash to enable these talented children to continue their musical efforts. The Academy also made a welcome donation of 40 small mattresses for the children&rsquos rest time.
Dame Jane Goodall exchanges ideas with the Academy delegates and members at a morning session in Singita.
A special guest of the Academy, television journalist Kathleen Matthews, conducted a wide-ranging discussion with some of the Academy&rsquos student delegates. Distinguished social entrepreneurs in their own right, many of them are Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation Fellows from New York University and Harvard University. They discussed their own social entrepreneurship projects and described how they were inspired by the stimulating experiences of the week.
Returning to the Boulders Lodge for lunch, Nobel Prize-winning economist Dr. Joseph Stiglitz led an in-depth discussion of the international economic crisis, its origins, and ideas for potential remedies. However serious the subject matter, the discussion never became overwhelming, due in part to the ever-present monkeys capering about the open-air lodge.
After a fascinating game drive, the group reconvened at the Singita Ebony Lodge for a final informal dinner discussion. Jeremy Irons read the poem &ldquoIthaka&rdquo by the 20th century Greek poet Constantin Cavafy. Implicitly comparing the voyage of Odysseus to the life journey of the student delegates, he lingered on the lines &ldquoHope your road is a long one, full of adventure, full of discovery.&rdquo
An inspiring musical performance greets Academy members and students at Ntshuxekani Preschool in Justicia.
Irons also showed a less-known musical side of his talent, picking up a guitar to play a humorous duet with Vince Gill. Amy Grant and Vince Gill took turns singing solo numbers, giving the Academy a preview of songs from their upcoming albums. In a completely unexpected moment, Vince Gill invited his daughter, Jenny Gill, to the stage, where she gave a memorable performance of his song, &ldquoWhenever You Come Around.&rdquo At the end of the evening, Jeremy Irons urged the student delegates to hook up their iPods to the Academy sound system, and as the students took turns playing DJ, the entire group enjoyed a spontaneous dance party for the rest of the evening.
Academy members Vince Gill and Amy Grant share the gift of music with the children of Ntshuxekani Preschool.
The following morning, Academy members traveled from Singita to Johannesburg and visited Soweto township, cradle of South Africa&rsquos freedom struggle, where they toured the Hector Pieterson Museum, commemorating the Soweto uprising, a turning point in the struggle against apartheid. In a few intellectually rigorous and eventful days, the Academy&rsquos guests had experienced, learned from, and were inspired by the stunning diversity of South Africa, from crowded cities to pristine wilderness. In firsthand contact with the country&rsquos people &mdash from cabinet ministers to hundreds of schoolchildren &mdash the student delegates gained invaluable insight into the unfolding history of this dynamic country. In their daily exchanges with the distinguished members of the Academy, they also learned the essential qualities of achievement &mdash lessons that men and women of all nations can apply to combat disease and poverty, and allow the children of the world to achieve their full potential.
ACLU Director Anthony Romero and student delegates enjoy a spontaneous late-night dance at the Ebony Lodge.
Structural Biology and Nobel Prizes
The Nobel Prize highlights achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and for peace. Since its inception, many awards have recognized achievements made in molecular biology, structural biology, and related research. Molecule of the Month articles offer a starting point to explore these Prizes.
"for the discovery of water channels"
Experimental Method-related Nobel Prizes
Several awards have recognized the methods and techniques that enable structural biology research.
PDB-101 helps teachers, students, and the general public explore the 3D world of proteins and nucleic acids. Learning about their diverse shapes and functions helps to understand all aspects of biomedicine and agriculture, from protein synthesis to health and disease to biological energy.
Why PDB-101? Researchers around the globe make these 3D structures freely available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive. PDB-101 builds introductory materials to help beginners get started in the subject ("101", as in an entry level course) as well as resources for extended learning.
Timeline: Major events in the life of Martin Luther King Jr.
It’s been 50 years since the death of Martin Luther King Jr., but his words still echo to this day. The son of a Baptist pastor and a school teacher, King went on to become the most visible leader of the civil rights movement and spent more than a decade of his life to combat racial inequality.
Known for his belief in nonviolent protests and civil disobedience as a means to advance civil rights, King gained national attention for his role in organizing protests in Alabama and Washington, as well as his skills as an orator – delivering impassioned speeches that still resonate to this day.
King’s life was tragically cut short when he was assassinated while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis on the evening of April 4, 1968 while in the city to lead a march protesting low wages for the city’s sanitation workers.
Today, members of that same union are among those joining MLK’s contemporaries, family, and admirers in Memphis and around the United States in speeches and tributes to honour his legacy and carry on his goals.