Marin II YNB-753 - History

Marin II YNB-753 - History

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(YTB-753: dp. 268 (It.) ; 1. 101'; b. 29'; dr. 161; s. 12 k.; cpl. 12; a. none; cl. Edenshaw)

The second Marin (YTB-753) was laid down by Christy Corp., Sturgeon Bay, Wis., in July 1959; launched in April 1960; and placed In service in May 1960.

Assigned to the 10th Naval District, Marin began tug and towing duties out of San Juan, P.R. Since beginning her service shoe has provided valuable assistance to other naval ships and craft in Puerto Rican waters. She has assisted ships during berthing and unberthing maneuvers and has towed ships and district craft not under power. In addition, she has served as an inner harbor patrol craft and has maintained her readiness to render emergency assistance in the event of a natural disaster such as a hurricane. Into 1969 Marin continues to carry out her largely unglamorous but vital service duties. Despite her busy schedule, she proudly performs her designated tasks with vigor and dispatch.

Marin history: World War II, ship-building and the birth of Marin City

In the days leading up to World War II, the land that Marin City now occupies was home to a dairy farm and a few ridgeline homes. But the war and need for round-the-clock ship-building transformed the area and gave birth to a community.

The Bechtel Corp. was given a contract by the United States government to build ships for the Navy and construct housing and services for workers. Within months of receiving the contract in 1942, housing for more than 6,000 workers was built just north of the Marinship shipyard in Sausalito. There were more than 2,700 housing units that ranged from dormitories for single men that rented for $5.50 a month to one-room apartments for $29 a month to six-room houses for families for $44 a month. The community also had a public library, drug and department stores, cafes, barber and beauty shop, child care centers, health facility and community center.

Thousands of workers from around the country migrated west to work in Bay Area shipyards, including facilities in Richmond, West Oakland and Hunters Point in San Francisco. According to the Marin City Community Development Corp.’s website, Marin City was “the country’s first integrated federal housing project” with 6,500 people, including more than 1,000 school-aged children. The demographic makeup during the war was 85% white, 10% black and 5% Asian. There were incidents of racial discrimination toward minority workers, not only from locally owned businesses that refused service, but also from their own union. The Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Shipbuilders and Helpers of America gave African American members auxiliary status, which resulted in fewer union benefits and no voting privileges. Eventually, these inequities were reversed in the landmark Supreme Court decision, James vs. Marinship, argued by none other than future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall.

Despite these experiences, many shipyard workers remember few occasions of racial tension on the job or in Marin City. Annie Small, a long-time, black resident of Marin City and a Marinship worker who died last year, once said of this time that, “Everybody got along swell because everybody acted as a family unit, everybody helped everybody else. It was such a mixture of all kinds of ethnic groups and ages and the work habit was … everybody worked around the clock.”

At the end of the war, many of the white Marin City residents moved away and found jobs and homes around the Bay Area. Unfortunately, due to widespread racial discrimination and exclusionary real estate covenants, black workers had fewer options. By the early 1960s, as the hastily built wartime housing was falling apart, Marin City was almost 90% black people. Over the next few decades, federal housing units and new homes, apartments and condominiums were built, along with the Gateway Shopping Center, in the 1990s. According to 2010 Census figures, Marin City is now home to more than 2,500 residents with a demographic of 38% black, 39% white, 14% Hispanic, 11% Asian and Pacific Islander and 4% other.

Nonprofit Management Consultant and Professor, Berkeley and Inverness

Lynne is a senior consultant and principal at Marts & Lundy, a full-service consulting firm serving the nonprofit sector. She provides counsel on strategic planning, campaigns, fundraising programs and board governance. She is a professor at the Haas School of Business, where she teaches nonprofit board governance. Prior to consulting, Lynne held senior positions with the Stern Grove Festival, San Francisco Opera and the Exploratorium. Lynne serves on the boards of Cal Performances and the Center for Social Sector Leadership.


Overall characteristics of the G. candidum CLIB 918 genome

A draft genomic sequence of high-quality of Geotrichum candidum strain CLIB 918 ( = ATCC 204307) was obtained by combining 454 pysosequencing of an 8 kb mate-pair library, Illumina/Solexa sequencing of genomic fragments and a single whole genome shotgun 454 pyrosequencing run. The final assembly yielded 134 scaffolds with 1416 sized gaps, as highly repeated sequences such as transposable elements are typically missing from the assembly. We estimated the number of transposons and related elements to be of the order of 1000, corresponding to the gaps in the sequence assembly (Supplementary Note). A preliminary analysis based on scaffold size and presence of genes shortlisted the 27 largest scaffolds, totaling 24.2 Mb, i.e. 97.5% of the assembly. The 107 remaining scaffolds were merged into the artificial scaffold 32 with a size of 620.6 kb. The genome had a GC content of 48% and its size was estimated to be 24.8 Mb by the Newbler assembler. As such, it constitutes the largest Saccharomycotina yeast genome described to date, 25% larger than that of Y. lipolytica with 20.5 Mb 6 . The overall number of protein-coding genes in CLIB 918 is 6804 (excluding transposons and pseudogenes). The data are summarized in Table 1, Supplementary Table S1 and Supplementary Note. In addition to the nuclear genome, the mitochondrial genome was also sequenced, assembled and annotated (Supplementary Fig. S1), producing a single, circular contig of length 29 kb and with 27.6% GC.

Automated annotation followed by manual curation identified 4713 genes presenting unambiguous sequence similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1245 genes coding for conserved hypothetical proteins with similarity to fungal proteins but no clear ortholog in S. cerevisiae. The latter set of genes included 371 ORFs to which functions could be tentatively assigned based on comparison against annotated genomes and conserved domains, 34 genes encoding subunits of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex 1 (Supplementary Table S2), 27 genes with unique fungal homologs. Further, we found 846 genes with no similarity to any gene outside G. candidum. Finally, we identified three cases of bacterial HGT (Supplementary Data 1).

Phylogenomic analysis performed on the 246 genes previously identified by Aguileta and coworkers 37 , unambiguously placed G. candidum within the Saccharomycotina subphylum, with B. adeninivorans and Y. lipolytica as its closest neighbors. However, the branch lengths indicate that these species are not closely related (Fig. 1). This observation was confirmed by the reduced synteny existing between G. candidum and the two other basal species (Supplementary Fig. S2). As little as 778 and 511 syntenic blocks were identified between G. candidum and B. adeninivorans or Y. lipolytica, respectively (Supplementary Table S3). The large majority of these blocks comprised only 2 genes (50% of the blocks of synteny with B. adeninivorans and 64% of these with Y. lipolytica) or 3 genes (31% and 26%, respectively).

Phylogenetic position of G. candidum.

Maximum likelihood phylogenomic reconstruction of 29 fungal species based on 246 concatenated gene sequences. The analysis was based on 64,105 informative positions remaining after curation of the 176,113 original aligned amino acids. Percentage bootstrap values for 100 replicates were 100% at each node. The bar represents 5 amino acid changes per 100 amino acids.

G. candidum genes are characterized by an average of 0.56 introns per protein-coding gene (3830 introns in 6804 ORFs). Thirty-five percent (2414) of the genes have at least one intron. This high intron content and the short intron size (71 nt median) depart from the situation in other yeasts. (Supplementary Fig. S3, Supplementary Table S4). Indeed, the number of introns in G. candidum is 12.9-fold higher than in S. cerevisiae and 3.4-fold higher than in Y. lipolytica, the most intron-rich Saccharomycotina yeast described to date (Table 1). Finally, a striking feature of the spliceosomal introns in G. candidum is the poor conservation of the 5’ splice site and the branch point when compared to other yeast within Saccharomycotina 38 (Supplementary Fig. S4 Supplementary Note).

G. candidum has a sexual state 39 . A single gene (GECA02s02545g) coding for a protein of 281 amino acids that we have named MATA was identified on the basis of its sequence similarity with other fungal MAT genes and its position in a chromosomal region sharing a conserved organization with that of mating type loci in other yeasts and fungal species (Supplementary Fig. S5). In a survey of G. candidum strains we identified the MATB idiomorph, indicating that this species is heterothallic (Supplementary Note).

Functional analysis and gene family expansion

To gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics of G. candidum genes and compare this to other yeasts, we reconstructed the phylome (i.e. complete set of individual gene phylogenies) for G. candidum as described in Materials and Methods. The resulting phylogenies, stored in phylomeDB 40 (, span the evolution of yeasts across the main Dikarya groups (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). The phylome was analyzed to bring to light G. candidum-specific duplications and infer orthology and paralogy relationships.

This analysis showed that G. candidum has 56 amplified gene families, that is, groups of paralogs containing three or more genes (Supplementary Data 2). The most highly amplified gene family (unknown function) with 21 copies has no counterpart in any other genome. The second largest expansion contains 16 members in a GRE2-like gene family, GRE2 being a pleiotropic gene involved in ergosterol biosynthesis and control of filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae 41,42 . This gene family is also amplified in most other yeasts, but to a lesser extent. Finally, the category of transporters and permeases is also highly amplified in G. candidum, both general permeases and, more specifically, allantoate permeases and transporters for bile acid, nicotinic acid and monocarboxylate.

The number of genes involved in chitin metabolism is striking, as many of the genes of this pathway are present in more than one copy. Interestingly, six copies of the ortholog encoding chitin synthase III (CHS3-like), necessary for the majority of cell wall chitin synthesis, are found. This analysis also revealed six co-orthologs (including a pseudogene) of the activator of chitin synthase III (SKT5). Indeed, the closely-related Y. lipolytica, a dimorphic species with a strong tendency to form filaments, contains only three chitin synthase-related genes and a single SKT5 regulator (Supplementary Table S5). The high number of genes involved in chitin metabolism compared with other yeasts correlates with the phenotype of high production of hyphae and pseudo-hyphae in G. candidum.

G. candidum is a major component of the microbiota of soft cheeses. In agreement with its propensity for growth in the dairy ecosystem, an expanded family with a total of four carboxylesterase/type B lipase genes was identified, of which two have previously been cloned and sequenced 23,43 (Supplementary Table S6). Interestingly, none of these genes had an equivalent in the Saccharomycotina subphylum, but had homologs in the Pezizomycotina (see later section on specific gene retention). These lipases were predicted from their sequence to be secreted extracellular enzymes, in accordance with the first step of triacylglycerol catabolism in the dairy matrix involving secreted lipases. Volatile sulfur compounds, key to cheese aroma, are produced from the catabolism of methionine and cysteine by yeasts 44 . Seven of the genes in this pathway are duplicated in G. candidum (Supplementary Fig. S6), in accordance with its known preeminent role in the cheese ripening process 45 and a putative domestication of this yeast.

The most surprising gene amplification concerned gene families involved in the degradation of plant polysaccharides which are typically associated with filamentous fungi. G. candidum has undergone amplification of three distinct families of cellulolytic enzymes (Supplementary Data 2). These, included four copies of an endogluconase GH45, five copies of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and five copies of an endo-polygalacturonase. Such functions have not been described in yeasts, except for a single gene encoding an endo-gluconase GH45 in K. pastoris 46 and one distantly related polygalacturonase in S. cerevisiae 47,48 . These enzymes, whose presence greatly varies among fungi, are responsible for plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation, leading to cell-wall decomposition in a saprophytic or pathogenic context 49 . The gene complement of carbohydrate degrading enzymes is unique in G. candidum among yeasts (Supplementary Note. Supplementary Data 3). Further experimental investigations will be necessary to validate the hypothesis that this permits the use of a broad range of carbon and energy sources. The overall distribution of the annotated gene functions is shown in Supplementary Fig. S7a,b,c,d.

Specifically retained ancestral genes in G. candidum

Functional annotation of the G. candidum genome was performed using the proteome of S. cerevisiae as well as those of other taxa of Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina and Basidiomycota. An initial analysis by BlastP, showed that there exist a set of few hundred G. candidum genes which do not have any orthologs in any sequenced Saccharomycotina species, but which display a good level of sequence conservation with predicted proteins from filamentous fungi (Pezizomycotina and Basidiomycota).

A detailed analysis of the topology of the phylogenies for each of the predicted proteins (phylome analysis) showed that 280 genes (4.1% of the 6804 G. candidum genes) presented discordant phylogenies. The simplest explanation and that most often put forward, for the presence of such genes is that they are the result of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which has been shown to occur, albeit infrequently, between eukaryotes 35,50,51 . In this respect, we identified a total of 17 clear cases of HGT from filamentous fungi, where the G. candidum gene grouped outside the Saccharomycotina, either within the sister subphylum Pezizomycotina (16 genes Table 2 and Supplementary Fig. 8) or outside the Ascomycota (1 gene). In this latter case, the G. candidum gene (GECA13s02485g, putatively involved in polyamine metabolism) grouped within the Basidiomycota (Fig. 2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gene horizontally transferred from the Basidiomycota to a Saccharomycotina species (Supplementary Note).

Phylogenetic position of the G. candidum gene GECA13s02485g potentially encoding a spermine synthase among Pezizomycota and Basidiomycota orthologs.

Sequences of the fungal genes most closely related to GECA13s02485g were retrieved from NCBI after Blast comparison to Pezizomycotina and to Basidiomycota. Sequences were aligned using MUSCLE, the alignment was curated using Gblocks and the phylogenetic reconstruction was performed using Phyml with default settings as implemented in ( The list of species can be found in Supplementary Data 6.

However, the remaining 263 of the 280 discordant genes did not appear to be due de HGT, grouping phylogenetically neither within the Saccharomycotina, nor within the Pezizomycotina. Further analysis revealed that 141 of these 263 genes had no orthologs within the Saccharomycotina, but counterparts in Ascomycota or in Ascomycota and in Basidiomycota (131 in Pezizomycotina subphylum, of which 45 were also present in the basidiomycetes). We call this group of genes set A (Supplementary Data 4). The other 122 genes were associated with a homolog in S. cerevisiae, presenting in contrast a phylogeny which followed that of the species tree. We denote this second group of genes as set B (Supplementary Data 4).

In order to elucidate the origins and history of these genes of discordant phylogeny, we compared their characteristics with those that would be expected of horizontally-transferred genes. In most cases of HGT described in yeasts, the genes involved were exclusively clustered and had resulted from introgressions 13,52,53 . In filamentous fungi, HGT affects few single genes, but mostly larger regions of DNA, typically containing functionally related groups of genes 54 . In contrast, the set A and B G. candidum genes were found to be scattered through the genome sequence and did not cluster together as part of larger regions of transferred DNA (Fig. 3). In addition, these genes were distributed in the scaffolds independently of functional class.

Distribution of the phylogenetically discordant sets A and B genes on the five largest scaffolds of the G. candidum genome.

Scaffolds are represented as horizontal bars, numbered at the left and red lines show the position of SRAGs. The scale indicates gene number.

HGT can usually be detected because the phylogenetic position of the transferred genes with respect to homologs in related species differs from that of the other genes within the genome. Patristic distances (i.e. sum of branch lengths separating two tree nodes) between each G. candidum gene and their counterparts in the Pezizomycotina species were calculated from the phylome. Figure 4 presents the normalized patristic distances of the G. candidum genes, including the set A genes, the set B genes, all the G. candidum genes and the hypothetical HGT genes, from their closest Pezizomycotina orthologs. This analysis shows that the genes showing discordant phylogenies, both set A and set B, are not distinguishable from the entire gene complement of G. candidum in terms of their distances to Pezizomycotina orthologs. On the other hand, the normalized patristic distance between the HGT genes and their Pezizomycotina orthologs is clearly reduced. Genes originating from lateral transfers would be expected to display a reduced distance from their Pezizomycotina orthologs, since they are more or less recently diverged. The fact that distances between Pezizomycotina and set A and set B genes are not different from distances between Pezizomycotina and the G. candidum genes rules out the possibility that the set A and B genes were the result of HGT.

Phylogenetic distance of HGT and sets A and B genes from G. candidum to Pezizomycotina.

Normalized distances between each G. candidum gene and its closest ortholog in the Pezizomycotina are represented as box plots. The graphs show the maximum, minimum and median values and the first and third quartiles. The points at the bottom of the “All gene trees” box plot are outliers, whose phylogenetic distance from the traced box is greater than 1.5 times the interquartile distance.

For all these reasons, it seems highly unlikely that the genes of sets A and B result from HGT events. Rather, a more plausible explanation considering the above observations would be that they had been specifically retained during the radiation after the separation of the Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina. We therefore propose to designate this type of gene as a Specifically Retained Ancestral Gene (SRAG). Figure 5 presents the proposed scheme leading to the occurrence of SRAGs in a present day yeast species such as G. candidum (Fig. 5).

Schematic representation of the origin of SRAGs.

(a) The hypothetical fate of a gene transmitted vertically to the Pezizomycotina and the Saccharomycotina lineages from the Ascomycota ancestor is represented by a continuous green line. The dotted line indicates the lineages in which the gene is lost, (b), resulting in a situation where the gene is found in the Pezizomycotina lineage and only in G. candidum where it has been retained (set A genes). (c) Transmission of members of a duplicated gene family in the Ascomycota ancestor to the Pezizomycotina and the Saccharomycotina lineages (set B genes). The green line indicates that one paralog has been lost in the entire Saccharomycotina lineage, except in G. candidum where it has been retained (similarly to (a) and (b)). The black line indicates that the second paralog has been transmitted to the Saccharomycotina lineage. Whereas only one paralog is present in the Saccharomycotina, both paralogs are present in G. candidum.

The expression of genes with a discordant phylogeny was compared to the rest of the genes using data from high throughput RNA sequencing. We observed that the overall expression level of the set A was reduced compared to the rest of the genes in the genome (Reduction of 1.4-fold, P < 10 −7 ). The overall gene expression of set B genes was not significantly different to that of the other genes (P = 0.84) (Table 3 Fig. 6). This reduced expression may be due to a higher specificity of the genes in the set, including lignocellulolytic enzymes and a number of transcription factors, which might not be expressed under the chosen laboratory growth conditions.

Expression of genes with discordant phylogenies.

The distribution of the RNA sequence reads was plotted against the genes of setA, setB and against the whole genome. The number of genes in sets A and B are shown multiplied by a factor of 10 to facilitate comparison.

SRAGs are a common feature in yeasts

We examined other well-characterized yeast genomes to investigate whether such genes could also be found. To this end, we reconstructed the phylomes of three other species: S. cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii and Y. lipolytica. A search in PhylomeDB for genes with discordant phylogeny permitted the identification of putative SRAGS in these species. Again we detected genes with orthologs in Pezizomycotina only as well as genes with discordant phylogeny which were present in the Pezizomycotina and absent from a majority of Saccharomycotina (Supplementary Data 5).

S. cerevisiae was found to have 15 genes presenting discordant phylogenies (Table 4, see These S. cerevisiae genes are involved in a variety of pathways (respiration, cell wall, post-transcriptional quality control, protein translation, sterol uptake) two of them are of unknown function. Interestingly, none of these 15 genes are essential for growth under normal conditions (PDR11, a sterol uptake protein, is however required for anaerobic growth, where sterol biosynthesis is compromised 55 they are all expressed in either unusual or stressful conditions for S. cerevisiae ( The IRC7 gene, encoding a putative cystathionine beta-lyase, was proposed to be the result of HGT, originating in bacteria 56 however, this gene proved unambiguously closer to Pezizomycota than to bacterial counterparts (data not shown).

Functional analysis of the genes in the G. candidum, D. hansenii and Y. lipolytica revealed that SRAGs are associated with diverse functional classes and that they are responsible for at least part of the specificity, but functional classes are shared between these yeasts. A functional classification of the SRAGS highlighted differences between D. hansenii and the two other basal yeasts G. candidum and Y. lipolytica (Fig. 7).

Functional distribution of SRAGs in three yeasts species.

The SRAGs of D. hansenii, Y. lipolytica and G. candidum, as listed in Supplementary Data 6, were assigned to functional categories. For each species, the distribution of SRAGs by category is expressed as a percentage of the total number of SRAGs. Orange, G. candidum blue, D. hansenii green, Y. lipolytica.

The halophilic and psychrophilic yeast D. hansenii is found in environments such as seawater, brine and salted foods and is a major component of cheese surface microbiota 57 . The functional classes overrepresented in the SRAG gene set are those of Amino acid metabolism (13 genes), Carbon metabolism (with seven SRAGs involved glycosidic bond hydrolysis) and Transport (with nine SRAGs involved in sugar transport). There are also five extracellular lipases that hydrolyze triacylglycerols in this lipid-rich environment to fatty acids and to glycerol, which is the main compatible osmolyte accumulated by D. hansenii as osmoprotectant on the highly saline cheese-surface 58 . Thus, D. hansenii SRAGs are representative of functions needed to grow under these conditions.

Y. lipolytica has long been a focus of research for its lipid metabolisms and its capacities for protein secretion 59,60 . It is encountered on the surface of ripened cheese 61,62 . The functions that are over-represented in Y. lipolytica SRAGs are Lipid metabolism (10 genes) and Proteolysis (20 genes, of which 10 encode extracellular proteases). Y. lipolytica and G. candidum are both dimorphic yeasts, whose transition from budding to hyphal growth involves complex subcellular processes. We built an inventory of the Y. lipolytica and G. candidum genes homologous to N. crassa genes necessary for filamentous growth 63 (Supplementary Table S8). Among the 55 Y. lipolytica genes and 70 G. candidum genes in the inventory, respectively 29 and 37 SRAGs were found. Thus, over 50% of the Y. lipolytica and G. candidum genes necessary for filamentous growth are SRAGs, contrasting with the proportion of SRAGs in the whole genomes, (3.7% and 3.9% in Y. lipolytica and G. candidum, respectively) and highlights the strong association of SRAGs with filamentous growth.

In the case of G. candidum, with the exception of functions related to filamentous growth, the presence of SRAGs in the various functional categories is generally low, varying from 1 to 4%. The exception of the large number of G. candidum SRAGs in the Transcription regulation (11%) category is an indication that the reactivity and adaptability of this yeast to environmental changes may be carried by SRAGs. Our analysis of the functional classification of these SRAGs highlighted the specific properties of these yeasts according to their natural morphology and ecological niche. SRAGs contribute to phenotypic specificity of these yeasts. An over-representation of the Transcription regulation and Transport categories is expected in wild yeasts as they have to adapt to various environments by being able to use a wide variety of nutrients and to reorganize gene expression in response to environmental changes. We also noted that each of the three yeasts examined, D. hansenii, Y. lipolytica and G. candidum, possess SRAGs associated with lipid metabolism, which may be linked to their presence in dairy products. It is important to note that the genes in the “Lipid metabolism” category in all three species are phylogenetically unrelated, suggesting a parallel evolution. Indeed the same is true for most of the SRAGs, suggesting that these genes are interesting candidates for the analysis of species-specific technological properties.

Marin II YNB-753 - History

Known at first unofficially as the Marin County Air Field, as Marin Airfield, as Marin Meadows Air Field, and as the Army Air Base at Marin Meadows, it was officially termed from 1929 until 1932 the "Air Corps Station, San Rafael." Then, with formal development beginning, it was named Hamilton Field on July 12, 1932, in honor of an air ace from Marin County killed in World War I. He was First Lieutenant Lloyd Andrew Hamilton of the 17th Aero Squadron, awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for heroism at Varssonaore, Belgium, in leading a low level bombing attack on a German airdrome 30 miles behind enemy lines on August 13, 1918. Thirteen days later Hamilton died in action near Lagnecourt, France.

Construction at Hamilton Field had begun about July 1, 1932, with the airfield being originally designed to accommodate four bomb squadrons and their personnel. Captain Don Hutchins of the Army Air Corps reported on duty as the first commanding officer of the new field on June 25, 1933, and Captain John M. Davies' 70th Service Squadron arrived that December as the first squadron assigned to the base. On December 4, 1934, the 7th Bombardment Group arrived to take station, having been transferred up from March Field. The new base was designated that year as General Headquarters of the 1st Pursuit Wing. The Hamilton Field Station Complement replaced the 70th Service Squadron on March 1, 1935. The original construction program was completed on May 12, 1935, at which time the field was ceremonially handed over to Brigadier General Henry 'Hap' Arnold, commanding the First Wing, by Governor Merriam of California.

P-40's at Hamilton Field in 1941

Described in 1940 as "looking more like a modern residential suburb of Spanish California homes than the Army's Pursuit Base for northern California," Hamilton Field had by that time received five million dollars for development. At that time the Field housed the 45th Air Base Group, the 20th Pursuit Group (Fighter), the 35th Pursuit Group (Interceptor), the 82nd Observation Squadron, and Weather, Signal, Ordnance, Quartermaster, Medical and Finance organizations totaling over 4,000 officers and men.

A description of Hamilton Field written in 1940 or early 1941 characterized the base:

An average of 250 clear days each year makes the mile-square, table-flat landing field ideal for huge Army bombers and fast pursuit planes. Field exercises and long-distance mass flights are the rule, rather than the exception, at Hamilton Field. One mass flight, of two months' duration, covered practically the whole of the United States.

From the Bay shore, where a canal and wharf provided harbor facilities, the reservation rises gently to a velvet-green plateau on which the low Spanish-style structures of the post gleam white against semitropical plants and shrubs. Streets and boulevards wind about the hills. The administration buildings, hangars, hospital, theater, post office, shops and quarters, and radio, electric, and fire-fighting units form a compact self-sustaining military town.

From the portals of the field a wide palm-lined avenue leads to Base Headquarters housed in a structure designed to resemble a California mission. The Officers' Club, a rambling hacienda on the crest of the promontory, looks eastward over the chameleon waters of San Pablo Bay to distant Mount Diablo.

On March 31, 1941, the base was reassigned to the Fourth Air Force, and it was later that year that a flight of twelve B-17s left Hamilton Field for Hickam Field in Hawaii, which lay next to the naval base known as Pearl Harbor. Flying all through the night, the bombers arrived over Oahu on the morning of December 7, 1941, and faced an unusual welcome.

The B-17s had arrived over Oahu during the Japanese air attack which triggered American entry into World War II. Back in California, Hamilton Field was rapidly expanded to a wartime status, with construction of additional barracks, mess halls, administration buildings, warehouses, Link trainer buildings, schools, hospital and other structures, an expansion that really didn't come to an end until July 11, 1945, by which time the war was clearly nearing its end.

"Sabre Knights" aerial demonstration team from Hamilton AFB, CA, 325th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron

The Army Air Force was now expanded into the United States Air Force, a separate military service, and soon Hamilton Air Force Base was being modified to accommodate jet aircraft. In mid-1959 the runways were upgraded to accommodate F-101 and F-104 operations. The base went through a series of command redesignations during this period--to the Continental Air Forces on April 16, 1945, to the Air Defense Command on January 1, 1951, to the Aerospace Defense Command on January 15, 1968, 'and as its usefulness waned, to the Air Force Reserve on October 1, 1973.

" Thunderbird" T-38As photographed with a wide angle lens from the cockpit of another T-38 over Hamilton AFB, California (1974).

The base had been declared excess to Air Force needs as early as December 10, 1944, but it was not closed at that time, and in 1952 it had been declared a "permanent" U.S. Air Force installation. Nevertheless, by 1973 its importance had diminished, and it was finally placed in a caretaker status on January 11, 1976. Brigadier General William G. Hathaway ended, on June 10, 1976, his tour of duty as the last of Hamilton's thirty-five base commanders (not counting Captain Howard B. Nurse who had been the project officer from 1931 to 1933). Today (1981) housing and office space on the base are still used by the Air Force, the Coast Guard, the Navy, and the 91st Division (Training), Army Reserves, and management of the base is under the Navy. Occasional Air Force maneuvers still take place there. A controversy over future civilian use has developed between those supporting its adaptation into a major civilian airport, those bitterly opposed to its continued use as an airfield at-all, and those holding varying intermediate degrees of opinion. The final resolution has not yet been determined as of early 1981.

The above history was written in 1981 for the annual meeting of the Council on Abandoned Military Posts. Since it was written several events have impacted Hamilton:

Hamilton Air Force Base was decommissioned in 1974. The airfield was transferred to the Army as Hamilton Army Airfield, the housing to the Navy and a 411-acre parcel to the General Services Administration (GSA) for public sale. The GSA public sale occurred in 1985 and the 1988 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) closed the Army airfield. As a consequence of BRAC 1993's closure of the Navy's San Francisco bases, the Navy vacated its Hamilton housing in 1996.

A Historic District was created at Hamilton in the summer 1998. The first area includes the hangars and the senior housing. The second includes the theater and the hospital. The third includes Spanish housing, the BOQ and the pool.

Wikipedia Abandoned and Little Known Airfields Historic American Building Survey Army Units Assigned to Fort Funston


US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1929-1941 Annual Training Units: 316th and 367th Observation Squadrons (Organized Reserves)
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1933-1936 70th Service Squadron
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1934-1935 Headquarters, 7th Bombardment Group
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1934-1938 31st Bombardment Squadron
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1934-1940 9th and 11th Bombardment Squadrons
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1935-1936 69th Service Squadron
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1935-1940 88th Observation Squadron
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1936-1940 Base Headquarters and 5th Air Base Squadron
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1937-1940 Headquarters, 7th Bombardment Group
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1939-1941 77th Pursuit Squadron
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1940 22nd Bombardment Squadron
US Army Order of Battle 1919-1940 1940-1941 Headquarters, 10th and 11th Pursuit Wings Headquarters, 20th and 35th Pursuit Groups 18th, 20th, 21st, 34th and 55th Pursuit Squadrons 82nd Observation Squadron 88th Reconnaissance Squadron
7 December 1941 Hq and Hq Sq, 4th Air Support Command:
Hq and Hq Sq, 20th Pursuit Group (Interceptor): 55th Pursuit Squadron (Interceptor)
77th Pursuit Squadron (Interceptor)
79th Pursuit Squadron (Interceptor)
20th Interceptor Control Squadron 17th Transport Squadron (64th Transport Group)
60th Material Squadron
46th Air Base Squadron
Air Force Band
Det, 1st Communications Squadron
Det, 1st Weather Squadron Det, 3rd Chemical Company (Service) (Aviation)
692nd Ordnance Company (Aviation) (Pursuit)
711th Ordnance Company (Aviation) (Air Base)
Company K, 30th Quartermaster Regiment (Truck)
Company D (less Dets), 89th Quartermaster Battalion (Lt Maint)
Det, 4th Quartermaster Company (Supply) (Aviation)
419th Signal Company (Aviation)
Det, 854th Signal Service Company (Aviation)
8th Signal Platoon (Air Base)
Site Map Click for a larger image. Images

The former Hamilton Air Force Base today. The three H-shaped buildings in the foreground are the former enlisted barracks

Enisted Barracks, circe 1940 Softies Ice Cream Stand run by Homer Oleson (Charlie Oleson)

Postcards of Hamilton AFB

Extract, War Department Inventory of Owned, Sponsored and Leased Facilities , December 1945

Marin II YNB-753 - History

Marine Corps Vietnam-era Tankers and Ontos Crewmen Have Made History.

Your Historical Foundation is Making it Known.

The Evolution of Marine Tanks.

Thus with the reluctant blessings of the Great White Fathers of the Navy Department in Washington, the first of a long line of Marine Corps tank units was formed. It was officially designated "Light Tank Platoon USMC" at Quantico, Virginia, on December 5th 1923. The Platoon consisted of twenty-two enlisted men and two officers. The Commanding Officer was Captain Leslie G. Wayt, and the Executive Officer was Second Lieutenant Charles S. Finch.

The Platoon was issued three, six-ton light tanks. These tanks had been built in the United States during 1918 under license from the French Government. They were copies of the famous French Renault FT-17 of the First World War. Built to U.S. specifications, they had an ACF Buda Marine Engine, and two of them mounted Browning .30 cal. machine guns. The other one mounted a French 37mm Puteaux one-pounder infantry cannon. One of the reasons that this tank was so famous, was that it was the first tank to successfully mount a weapon in a fully 360 degree traversing turret. Even though it was called the Six-Ton Light Tank, its total weight was 7.8 tons. With that weight powered by the four-cylinder engine, it could really gallop along at a fast 5 1/2 miles per hour. The Tank Commander/gunner sat in a hammock-like affair hung from the turret walls and just sort of bounced around amongst all the ammunition in the fighting compartment, which was 4,800 rounds for the machine guns or 237 rounds for the cannon. The driver was a little better off in that he had a seat, but both men suffered considerably from the exhaust and gasoline fumes of the engine.

During the rest of that winter and all through the next summer the Platoon became familiar with their tanks. Most of the men had never even seen a tank before, but being Marines they went at the job in the typical Marine fashion, head on. Every one in the platoon became familiar with all aspects of the job of an Iron Horse Marine, driving, gunnery and preventive Maintenance They learned what the tanks could do and usually, by trial and error, what they could not do. The platoon also participated in many of the publicity maneuvers and parades, which were a hallmark of the times

During the winter of 1924, the platoon participated in the "Winter Maneuvers" with the East Coast Expeditionary Force from Quantico. These maneuvers were held on the island of Culebra, off the eastern coast of Puerto Rico. The maneuvers were designed to test and perfect amphibious landing techniques. They were of the trial and error type, at least as far as the "Tankers" were concerned. It was defiantly learned that this type of tank was not suited for amphibious operations. The lessons learned during maneuvers such as these would be a tremendous help later on during World War II, when the Marines perfected their amphibious assault techniques in the Pacific.

Upon the platoon's return from Culebra, they received two more tanks, one machine gun and one cannon. It was now a full-fledged tank platoon with five tanks. There was even an experimental tank to try out. It was a standard Six-Ton with the turret removed and fitted out as a communications tank. The platoon was in tank heaven and the haggling over who would drive what was cut to a minimum.

For the next three years the platoon performed peacetime garrison type duties. Going on limited maneuvers and exercises, performing in publicity parades and run of the mill Marine duties, but constantly learning more and more about their tanks. For the Marines it was almost too dull, but, as for all those who wait, an exciting change was in store for these "Iron Horse Marines". The political crisis in China was getting worse and the Third Marine Brigade was asking for reinforcements.

Early in 1927 the platoon was Far East Bound. The "Old Salts" were again telling the "Boots" sea stories about the wonders of the Orient, and some of the boots were looking forward to getting tattooed like the old salts. But they had to wait, for at that time it was an unwritten law that no one got a tattoo until he had served overseas.

The platoon, now under the command of Captain Nathen E. Landon, lashed down their tanks on flat cars and left Quantico by rail on April 6, 1927. Arriving in San Diego on April 12, the platoon didn't take any time out for liberty. In typical Marine fashion the tanks and all the platoon's gear was derailed, moved dockside, embarked, and lashed down aboard the USS President Grant, all in one day. The platoon then had a few days to pull liberty before the ship sailed. The trip from San Diego to Olongapo, Philippine Islands was as usual, uneventful, except for the Marine who were seasick and thought the trip would never end. Upon arrival at Olongapo, it was back to work again for the tankers, as they had to change ships. On May 4th they set to work unlashing their tanks and transferring them to the USS Chaumont, where they were again tied down. After the troops were settled in and the card games resumed the ship set sail for Shanghai, China.

Arriving at Taku Bar, Shanghai, China on the 21st of May the platoon again disembarked and began getting ready for what they hoped would be an exciting tour of duty in China. After the tanks were put back in a ready condition, some of the men went on their first liberty. While some got their firs tattoos, others began to explore the wonders of the Orient. All agreed that Shanghai liberty was all or more than it was said to be. But such a good life is not for Marines and after about two weeks the platoon was on the move again. It was sent up river by barge to Tientsin on the 6th of June. The platoon was assigned the job of protecting the Peking-Tientsin railway. At least that was its official job during the balance of its tour of duty in China. Even though these were troubled times in China, and some of the Marines were looking for excitement the job was considered as dull garrison duty.

With the exception of being a show of force, the platoon's duties were much the same as it was earlier in Quantico. They went on limited maneuvers, performed in good-will shows and publicity parades, stood inspections and kept their tank well maintained. It was almost like the occupation duty that the Marines would again be assigned to do in the same area in 1945. While not on duty the Marines of the platoon could be found on liberty in Tientsin, which they discovered was just as good a liberty town as was Shanghai. This was their life for the next fifteen months until the crisis was lifted and the Marine Corps could no longer afford a tank platoon.

On September 15, 1928, the platoon was administratively detached and transferred to the Light Tank Platoon, Composite regiment, San Diego. The Marines again loaded their tanks aboard barges and left for Shanghai, where they were loaded aboard ship and lashed down for the trip home. When the ship left Shanghai on September 18th, besides their tanks, the platoon took with them lots of wonderful memories of their tour of duty in China.

The platoon debarked in San Diego on November 1st and joined the Composite Regiment. After everyone was settled in they had time to enjoy some of San Diego's nightspots. Then on November 10, (the Marine Corps birthday) the platoon was disbanded. Some of the men were transferred to other units while others were discharged. But once again history leaves something out and we don't know what happened to the tanks.

Many more stories may be written about Marine Tankers, but these were the pioneers of a brand new arm of the Marine Ground-Sea-Air team. During their brief five years of existence they set the trend for the "Iron Horse Marines" of today.

By Lloyd G. Reynolds
Aug. 11 1998

Photo credits, USMC, National Archives, Department of Defence, Imperial War Museum unless otherwise noted.

FT 17 in China. USMC Photo.

Inspection in China. USMC Photo.

The author helped restore this FT 17. Authors photo.

Owned by Dr. Frank Haigler. Authors photo.

Tank Landings/Operations in WW II.

Date Location Tk Bn's/Units Tanks Used
Guadalcanal 1st Tk. Bn. M2A4,M3, M3A1
Talasea 1st Plt. Co. "C" & Co. "A" 1st Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
Hollandia Co "A" 1st Tk. Bn. M4A1
Jun.30,1943 Munda,New Georga 9th,10th & 11th Defence Bn. Tks. M3, M3A1
Nov.1, 1943 Bouganville 3rd Tk. Bn. M3A1
Nov.20,1943 Tarawa 2nd Tk. Bn. Co. "C" I Marine Amphibious Corps Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A2
Dec.26,1943 Cape Glouster, New Britian 1st Tk. Bn. M3A1, M4A1
Jan.31,1944 Roi-Namur 4th Tk. Bn. M5A1, M4A2
Feb.18,1944 Eniwetok 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Feb.18,1944 Engebi 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Feb.22,1944 Perry 2nd Separate Tk. Co. M4A2
Mar.20,1944 Emirau Co. "A"3rd Tk. Bn. M4A2
Jun.15,1944 Saipan 2nd & 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2,M5A1, M3A1 (Satan), M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Jul. 21,1944 Guam 3rd Tk. Bn., Tk. Co., 4th Mar., Tk. Co. 22 Mar. M4A2, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Jul.24, 1944 Tinian 2nd & 4th Tk. Bn. M4A2,M5A1, M3A1 (Satan), M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Sep.15,1944 Pelilu 1st Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.
Feb.19,1945 Iwo Jima 3rd, 4th & 5th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M4A3POA H1 Flame Tank, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit., M4A2 w/M1A1 Flame kit, M4A3 Flail.
Apr. 1, 1945 Okinawa 1st & 6th Tk. Bn. M4A2, M4A3, M32B2, M4A2 w/M1A1 Dozer Kit.

The WW II years 1941-1945. (Light Tanks)

M2A4= 1 37mm Gun, 5 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine.
M3= 1 37mm Gun, (later w/a gyrostabilizer) 5 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. (some w/Guiberson Radial Diesel). (Early production M3s had riveted turrets, Later changed to welded.)
M3A1= 1 37mm Gun, (the 1st light tank to have a turret basket, stabilized gun and power traverse) (Welded turret with out copula.) 3 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. (some w/Guiberson Radial Diesel).
M3A3= 1 37mm Gun, 3 .30 Cal. MG, Continental Radial Air Cooled Engine. Welded hull and turret, A new turret incorporating a radio bustle and larger hatches wit no copula. Angled armor.
M5A1= 1 37mm Gun, 3 .30 Cal. MG, Engine, Twin Cadillac V-8's with Hydra-Matic transmission, All welded construction, no copula, large turret hatches. Angled armor.

An M2A4 of the 1st Tank Battalion on Guadalcanal.

An M2A4 leading two M3 Light Tanks on Guadalcanal.

An M3A1 Light Tank on Guadalcanal.

An M3A1 landing on Emirau Island.

Marines of the 7th Defense Battalion, one of the "Rainbow Five," give their new M3 Stuart light tank a trial run at Tutuila, American Samoa, in the summer of 1942.

M5A1 on Boganville.

US Marines sitting atop a M5A1 light tank, Cape Gloucester, New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago, late Dec 1943

M3A1 at Tarawa.

Light tank bogged down in shell hole on Tarawa.

M3A1 Light Flame Tank "Satan".

Early experiments M3A1 with portable M1A1 Flame Thrower in the bow MG position. According to one Marine of this era interviewed, "The flame ginner held the tanks between his knees".

An M3A1 "Satan" Flame Tank with the Ronson Flame Thrower system on Saipan.

A "Satan" on Saipan.

On Saipan a "Satan" with two M5A1's.

Front view of a M3A1 "Satan" Flame Tank.
The Light Flame tanks were not ready in time for Tarawa. As far as the author knows they were only used at Saipan and Tinian by the 2nd and 4th Tank Battalions.

The WW II years 1941-1945. (Medium Tanks)

The M4 Medium Tank went through a lot of variations.
M4A1= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Continental Radial Air Cooled Gasoline Engine. Only used by 1st Tks at Cape Gloucester.
M4A2= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Twin G.M. Diesel Engines. The first combat use of M4 series tanks by the USMC was at Tarawa. Also used at Kwajelein, Roi-Namur, Perry Island, Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Peleliu, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
M4A3= 1 75mm Gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30 Cal. MGs. Ford V-8 Gasoline Engine. Used by 5th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima and 6th Tk. Bn. on Okinawa.

A 1st Tk. Bn. M4A1 landing at Cape Gloucester.

M4A1s of the 1st Tk. Bn. on New Georgia.

M4A1s of the 1st Tk. Bn. on New Georgia.

An M4A2 of "C" Co. 1st Corps Tk. Bn. attached to the 2nd Mar. Div. for Tarawa fell into a shell hole and drowned out. No tanks (Light or Medium) had any fording kits at Tarawa.

Of the 14 tanks of Co. "C" 1st Corps Medium Tank Bn. Ten made it to the beach.
See= Marine Armor on Tarawa

Colorado on the beach at Tarawa. See= Tanks on Tarawa

M4A2 with improvised fording stacks. Perry Island, 2nd separate Tk. Co.

M4A2 with improvised fording stacks made from 55 Gal. drums. Improvise, adapt and overcome. 3rd Tk. Bn., Guam.

By Siapan fording stacks were standardized.

Ill Wind on Tinian. C. B. Ash the driver of this tank says note the TCs pericope. They welded two together to get 6" more elevation.

1st Tank coming ashore at Pelilu.

Peliliu was tough on tanks.

Sand bags on the rear deck. Pelilu.

So was Iwo Jima.

An M4A3 of the 4th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima.

An M4A2 of the 5th Tk. Bn. on Iwo Jima.

Note the nails welded on the hatches to keep the Japs off.

An M4A3 of "C" Co. 4th Tk. Bn. Note, inprovised water tank with a spigot for the grunts, improvised Tank Infantery phone and clock for infantry to give directions, extended track grousers. C. B. Ash there is 4" of cement between hull and 1" planks on side of the tank.

For Okinawa this M4A2 tank has added extra track blocks for protection.

This one has some added protection and still has some of the fording kit attached.

These tanks have added a lot of added track blocks as added armor.

M4 series Flame Tanks and other varients.

An M4A2 with the M1A1 bow Flame Gun. It was used on Iwo Jima.

An M4A3 POA H1 Flame Tank on Iwo Jima. The Flame Gun was mounted in worn out 75mm gun tubes.

U.S. Army Flame Tank on Okinawa fron the 713th Tk. Bn. The Marines had no Flame Tanks on Okinawa.

Another M4A3 POA H1 Flame Tank on Iwo Jima.

The M32B2 Tank Retriver made its first apperance with the Marines on Saipan.

This M32B2 is getting a souvenir on Guam.

Dozer kits added to tanks were as welcome as Flame Tanks to the Tk. Bn.

M4A2s on Guam with a Dozer Tank.

Rockets (7.2 In.) were expermented with in Europe and the Pacific, but it is not known if they were used in the Pacific by the Marines.

4th Tk. Bn. Flail Tank (home made by GySgt. Sam Johnson and Sgt. Ray Shaw) photographed on Maui. It landed on Iwo Jima but was destroyed on the beach, (C. B. Ash)

Another view of the 4th Tks Flail,

Tanks used
M4A3E8= M4A3,with upgraded horizontal Volute suspension, with 105mm Howitzer & M4A1 Dozer Kit.
M4A3E8 with POA-CWS-H5 Flame Thrower & 105mm Howitzer.
M32B3= M4A3E8 Tank Recovery Vehicle.
M-26= 1 90mm M3 Gun, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1 .50 Cal. on top of turret, 1 .30 Cal. in bow. Used the same engine as the M4A3 series tanks, Ford GAF V-8 500 hp. (very under powered). Torsion Bar suspension.
M26A1= Up graded with Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 hp. Replaced during July-November by the M-46.
M-46= 1 90mm M3A1 Gun, w/.30 Cal. Co-ax, 1 .50 Cal. on top of turret, 1 .30 Cal. in bow. Engine Continental AV-1790-5A, V-12, 810 hp.
Note it's very hard to tell the difference between the M-26 & M-46 just from photos.

An M-26 during the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter.

M-26 can take a hit.

M-26 with 18 inch searchlight.

A pair of T-34/85s knocked out.

An M-26 during the fighting in the Pusan Perimeter. (Balls'ey T.C.)

An M4A3E8 105mm Dozer tank

Loading up for Inchon.

Street fighting in Seoul.

Moving North on narrow roads.

Winter's coming.

Winter and mountains.

A knocked or abandond SU 76.

An M-46 on the firing line.

M-46 with searchlight bracket.

M-26 or 46 indirect firing at night.

A replacement M-46.

M-46 Dozer tank with anti-tank rocket cage.

The "Porcupine" an M4A3E8 with a fake gun & welded turret.

The "Porcupine" it was all communications inside, to communicate with Air, Infantry, Navy & Artilery.

An M4A3E8 POA CWA H5 Flame Tank. Jack Carty Photo.

Flame Tank Platoon.

Flame tanks at Chosin.

M47= Last tank to have a bow gunner, 1st tank to have a range finder, Stereoscopic M12, Continental AV-17905B gasoline engine, 90mm M36 gun, 1 .50 Cal. 2 .30Cal. MG. 1951 to 1959, 3rd Tk. Bn. last unit to have the M47. Not used in Korea by Marines. See Tank Data.
M48= Continental AVI-1790-5B gasoline engine, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. (sky mounted), 1 .30 Cal. MG., Stereoscopic T46E1 Rangefinder. See Tank Data.
M48A1= Continental AVI-1790-5B to 7C gasoline engine, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, 1 .30 Cal. MG., Stereoscopic T46E1 Rangefinder.
M67= Flame Tank version of M48A1.
M48A2= Continental AVI-1790-8 gasoline engine, Stereoscopic M13A1 Rangefinder, 90mm M41 gun, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, 1 .30 Cal. MG.
M51 VTR= Continental AVSI-1790-6 gasoline engine, 1 .50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Built from the M103 chassi. See Tank Data.
M103A1= Continental AVI-1790-7B to 7C gasoline engine, 1 20mm M58 gun, 1 .50 Cal., 1 .30 Cal. MG. See Tank Data.
M103A2= Continental AVDS-1790-2A gasoline engine, 1 20mm M58 gun, 1 .50 Cal., 1 .30 Cal. MG. See Tank Data.
Dozer kits were used for the M47, M48A1 & A2.

M47 on the gun range.

Army M47 in Germany.


M48 w/sky mount .50 Cal. MG. Photo ?

M48 note track tension idler wheel & engineck deck. Photo ?

M48 note engine deck & large box which was a Tank/Infantry phone. Photo ?

Platoon of M48A1 tanks of 2nd Tk. Bn.


M67A1 Flame Tank

M48A2 (the track tension idler wheel was cut off of these) Peter Saussy.

M103A1 120mm Gun.

M103A2 on the range at Camp Pendelton, 1967.

M48A2 Rear Photo ?

M51 VTR.

M51 Retriver.


M48A3 Dozer tank. "C" Co. 5th Tk. Bn. 1968. Authors photo.

M48A3= Continental AVDS-1790-2A supercharged diesel, 90mm Gun M-41, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, and 1 .30 Cal. MG, Coincidence Rangefinder M17A1, 4 man crew. 1 Dozer Tank per Company. See Tank Data. All M48A3 were upgrades from the M48A1s and A2s.
M67A2= Continental AVDS-1790-2A supercharged diesel, Flame Thrower M7-6, 1 .50 Cal. in turret copula, and 1 .30 Cal. MG, 3 man crew. See Tank Data.
Mod B= Vision Blocks inserted below the copula, armored fraiming above exhaust louvers and around tail lights, improved copula hatch, TI phone moved and other changes.
M51= Continental AVSI-1790-6 gasoline engine, 1 .50 Cal. HBM2 MG. Built from the M103 chassi. See Tank Data.
The 1st Tank Platoon to land in Vietnam was 3rd Plt. "B" Co. 3rd Tks. on Mar. 9, 1965. See Map.

3rd Plt. tanks from Bravo Co. 3rd Tk. Bn. aboard LCU 1476 leaving the USS Vancouver heading for "Red Beach". March 8, 1965

Bravo 31 landing at Red Beach with Joe Tyson driving Mar. 8th 1965. From the Military Channel video. This was the 2nd tank to land, S/Sgt. John Downey was TC of the 1st tank to come ashore.

The first large scale operation (Starlight).

M48A3 Drivers Compartment. Authors photo.

M48A3 Loaders area. Authors photo.

M48A3 Gunners area. Authors photo.

M48A3 Tank Commanders area. Authors photo.

M48A3 Turret rear (Bustle). Authors photo.

View through the gunners pericope. Authors photo.

River Crossing Bob Haller photo.

River Crossing Bob Haller photo.

Keeping every thing clean. Bob Haller photo.

Alpha Co. Blade Tank. James Sausoman photo.

Bravo Co. 1st Tks. Carol Lemmon photo.

1st Plt Alpha Co. 1st Tks. Larry Sterling photo.

Removing the coupla for the Mod B upgrade. Rick Langley.

Coupla with old TC hatch. Rick Langley.

New vision ring inserted and replacing copula thit new TC hatch. Rick Langley.

A few minor adjustment and it' ready to go. Rick Langley.

Lt. Horner’s platoon, from F/2/5 take cover behind an M67A2 Flame Tank and a M48A3 during the battle for Hue. Photo ?

An M48A3 supports grunts in Hue. Photo ?

Highway 9, the road to Khe Sanh. Photo ?

Khe Sanh Tank. Photo ?

Tank as artilery at Khe Sanh. Jack Butcher.

Tank as artilery at Khe Sanh. Jack Butcher.

If you've gotten this far you may be interested in some of the sources I used.

Marin II YNB-753 - History

1942 - 1945
Activated 16 September 1942 at Camp Elliot, California, as the 3rd Marine Division. Deployed during January - Febuary 1943 to Auckland, New Zealand Participated in the following World War II Campaigns:

Deactivated 28 December 1945

Reactivated 7 January 1952 at Camp Pedleton, California as the 3rd Marine Division. Redeployed during August 1953 to Camp Gifu, Japan. Redeployed during February 1956 to Camp Courtney, Okinawa

Redeployed during April-May 1965 to the Republic of Vietnam. Participated in the War in Vietnam April 1965 - November 1969, operating from: Quang Tri Province, Quang Nam Province and Thua Thien Province

Redeployed during November 1969 to Camp Courtney, Okinawa. Elements participated in the Evacuation operations in Vietnam and Cambodia, March - May 1975. Participated in numerous training exercises throughout the 1970’s, 80's, and 90's.

African-Americans have fought for the United States throughout its history, defending and serving a country that in turn denied them their basic rights as citizens. Despite policies of racial segregation and discrimination, African-American soldiers played a significant role from the colonial period to the Korean War. It wasn't until the middle of the 20th century that African-American soldiers began to receive the recognition and equality they deserved.

The beginning of the 20th century was marked by World War I, and thousands of African-Americans rushed to register for the draft. Their enthusiasm stemmed in part to defend liberty and democracy in Europe, but also from the opportunity it gave them to prove that they deserved greater rights at home. Their enlistment rate was high, as was their desire to serve on the front lines. However military leaders believed that African-Americans did not have the physical, mental or moral character to withstand warfare and they were commonly relegated to labor-intensive service positions. The majority saw little combat.

Still, worthy contributions were made to America's war effort and one outstanding example was the 369th Infantry Regiment (known as the "Harlem Hellfighters") which served on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war and made notable due to the fact that they had received less training. During this time the unit never lost any prisoners or territory to the enemy. France awarded the entire unit with Croix de Guerre, that country's highest military honor and 171 members of the regiment were awarded the Legion of Merit.

In the lead up to and during World War II the military establishment continued to maintain that African-Americans soldiers were not as capable as their white counterparts and needed more intensive leadership. Despite the continuing discrimination, more than a million African-Americans volunteered to serve in the Armed Forces in the fight against Hitler.

As the war progressed attitudes began to slowly change. Some African-Americans were trained in elite positions never offered previously, such as the Air Force, and some units were desegregated for the first time at the Battle of the Bulge. In just a few years the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard made significant advancements in the treatment of their African-American personnel.

World War II was a watershed for race relations within the Armed Forces, and it marked the beginning of the end for racial separation within military units. In 1948 with the demand for civil rights mounting, President Harry S. Truman ordered desegregation of the Armed Services and equality of treatment and opportunity without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.

Reform was slow, however, and it wasn't until 1953 that segregation officially ended when the Secretary of Defense announced that the last all-black unit had been abolished.

The Korean War put this new policy to the test. African-Americans served in all combat service elements alongside their white counterparts and were involved in all major combat operations, including the advance of United Nations Forces to the Chinese border. Two African-American Army sergeants, Cornelius H. Charlton and William Thompson, earned the Medal of Honor.

The 1960s marked a major transformation for African-American citizens in the United States. The decade also marked the first major combat deployment of an integrated military to Vietnam.

The Vietnam War saw the highest proportion of African-Americans ever to serve in an American war. There was a marked turnaround from the attitude in previous wars that black men were not fit for combat - during the Vietnam War African-Americans faced a much greater chance of being on the front-line, and consequently a much higher casualty rate. In 1965 alone African-Americans represented almost 25 percent of those killed in action.

Following the Vietnam War and the phasing-out of conscription, the number of African-Americans volunteering to join the Army grew exponentially, enlisting at rates far above their share of the population. In general African-Americans account for nearly 25% of all enlisted Army soldiers while making up just 13% of the population.

In 1991, forty years after military segregation ended, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense, oversaw Operation Desert Storm in Iraq. He was an African-American named Colin L. Powell.

Marin II YNB-753 - History

"[Mariners] have written one of its most brilliant chapters. They have delivered the goods when and where needed in every theater of operations and across every ocean in the biggest, the most difficult and dangerous job ever undertaken. As time goes on, there will be greater public understanding of our merchant's fleet record during this war [World War II]."

President Franklin D. Roosevelt

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  • Merchant Marine Act of 1936
  • Roosevelt Speeches and Statements
  • Memorial Service and Prayers for Mariners
  • Poems about Mariners
  • Nautical Terms and Definitions
  • Merchant Marine Organizations
  • Maritime Links
  • Merchant Marine Hymn Heave Ho!
  • 46 WWII Press Releases

Information Sheet
One page flyer to download re WW II Merchant Marine

  • Newspaper Articles
  • Books, Videos, CDs
  • Book Reviews
  • Edition Capt. Moore book
  • Index to Capt. Moore book
  • Quotes about Merchant Marine
    Military and political leaders since George Washington
  • President Roosevelt Speeches & Statements
  • FDR states Merchant Marine an Armed Force

T. Horodysky
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Eugene, OR 97405

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