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Chagatai Khanate Timeline

Chagatai Khanate Timeline

  • c. 1227 - 1363

    The Mongol Chagatai Khanate rules in Central Asia.

  • c. 1227 - 1242

    Reign of Chagatai Khan, ruler of the Mongol Chagatai Khanate named after him.

  • 1242

    Death of Chagatai, ruler of the Chagatai Khanate.

  • 1251 - 1259

    Reign of Mongke Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.

  • 1251 - 1260

    Queen Orghina rules as regent of the Chagatai Khanate.nn

  • 1260 - 1264

    Kublai Khan fights a civil war with his brother Ariq Boke for control of the Mongol Empire.

  • 1260 - 1266

    Alghu Khan rules the Chagatai Khanate.

  • 1264

    Alghu Khan, ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, marries the former regent Queen Orghina.

  • 1266 - 1271

    Baraq Khan rules the Chagatai Khanate.

  • 1270

    Abaqa, ruler of the Ilkhanate, defeats Baraq, ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, at the battle of Herat.

  • 1271 - 1275

    Marco Polo travels across Asia to China.

  • 1272 - 1301

    The Mongol leader Qaidu II dominates Central Asia and nominates khans to rule the Chagatai Khanate.

  • 1273

    Abaqa, ruler of the Ilkhanate, sacks the city of Bukhara in the Chagatai Khanate.

  • 1318 - 1327

    Kebek Khan rules the Chagatai Khanate.

  • 1331 - 1334

    Tarmashirin Khan rules the Chagatai Khanate.nn

  • 1347 - 1363

    Tughlugh Timur rules as the last Khan of the Chagatai Khanate. Upon his death, the state disintegrates.


Chagatai Khanate Essay

Genghis Khan (c. 1167–1227) had four sons by his principal wife, Borte. The eldest son, Juji, and second son, Chagatai, were such fierce rivals that Genghis decided to bypass both in favor of his third son, Ogotai Khan as his successor khaghan (Grand Khan), and all of his sons agreed with his choice. Genghis also assigned territories to each son to govern, although all would acknowledge the leadership of the khaghan and cooperate with him in expanding the Mongol Empire. Juji received land farthest from the paternal homeland—the western territories that would include Russia and eastern Europe his followers were called the Golden Horde. Chagatai received west Turkestan, the Tarim Basin, and the western Tian Shan (T’ien Shan) region. Ogotai received Dzungaria and part of Central Asia, while the youngest son, Tului, received the Mongolian homeland. This arrangement was confirmed just before Genghis Khan died in 1227. Two years later the Kuriltai (council of nobles) elected Ogotai the next khaghan.

Chagatai’s allotment, which was enlarged later, also included the Ili River valley, Kashgaria, Turfan and Kucha in present-day northwestern China, and Transoxiana, including the towns of Bukhara and Samarkand. These disparate lands became known as the Chagatai Khanate. Except for the oasis towns most of the khanate was steppe land inhabited by various nomads, most of Turkic ethnicity. Chagatai was a warrior and also a staunch upholder of Mongol traditions. Genghis had appointed him guardian of the Mongolian law code called “Yasa” which he had sternly administered. Chagatai and his successors kept up a seminomadic lifestyle, changing from winter to summer camp as the seasons dictated. Whereas the Mongol realms under Kubilai Khan and his heirs in China, the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), and the il-khanate of Hulagu Khan and his successors in Persia and the Middle East had fixed boundaries, rich resources, large sedentary populations, and long established traditions of governance, the Chagatai Khanate had shifting boundaries, tribal populations with weak state institutions, and relatively sparse resources.

It was hemmed in by other Mongol dominions ruled by branches of Genghis Khan’s descendants in three directions—the Yuan dynasty, the Il-Khanate, and the Golden Horde in Russia. The only direction for expansion was into Afghanistan and India. Beginning in the 1290s Chagatai Khanate forces took control of eastern Afghanistan from which they raided northwestern India. In 1303 an expedition of 120,000 men besieged Delhi for two months and devastated a wide area. Another force of 40,000 horsemen returned to India in 1304 but was defeated and 9,000 prisoners were trampled to death by elephants. A similar fate befell the men of the last attacking army in 1305–1306. Not able to expand outward the heirs of Chagatai were constantly embroiled in wars and rivalries of the other three branches of the family, and among themselves. Although the Chagatai Khanate was poor in resources, its central location along the Silk Road allowed it to collect abundant taxes and tolls. Frequent wars and predatory policy toward trade and sedentary people often resulted in the breakdown and ultimately decline in international trade by land routes. Major differences and incompatibilities divided the eastern and western halves of the khanate. The western part, originally part of the Khwarazm kingdom, was Islamized, urbanized, and more advanced than the eastern region, which was more pastoral, nomadic, and animistic. Lacking a cohesive government, each went its own way.

Chagatai died in 1242 and was succeeded by his grandson Kara Hulagu. Interference by the khaghan and involvement by the Chagatai Khanid rulers in the dynastic struggle of other branches of the family resulted in many upheavals. Leaders of the Chagatai Khanate became involved when Mongke Khaghan died in 1259 and a succession struggle erupted between his brothers Kubilai and Arik Boke they sided with the winner Kubilai. Later they supported Kaidu Khan, a grandson of Ogotai, who challenged Kubilai for the throne of the khaghan. The destructive wars continued until Kaidu’s death in 1301. Although Kubilai won against his rivals, the unity of the Mongol Empire was fractured forever, and even though the Chagatai rulers were not in contention for overall leadership, their central position in the line of communications between the different branches of the family played a significant role in the breakdown of unity of the Mongol Empire.

The frequent civil wars and changes of rulers (there were 30 khan up to 1230) fatally weakened the central authority at the expense of local leaders. As the Chagatai Khanate was disintegrating in 1369, there rose in Samarkand a Mongol-Turkic leader who claimed descent from Genghis Khan. His name was Timurlane (Tamerlane), meaning Timur the Lame. His military career that ended with his death in1403 would replicate that of his famous ancestor. In the 14th century Chagatain rulers converted to Islam, the religion of many of the Turkic peoples they ruled. The official language of the khanate was changed from Mongolian to Chagatai Turkic. It continued to be used in the region they ruled until modern times.


11.9.1: Turko-Mongol Fusion

The Mongols were the first to unify the Eurasian steppe, and their occupation of the region corresponded to a wholesale takeover. As they migrated southwest down the steppe, they failed to displace the Turkic peoples already established in Central Asia. Early on, the dominant Mongols offered these Turkic groups a deal to either merge with them or suffer harsh reprisal. So as the Mongols progressed westward, their armies gained strength, as more and more of the Turkic tribesmen joined them, resulting in armies that were mostly comprised of Turkic peoples, not Mongols. In this manner, the Turkic groups absorbed and assimilated the invading Mongols, a process known as Turkification the conflict between the two cultures faded over time and eventually led to a fusion of Turkic and Mongolian societies. Over time, these Mongol pastoralists presiding over a sedentary Islamic culture slowly Turkified. They quickly became a Mongol minority governing a Turkic majority.

There were numerous points of contention between the two groups but also many commonalities. Both societies had originated on the steppe in modern day Mongolia, and, while the Turkic groups had settled down over the years and adopted more of a sedentary existence, many of the principles of pastoral nomadism still lingered in their culture. Both adhered to a patrimonial distribution of inheritance. Also, both the Turkic groups and the Mongols organized along tribal lines, and each followed a pattern of co-opting one tribe into another, thus facilitating a fusion of the Mongols with their Turkic hosts. For this system to work though, the Mongols had to speak the idiom of the people they ruled. So instead of the Mongols imposing their language on the majority of the population, the Mongol elite learned Chagatai, a Turkic tongue.

For many years, religion remained the only major distinction between the two societies, but once the Chagataids converted to Islam in 1333 this conspicuous difference disappeared. While the Mongols adopted the creed and language of the Turkic Chagatai, these Turkic peoples incorporated the Mongol political concept of Genghis-Khanid legitimacy.


Epic World History

Genghis also assigned territories to each son to govern, although all would acknowledge the leadership of the khaghan and cooperate with him in expanding the Mongol Empire. Juji received land farthest from the paternal homeland—the western territories that would include Russia and eastern Europe his followers were called the Golden Horde.

Chagatai received west Turkestan, the Tarim Basin, and the western Tian Shan (T’ien Shan) region. Ogotai received Dzungaria and part of Central Asia, while the youngest son, Tului, received the Mongolian homeland. This arrangement was confirmed just before Genghis Khan died in 1227. Two years later the Kuriltai (council of nobles) elected Ogotai the next khaghan.


Chagatai’s allotment, which was enlarged later, also included the Ili River valley, Kashgaria, Turfan and Kucha in present-day northwestern China, and Transoxiana, including the towns of Bukhara and Samarkand. These disparate lands became known as the Chagatai Khanate. Except for the oasis towns most of the khanate was steppe land inhabited by various nomads, most of Turkic ethnicity.

Chagatai was a warrior and also a staunch upholder of Mongol traditions. Genghis had appointed him guardian of the Mongolian law code called “Yasa” which he had sternly administered. Chagatai and his successors kept up a seminomadic lifestyle, changing from winter to summer camp as the seasons dictated.

Whereas the Mongol realms under Kubilai Khan and his heirs in China, the Yuan dynasty (1279�), and the il-khanate of Hulagu Khan and his successors in Persia and the Middle East had fixed boundaries, rich resources, large sedentary populations, and long established traditions of governance, the Chagatai Khanate had shifting boundaries, tribal populations with weak state institutions, and relatively sparse resources.

Chagatai statue

It was hemmed in by other Mongol dominions ruled by branches of Genghis Khan’s descendants in three directions—the Yuan dynasty, the Il-Khanate, and the Golden Horde in Russia. The only direction for expansion was into Afghanistan and India. Beginning in the 1290s Chagatai Khanate forces took control of eastern Afghanistan from which they raided northwestern India.

In 1303 an expedition of 120,000 men besieged Delhi for two months and devastated a wide area. Another force of 40,000 horsemen returned to India in 1304 but was defeated and 9,000 prisoners were trampled to death by elephants. A similar fate befell the men of the last attacking army in 1305�.

Not able to expand outward the heirs of Chagatai were constantly embroiled in wars and rivalries of the other three branches of the family, and among themselves. Although the Chagatai Khanate was poor in resources, its central location along the Silk Road allowed it to collect abundant taxes and tolls. Frequent wars and predatory policy toward trade and sedentary people often resulted in the breakdown and ultimately decline in international trade by land routes.


Major differences and incompatibilities divided the eastern and western halves of the khanate. The western part, originally part of the Khwarazm kingdom, was Islamized, urbanized, and more advanced than the eastern region, which was more pastoral, nomadic, and animistic. Lacking a cohesive government, each went its own way.

Chagatai died in 1242 and was succeeded by his grandson Kara Hulagu. Interference by the khaghan and involvement by the Chagatai Khanid rulers in the dynastic struggle of other branches of the family resulted in many upheavals.

Leaders of the Chagatai Khanate became involved when Mongke Khaghan died in 1259 and a succession struggle erupted between his brothers Kubilai and Arik Boke they sided with the winner Kubilai. Later they supported Kaidu Khan, a grandson of Ogotai, who challenged Kubilai for the throne of the khaghan. The destructive wars continued until Kaidu’s death in 1301.

Although Kubilai won against his rivals, the unity of the Mongol Empire was fractured forever, and even though the Chagatai rulers were not in contention for overall leadership, their central position in the line of communications between the different branches of the family played a significant role in the breakdown of unity of the Mongol Empire.

The frequent civil wars and changes of rulers (there were 30 khan up to 1230) fatally weakened the central authority at the expense of local leaders. As the Chagatai Khanate was disintegrating in 1369, there rose in Samarkand a Mongol-Turkic leader who claimed descent from Genghis Khan.

His name was Timurlane (Tamerlane), meaning Timur the Lame. His military career that ended with his death in 1403 would replicate that of his famous ancestor. In the 14th century Chagatain rulers converted to Islam, the religion of many of the Turkic peoples they ruled. The official language of the khanate was changed from Mongolian to Chagatai Turkic. It continued to be used in the region they ruled until modern times.


1516 The Sultanate of Malacca reforms, the first organized nation in south-east Asia since the shift.

1519 The Ming Dynasty issues the Rebuilding of China mandate. Each person in China is required to work for two years on the rebuilding of China along the coasts.

1521 The Khmer Empire and Champa reform, each as a monarchical government with limited rights for the people.

1523 The Great Khanate attacks Manchuria with small amounts of forces. after a few skirmishes, the northern area of Manchuria is placed under Mongol control.

1527 Much to the dislike of the Sultanate of Malacca, many princes run away and form the country of Srivijaya, a reformation of the once powerful nation.

1529 The Sultanate of Malacca declares war of Srivijaya, and invades with large numbers of forces.

1532 The turning point in the Srivijaya war for independence occurs with the naval battle of Lingga. The Malaccan fleet is almost totally destroyed and is unable to supply the Malaccan ground forces.

1534 The Siberian Khanate, hoping to gain some importance, campaigns against the Yakut in OTL northern Russia. The attacks go very well, and the Yakut are absorbed into the Siberian Khanate.

1536 The Srivijayan war for independence is won by Srivijaya. A national holiday is declared and people all around Srivijaya are joyful.

Asia after the South East reformation

1538 The Vijanagara Empire starts to disintegrate, with a new tax on imported items seeming "unacceptable" to the people of the empire.

1540 The fourth Mongol-Ming war yields no results.

1547 The people of Srivijayan Empire stage a wide-scale coup. They set up their own government, the Bhāratan Republic, modeled after (now destroyed) European countries.

1555 China (called Zhōngguó from now on) establishes a government in Tibet. They are dependent upon Zhōngguóan rule and use many of the same customs as the Zhōngguó.

1562 Khmer and Champa sign a historic agreement, called the Two Nations Alliance, one of the world's first free-trade agreements.

1564 Malacca tries to ruin the Srivijayan government by lowering trade taxes nationwide. Many countries buy from Malacca instead of Srivijaya.

1567 Srivijaya joins the Two Nations Alliance (now the Three Nations Alliance), causing trade to rebound.

1582 The Bhāratan Republic claims middle India, securing two-thirds of the subcontinent.

1593 The Great Khanate demands funds from the Chagatai Khanate and the Great Horde, wanting to create another invasion army. The Great Horde refuses.

1595 The Great Khanate, the Chagatai Khanate, and the Siberian Khanate all go to war against the Great Horde. The Great Horde is demolished within one year and the territory is divided between the nations.

Europe

1530 The Norwegian tribes unite under King Astolf, the first organized nation in Europe since the shift.

1534 Danish and Frankish tribes have multiple small wars, with the Franks generally coming out on top.

1536 King Astolf leads Norway to multiple victories against scattered Swedish tribes.

1538 Muscovy and Novgorod reform in the far east. they are in generally good shape, with the shift happening far from the area.

1541 The Frankish tribes battle the Spanish tribes. The Frankish again come out on top.

1543 Muscovy annexes a large area of land to the south, displacing many tribes from the area and creating many enemies.

1547 Danish tribes unite to reform Denmark.

1550 King Astolf invades Denmark, using cunning tactics to secure many victories.

1553 The Swedish and Finnish tribes start to band together in larger groups.

1559 Muscovy signs an alliance with Novgorod, optimistically setting up how they will divide Europe. Both countries enlist armies of warriors.

1560 Persia reforms, under the control of former Ottoman Turks. They claim land up to the coast of the Holy Land.

1563 Many nations form in northern Europe and Russia.

Europe after the reformation

1565 Muscovy and Novgorod invade using massive armies. Kurv Novinskov of Muscovy leads brilliant campaigns against the un-allied tribes in the south, and Novgorod expands northwards.

1568 Muscovy and Novgorod finish their conquests for now, and wait to rebuild and unify their conquests.

1571 King Astolf leads a final campaign against the Swedes, containing them in far southern Norway. King Astolf dies and leaves the throne to his son, Klenark.

1573 All of Ireland is either under Desmond, Mayo or United Ireland control.

1578 France, Normandy, Spain, Portugal, and England form in a mass unifying effort.

1579 Muscovy initiates the Military Reform Act, creating a minimal service time in the military.

1582 Novgorod enacts a similar act as Muscovy, the Legion Act. BBB Both countries form a free-trade agreement.

1589 King Klenark of Norway invades northern Scandinavia and Sweden,

Europe after the second reformation

expanding the Empire greatly. The Swedish tribes unite under multiple banners and all the countries form an alliance.

1593 Tribes in Southern Europe start to unite, although none of them are actual nations yet.

1596 Norway begins to colonize Iceland.

1598 Hungary, the Byzantine Empire and Burgundy form.


Formation Edit

Genghis Khan's empire was inherited by his third son, Ögedei Khan, the designated Khagan who personally controlled the lands east of Lake Balkhash as far as Mongolia. Tolui, the youngest, the keeper of the hearth, was accorded the northern Mongolian homeland. Chagatai Khan, the second son, received Transoxiana, between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers (in modern Uzbekistan) and the area around Kashgar. He made his capital at Almaliq near what is now Yining City in northwestern China. [ 6 ] Apart from problems of lineage and inheritance, the Mongol Empire was endangered by the great cultural and ethnic divide between the Mongols themselves and their mostly Islamic Iranian and Turkic subjects.

When Ögedei died before achieving his dream of conquering all of China, there was an unsettled transition to his son Güyük Khan (1241) overseen by Ögedei's wife Töregene Khatun, who had assumed the regency for the five years following Ögedei's death. The transition had to be ratified in a kurultai, which was duly celebrated, but without the presence of Batu Khan, the independent-minded khan of the Golden Horde. [ 7 ] After Güyük's death, Batu sent Berke, who maneuvered with Tolui's widow, and, in the next kurultai (1253), the Ögedite line was passed over for Möngke Khan, Tolui's son, who was said to be favorable to the Church of the East. [ 8 ] The Ögedite ulus was dismembered only the Ögedites who did not immediately go into opposition were given minor fiefs. [ 9 ]


Chagatai literature

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Chagatai literature, the body of written works produced in Chagatai, a classical Turkic literary language of Central Asia.

Chagatai literature took shape after the conversion of the Mongol Golden Horde to Islam, a process completed under the 14th-century khan Öz Beg. The first literary efforts in Chagatai were translations of works from other languages, with literary activity centred in Khwārezm in Central Asia in Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde, located on the Volga River and among the Turkic Mamlūks of Egypt and Syria. Two major monuments of early Chagatai literature are translations of works by Persian poets: in 1340 Quṭb Khorazmī translated Neẓāmī’s romantic epic Khosrow o-Shīrīn (“Khosrow and Shīrīn”), and in 1390–91 Sayf-i Sarāyī translated Saʿdī’s Gulistān (“The Rose Garden”), a prose work interspersed with verse.

Turkic writers at this time were creating a distinctive style within Persian literary genres—including the ghazal (lyric poem), the robāʿī (a type of quatrain plural robāʿīyāt), and the masnawi (series of rhymed couplets)—and within one of their own forms, the tuyugh (also a type of quatrain). After Timur’s destruction of Khwārezm in 1388, this new Persianate Turkic literature flourished in Samarkand and Bukhara (both now in Uzbekistan) and in Herāt (now in Afghanistan) in the literary language that came to be known as Chagatai. In the 15th century, ʿAlī Shīr Navāʾī, its greatest exemplar and proponent, established the name Chagatai to refer to the language he employed in his works. Prior to Navāʾī, most writers had referred to this language as türk tili (“Turkish language”). Derived from the name of the ruling dynasty founded in the 13th century by Chagatai, the second son of Genghis Khan and heir to part of Genghis’s empire, the term Chagatai was also used by the Mughal emperor Bābur and by later Central Asian authors.

In the first half of the 15th century, writers began producing original works in Chagatai. These works reflected the Timurids’ preoccupation with systematization that can also be found in the poetry they patronized in the Persian language. In no previous era of Persianate literature had the rules of rhetoric been as evident in virtually every poem. While the Persian literature of Iran and India abandoned this heavy reliance on such rules during the later 16th century, Chagatai poetry maintained it from its beginning until its demise in the late 19th century. Major poets of the first half of the 15th century include Sakkākī, Atāʾī, Luṭfī, and Gadāʾī. A noteworthy group of poems by Aḥmadī and Yūsuf Amīrī were written as "contestations" (munāẓara) in which inanimate things—such as musical instruments, hashish, and wine—are depicted arguing between themselves about their relative worth.

Navāʾī was the most active and influential literary figure among those writing in Turkic languages under the Timurids, and in his works he raised Chagatai to a very high artistic level. He showed his greatest originality in his masnawis, where his new conception of plot caused him to abandon the genre’s traditional narrative style and to embark on a novel theory of mimesis. His Khamseh demonstrates his centrality to the Chagatai literary tradition. It consists of a set of five masnawis: Khayrat ul-abrār (1483 “The Best of the Righteous”), Farhād u Shīrīn (1484 “Farhād and Shīrīn”), Leylī u Majnūn (1484 “Leylī and Majnūn”), Sebʿa-i seyyāra (1484 "The Seven Planets"), and Sedd-i Iskandarī (1485 "The Wall of Alexander"). The masnawi Lisān ul-tayr (1498 "The Language of the Birds"), an adaptation of Manṭeq al-ṭeyr (The Conference of the Birds) by the Persian poet Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, is a similarly important work. Navāʾī was also able to incorporate the theoretical and institutional Sufism that dominated the Timurid age into his literary aesthetic, creating abstract yet emotionally expressive ghazals and robāʿīyāt. His other writings include works on prosody, as well as a tezkire (literary dictionary), Majālis-i nefaʾīs (1491 “The Exquisite Assemblies”).

Among those of the generation following Navāʾī, the Chagatai language was employed most effectively in the 16th century by Bābur, in both his divan (collection of poetry) and his prose autobiography, the Bābur-nāmeh—two of the greatest classics of Chagatai literature. Bābur’s conquest of India helped him to claim European attention, and, through later translations into Western languages, his autobiography became a classic of world autobiography. Roughly contemporary to Bābur was the Uzbek Muḥammad Shaybānī Khan, a noted lyric poet in both Chagatai and Persian. He found his panegyrist in the Khwārezmian poet Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ, who completed the epic Shaybānī-nāmeh in 1506. The imposition of Uzbek rule in Transoxania in the 1490s, however, led more generally to a decline in the use of Chagatai as a literary medium.

During the 17th century, Chagatai became confined largely to the somewhat peripheral khanate of Khiva, while the khanate of Bukhara usually patronized writing in Persian. The major literary texts in Chagatai during the 17th century were the historical writing of the Khivan khan Abū al-Ghāzī Bahādur—notably his Shajare-i Tarākime (1659 “Genealogical Tree of the Turkmen”) and Shajare-i Turk (completed posthumously by his son in 1665 “Genealogical Tree of the Turks”)—and the radical Sufi poetry of the Farghanian Mashrab. The Khivan khans also patronized Turkic poets such as Vafāʾī and Nādir. However, the economic and political decline of the khanate during the 18th century led to its decline as an important centre of Chagatai literature and indirectly to the rise of an independent Turkmen literature. Two of the major Khivan poets of the 18th century, Pahlavanqul Ravnaq and Nishātī, emigrated, the former to the khanate of Kokand and the latter to the khanate of Bukhara. While in Bukhara in the 1770s, Nishātī wrote the last major masnawi in Chagatai, Hüsn u Dil (“Beauty and the Heart”). Turdī, a Bukharan, wrote political satires against several rulers, including in 1691 the emir Subhānquli.

During the 18th century, members of the settled population of Bukhara and Kokand, known as Sarts, usually spoke both Persian and Turkic but nevertheless had two distinct literary heritages derived from those languages. The literary model for Sarts whose predominant language was Turkic remained the Chagatai classics of the 15th century, especially the works of Navāʾī. Sarts whose primary language was Persian preserved the entire Persian literary heritage of Iran and by the 18th century were deeply involved in the literary movement known as the Indian school (Sabk-i Hindī). This new movement was cultivated in Iran and especially in India under the Mughal dynasty, and it was influential as far west as Ottoman Turkey. It seems that native speakers of both languages had a wide passive familiarity with the poetry created in the other, but, when they created new works, these reflected the dominant literary influences within each linguistic tradition. For example, the Kokandian princess Mahlarayim (Māhilar), writing in the 19th century, created a Chagatai divan under the makhlaṣ (or takhalluṣ pen name) Nādira and a Persian divan under the name Maknüna she also used the name Kāmila in her Chagatai works. In her Persian divan she included mukhammas (imitative poems) that responded to ghazals and robāʿīyāt by Saʿdī, while in her Chagatai divan she wrote responses to poems by Navāʾī.

During the first half of the 19th century, the khanate of Kokand became a considerable centre of literature in both Chagatai and Persian under ʿUmar Khan, the husband of Mahlarayim. Among the poets of his court was Muhammad Sharaf Gulkhānī, author of Zarbumasal (“Proverbs”), a masnawi consisting of fables. The poet Uvaysī, believed to be a friend of Mahlarayim, also spent some years in the Kokandian court. This literary patronage was continued to some extent by Muhammad ʿAli Khan, ʿUmar Khan’s successor it ended in 1842 when the khanate was conquered by Bukhara and Mahlarayim was executed by the Bukharan emir Nasrullah. The suppression of Kokand led to a cultural hiatus, but, after the Russian conquest of the late 19th century, new poets emerged, of whom the most creative were Muqīmī and Furqat. Both were late Chagatai poets who saw Navāʾī, Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli (a 16th-century poet who wrote in Turkish, Persian, and Arabic), and the poets of the court of Muhammad ʿAli Khan as their literary models. Nevertheless, they both expanded the generic boundaries of the traditional ghazal and the masnawi by using these forms for satirical poems, such as Muqīmī’s Zavodchibay (“The Rich Industrialist”) and Avliyä (“The Saint”). Furqat also wrote a number of didactic poems that urged the people of Turkistan to emulate the scientific and cultural achievements of Russia.

Some notable Chagatai writing was also produced in Khiva during the 19th century. The two leading poets there were Shermuhammad Munis and his nephew Muhammad Āgahī. Between 1806 and 1825, Munis, a lyric poet, wrote the poems that constitute his divan, Munis-ul ʿushshäq (“The Most Companionable of the Lovers”). But he is best remembered as the author of Firdaus-ul iqbāl (“Paradise of Felicity”), a history of Khiva begun at the command of Eltuzar Khan and continued under Eltuzar’s successor, Muhammad Rakhim Khan. Munis educated Āgahī, who compiled a divan, Taʿvīz-ul ʿashiq (“Amulet of the Lovers”), and continued the writing of Paradise of Felicity. Āgahī also was a major translator of the Persian classics into Chagatai. The khan Sayyid Muḥammad Raḥīm Bahādur II introduced printing to Khiva in 1874, the year of Āgahī’s death. Taking the pen name Firuz, he also wrote verse in Chagatai.

The Russian conquest of much of Central Asia stimulated a new worldview there that resulted in the Jadid reform movement, which emphasized new forms of education through its New Method schools. (See Sidebar: Activities of the Jadid Reformers.) By the early 20th century, a new literature had begun to emerge that was based on European models and used a form of Uzbek rather than the classical Chagatai language.


Death and Aftermath [ edit | edit source ]

The funeral of Chagatai Khan.

Chaghatai died in 1241, after a reign of about fourteen years, and within the same year the death of Ogedai occurred at Karakorum. Ώ] Thus two out of four of the chief divisions of the Mongol empire were suddenly deprived of their sovereigns, with the result that nearly the whole of the successors of Genghis Khan were set disputing for the succession. Ώ] However, for the time being, it ended in Turakina, Ogedai's widow, being appointed regent Ώ] but there were set up lasting disputes among the rival claimants, and the seeds of much future mischief were sown. For long after, the disputes regarding the succession to the throne of the great Khan became inextricably mixed up with the affairs, more especially of the eastern part, of Chaghatai's Khanate. Ώ]

Little is known of the way in which Chaghatai disposed of his kingdom at his death, and there appears to be no mention, anywhere, of his having followed the ancestral custom of his house in distributing it among his descendants. He is recorded to have left a numerous family, but to have been succeeded by a grandson, and a minor, named Qara Hülëgü, while his widow, Ebuskun, assumed the regency. Ώ]

Mutukan [ edit | edit source ]

Chagatai's son Mutukan (Mö'etüken) was killed during the siege of Bamiyan in 1221. ΐ]

Turkistan, Transoxiana, and the adjacent regions were controlled directly by his descendents but not Kashghar, Yarkand, Khotan, Aksu, and the southern slopes of the Tian Shan mountainsor, in other words, to the province south of the line of the Tian Shan, which is called, in our times, Eastern Turkistan. Ώ] As regards this province, Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat says that it was given by Chaghatai, presumably at his death, to the clan or house of Dughlat, whose members were reckoned to be of the purest Mongol descent, and one of the noblest divisions of that people. Ώ] The Dughlats were thus made hereditary chiefs, or Amirs, of the various districts of Eastern Turkistan, as far back as the time of Chaghatai, for it is chiefly on this incident that hinges the permanent division of the Chaghatai realm into two branches, at a later date. Ώ]

Baidar [ edit | edit source ]

Baidar was the second son of Chagatai Khan. He participated in the European campaign ("The elder boys campaign" as it was known in Mongolia) with his nephew Büri from 1235-1241. He commanded the Mongol army assigned to Poland with Kadan and, probably, Orda Khan

Early in May 1241 they entered Moravia. Various small, unprotected places were plundered. Only cities of Olomouc, Brno and Uničov resisted. When they attempt to take the town of Olomouc they were beaten by the Czech royal army in a battle of Olomouc, and Baidar were killed by King Václav, then rest continued via Brno, to join Batu's main army in Hungary. Although Bohemia remained unmolested, Moravia had much to endure. The destruction in Poland, Silesia and Moravia was all much of the same kind.

Some European chronicles claim Baidar was not killed near Olomouc in 1240 as Baidar later participated in the election of Güyük Khan in 1247.


The Khanate that was also a Dynasty

Last but not least is the Yuan Dynasty, which ruled over China. Its first emperor was Kublai Khan , and the dynasty lasted until 1368. Although the Yuan Dynasty lasted less than a century, it made certain important contributions to Chinese history.

For instance, Khanbaliq (modern day Beijing) was completely rebuilt by Kublai Khan as his new capital. Additionally, the Yuan Dynasty is reputed for its development of the literary genres of drama and novel. Moreover, Kublai Khan undertook various public works to improve the lives of his subjects, and his benevolent rule was recorded by the Venetian traveler, Marco Polo .

Kublai Khan and the Polo family. ( Public Domain )

Unlike the other khanates, the Yuan Dynasty did not disintegrate into smaller khanates, but was replaced by a when a native Han dynasty, the Ming.

Top image: Mongol attack ( Lunstream / Fotolia)


Legacy

Timur began his rise as leader of a small nomad band and by guile and force of arms established dominion over the lands between the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers (Transoxania) by the 1360s. He then, for three decades, led his mounted archers to subdue each state from Mongolia to the Mediterranean. He was the last of the mighty conquerors of Central Asia to achieve such military successes as leader of the nomad warrior lords, ruling both agricultural and pastoral peoples on an imperial scale. The poverty, bloodshed, and desolation caused by his campaigns gave rise to many legends, which in turn inspired such works as Christopher Marlowe’s Tamburlaine the Great.

The name Timur Lenk signified Timur the Lame, a title of contempt used by his Persian enemies, which became Tamburlaine, or Tamerlane, in Europe. Timur was heir to a political, economic, and cultural heritage rooted in the pastoral peoples and nomad traditions of Central Asia. He and his compatriots cultivated the military arts and discipline of Genghis Khan and, as mounted archers and swordsmen, scorned the settled peasants. Timur never took up a permanent abode. He personally led his almost constantly campaigning forces, enduring extremes of desert heat and lacerating cold. When not campaigning he moved with his army according to season and grazing facilities. His court traveled with him, including his household of one or more of his nine wives and concubines. He strove to make his capital, Samarkand, the most splendid city in Asia, but when he visited it he stayed only a few days and then moved back to the pavilions of his encampment in the plains beyond the city.

Timur was, above all, master of the military techniques developed by Genghis Khan, using every weapon in the military and diplomatic armory of the day. He never missed an opportunity to exploit the weakness (political, economic, or military) of the adversary or to use intrigue, treachery, and alliance to serve his purposes. The seeds of victory were sown among the ranks of the enemy by his agents before an engagement. He conducted sophisticated negotiations with both neighbouring and distant powers, which are recorded in diplomatic archives from England to China. In battle, the nomadic tactics of mobility and surprise were his major weapons of attack.

Timur’s most lasting memorials are the Timurid architectural monuments of Samarkand, covered in azure, turquoise, gold, and alabaster mosaics these are dominated by the great cathedral mosque, ruined by an earthquake but still soaring to an immense fragment of dome. His mausoleum, the Gūr-e Amīr, is one of the gems of Islamic art. Within the sepulchre he lies under a huge, broken slab of jade. The tomb was opened in 1941, having remained intact for half a millennium. The Soviet Archaeological Commission found the skeleton of a man who, though lame in both right limbs, must have been of powerful physique and above-average height.

Timur’s sons and grandsons fought over the succession when the Chinese expedition disbanded, but his dynasty (see Timurid dynasty) survived in Central Asia for a century in spite of fratricidal strife. Samarkand became a centre of scholarship and science. It was here that Ulūgh Beg, his grandson, set up an observatory and drew up the astronomical tables that were later used by the English royal astronomer in the 17th century. During the Timurid renaissance of the 15th century, Herāt, southeast of Samarkand, became the home of the brilliant school of Persian miniaturists. At the beginning of the 16th century, when the dynasty ended in Central Asia, his descendant Bābur established himself in Kabul and then conquered Delhi, to found the Muslim line of Indian emperors known as the Great Mughals.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.