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Porter II DD-59 - History

Porter II DD-59 - History

Porter II DD-59

Porter II(DD-59: dp. 1,205; 1. 315'3"; b. 29'11"; dr. 9'4", s. 29 k.cpl. 133; a. 4 4", 4 21" tt.; cl. Tuckee)The second Porter (DD-59) was laid down by William Cramp and Sons, Philadelphia, Penn., 24 February 1914 Iaunched 26 August 1915, sponsored bv Miss Georgiana Porter Cusachs; and commissioned 17 April 1916, Lt. Comdr. Ward K. Wortman in command.After shakedown in the Caribbean, Porter sailed in convoy 24 April 1917 escorting the first U.S. troops to Europe. Shearrived at Queenstown, Ireland, 4 May, where she was based during World War I, meeting and escorting convoys from the U.S. as they entered the war zone. Kept busy as a convoy escort, she severely damaged U-108, 28 April 1918, while the German submarine was steaming to intercept a convoy. Operating from Brest after 14 June, she returned to the United States at the end of the war.After World War I Porter operated off the East Coast and was decommissioned 23 June 1922. Transferred to the Coast Guard, 7 June 1924, she was returned to the Navy 30 June 1933, and disposed of by scrapping under the terms of the 1930 London Treaty for Limitation of Armament the following year. Her name was struck from the Navy List 5 July 1934 and her materials were sold 22 August 1934.


USS Porter (DD-59)

USS Porter (Destroyer No. 59/DD-59) was a Tucker-class destroyer built for the United States Navy prior to the American entry into World War I. The ship was the second U.S. Navy vessel named in honor of both David Porter and his son David Dixon Porter.

  • 1,090 long tons (1,110 t) [1]
  • 1,205 long tons (1,224 t) fully loaded [2]
  • 9 ft 4 + 1 ⁄ 2 in (2.858 m) (mean) [6]
  • 10 ft 5 in (3.18 m) (max)
  • 4 × Yarrow boilers
  • 18,000 shp (13,000 kW)
  • 2 × Curtis geared steam turbines
  • 2 × screw propellers
  • 29.5 kn (33.9 mph 54.6 km/h) [2]
  • 29.58 kn (34.04 mph 54.78 km/h) (Speed on Trial) [6]
  • 4 × 4 in (100 mm)/50caliber guns
  • 8 × 21 inch (533 mm)torpedo tubes (4 × 2)

Porter was laid down by the William Cramp & Sons of Philadelphia, in August 1914 and launched in August of the following year. The ship was a little more than 315 feet (96 m) in length, just over 30 feet (9.1 m) abeam, and had a standard displacement of 1,090 long tons (1,110 t). She was armed with four 4-inch (10 cm) guns and had eight 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes. Porter was powered by a pair of steam turbines that propelled her at up to 29.5 knots (54.6 km/h).

After her April 1916 commissioning, Porter conducted her shakedown cruise in the Caribbean. After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Porter was part of the first U.S. destroyer squadron sent overseas. Patrolling the Irish and Celtic Sea out of Queenstown, Ireland, Porter severely damaged the German submarine U-108 in April 1918.

Upon returning to the United States after the war, Porter operated off the east coast until she was decommissioned in June 1922. In June 1924, Porter was transferred to the United States Coast Guard to help enforce Prohibition as a part of the "Rum Patrol". She operated under the name USCGC Porter (CG-7) until 1933, when she was returned to the Navy. Later that year, the ship was renamed DD-59 to free the name Porter for another destroyer. She was sold for scrap in August 1934.


Contents

David Dixon Porter was born in Chester, Pennsylvania, on June 8, 1813, to David Porter and Evalina (Anderson) Porter. The family had strong naval traditions the elder Porter's father, also named David, had been captain of a Massachusetts vessel in the American Revolutionary War, as had his uncle Samuel. In the next generation, David Porter and his brother John entered the fledgling United States Navy and served with distinction during the War of 1812. David Porter was named to the rank of commodore. [1]

The younger David was one of 10 children, including six boys. His youngest brother Thomas died of yellow fever at the age of ten, contracted when traveling with his father for the Mexican Navy. The surviving five sons all became officers, four in the U.S. Navy:

  • William
  • David Dixon, became the second man promoted to rank of admiral.
  • Hambleton, died of yellow fever while a passed midshipman.
  • Henry Ogden
  • Theodoric, became an officer in the US Army he was killed at Matamoros in the Mexican–American War. [2]

His uncle John Porter and his wife did not have as many children, but their son Fitz John Porter was a major general in the US Army at the time of the Civil War. Another son, Bolton Porter, was lost with his ship USS Levant in 1861. [3] His aunt Anne married their cousin Alexander Porter. Their son David Henry Porter became a captain in the Mexican Navy during its struggle for independence (see below). [4] The naval tradition continued into later generations of the family's descendants.

In addition to rearing their own children, his parents David and Evalina Porter adopted James Glasgow Farragut. The boy's mother died in 1808 when he was seven, and his father George Farragut, a U.S. naval officer in the American Revolution and friend of David Porter Sr., was unable to care for all his children. Commodore David Porter offered to adopt James, to which the boy and George agreed. In 1811, James started serving a midshipman under Porter in the U.S. Navy, and changed his first name to David. He had a distinguished career as David G. Farragut, serving as the first man to attain the new rank of admiral, instituted by the U.S. Congress after the American Civil War.

In the Mexican Navy Edit

After a reprimand for an 1824 incident, Commodore David Porter decided to resign from the navy rather than submit. He accepted an offer from the government of Mexico to become their General of Marine – in effect, the commander of their navy. [5] He took with him a nephew, David Henry Porter, and his sons, David Dixon and Thomas. The two boys were made midshipmen. Thomas died of yellow fever soon after arriving in Mexico he was 10. David Dixon, age 12, was not affected by the disease. He was able to serve on the frigate Libertad, where he saw little action, and on the captured merchantman Esmeralda for a raid on Spanish shipping in Cuban waters. [6]

In 1828, David Dixon accompanied his cousin, David Henry Porter, captain of the brig Guerrero, in another raid. Guerrero, mounting 22 guns, was one of the finest vessels in the small Mexican Navy. Off the coast of Cuba on February 10, 1828, she encountered a flotilla of about fifty schooners, convoyed by Spanish brigs Marte and Amalia. Captain Porter elected to attack, and soon forced the flotilla to seek refuge in the harbor at Mariel, 30 miles (48 km) west of Havana. The Spanish 64-gun frigate Lealtad put to sea. Guerrero was able to break off the action and escape, but overnight Captain Porter decided to circle back and attack the vessels at Mariel. Intercepted by Lealtad, he could not escape. In the battle, Captain Porter was killed, together with many of his crew the young midshipman Porter was slightly wounded. He was among the survivors who surrendered and were imprisoned in Havana until they could be exchanged. Commodore Porter chose not to risk his son again, and sent him back to the United States by way of New Orleans. [7]

David Dixon Porter obtained an official appointment as midshipman in the U.S. Navy through his grandfather, US Congressman William Anderson. The appointment was dated February 2, 1829, when he was sixteen years of age this was somewhat older than many midshipmen, some of whom had been taken in as boys. Due to his relative maturity and experience, greater than that of most naval lieutenants, Porter tended to be cocky and challenge some of his superiors, leading to conflict. Except for intervention by Commodore James Biddle, who acted favorably because Porter's father was a hero, his warrant as a midshipman would not have been renewed. [8]

Porter's last duty as a midshipman was on the frigate USS United States, flagship of Commodore Daniel Patterson, from June 1832 until October 1834. Patterson's family accompanied him, including his daughter, George Ann ("Georgy"). The two young people renewed their acquaintance and became engaged. [9] After Porter returned home, he completed the examination for passed midshipman, and soon after was assigned to duty in the Coast Survey. There, his pay was such that he could save enough to marry.

Porter and Georgy Patterson were married on March 10, 1839. [10] Of their four sons, three had military careers, and their two surviving daughters married men who had military service or were active officers. [11]

  • Major David Essex Porter served in the army during the Civil War, but resigned after two years in the peacetime army.
  • Captain Theodoric Porter made his career in the navy.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Carlile Patterson Porter was an officer in the U.S. Marine Corps his son, David Dixon Porter II, also served in the Marines, rising to the rank of major general and earning the Medal of Honor.
  • One of their two surviving daughters, Elizabeth, married Leavitt Curtis Logan, who achieved the rank of Rear Admiral. [12]
  • Their other surviving daughter, Elena, married Charles H. Campbell, a former army officer who had left the service before their marriage. [13]
  • Richard Bache Porter was the only child to have no relation to the military services. [14]

In March 1841, Porter was promoted in rank to lieutenant, and in April of the next year he was detached from the Coast Survey. He had a brief tour of duty in the Mediterranean, and then he was assigned to the U.S. Navy's Hydrographic Office. [15]

Mission to Santo Domingo Edit

In 1846, the era of peace was coming to a close. The United States had annexed the Republic of Texas, and the islands of the Caribbean seemed to be likely targets for further expansion. The Republic of Santo Domingo (the present-day Dominican Republic) had broken off from the Republic of Haiti in 1844, and the United States State Department needed to determine the new nation's social, political, and economic stability. The suitability of the Bay of Samana for U.S. Navy operations was also of interest. To find out, Secretary of State James Buchanan asked Porter to undertake a private investigation. He accepted the assignment, and on March 15, 1846, he left home. He arrived in Santo Domingo after some unexpected delays and spent two weeks mapping the coastline. On May 19, he began a trek through the interior that left him without communication for a month. On June 19, he emerged from the jungle, bitten by insects, but with the information that the State Department wanted. He then discovered that while he was away the United States had gone to war with Mexico. [16]

Mexican War Edit

Mexico did not have a real navy, so naval personnel had little opportunity for distinction. Porter served as first lieutenant of the sidewheel gunboat USS Spitfire under Commander Josiah Tattnall. [17] Spitfire was at Vera Cruz when General Winfield Scott led the amphibious assault on the city, which was shielded by a series of forts and the ancient Castle of San Juan de Ulloa. Porter had spent many hours exploring the castle when he had been a midshipman in the Mexican Navy, so he was familiar with both its strengths and its weaknesses. He submitted a plan to attack it to Captain Tattnall. Taking eight oarsmen and the ship's gig, he sounded out a channel on the night of March 22–23, 1847, using the experience he had gained with the Coast Survey. The next morning, Spitfire and other vessels taking part in the bombardment followed the channel that Porter had laid out and took up positions inside the harbor, where they were able to pound the forts and castle. Doing so meant, however, that they had to run by the forts, which was contrary to the orders of Commodore Matthew C. Perry. Perry sent signals ordering the vessels to break off the bombardment and return, but Tattnall ordered his men not to look at the commodore's signals. Not until a special messenger came with explicit orders to retire did Maffitt cease firing. Perry appreciated the audacity shown by his subordinates, but did not approve of the way they had disregarded his orders. Henceforth, he kept Spitfire by his side. [18]

On June 13, 1847, Perry mounted an expedition to capture the interior town of Tabasco. Porter on his own led a charge of 68 sailors to capture the fort defending the city. Perry rewarded him for his initiative by making him captain of Spitfire. It was his first command. It brought him no advantages, however, as the naval part of the war was essentially over. [19] [20]

Civilian service Edit

In Washington again following the war, Porter saw little chance for professional improvement and none for advancement. In order to gain experience in handling steamships, he took leave of absence from the Navy to command civilian ships. He insisted that his crews submit to the methods of military discipline his employers were noncommittal about his methods, but they were impressed by the results. They asked him to stay in Australia, but his health and the health of his eldest daughter Georgianne persuaded him to return. Back in the United States, he moved his family from Washington to New York in the hope that the climate would benefit his daughter, but she died shortly after the move. His second daughter, Evalina ("Nina"), also died in the interwar period. [21]

Once again on active duty, he commanded the storeship USS Supply in a venture to bring camels to the United States. The project was promoted by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, who thought that the desert animals could be useful for the cavalry in the arid Southwest. Supply made two successful trips before Secretary Davis left office and the experiment was discontinued. [22]

In 1859, he received an attractive offer from the Pacific Mail Steamship Company to be captain of a ship then under construction. The offer would be effective when she was complete. He would have accepted, but he was delayed in his departure. Before he could leave, war had broken out again. [23]

Powhatan and the relief of Fort Pickens Edit

The seceded states [24] laid claim to the national forts within their boundaries, but they did not make good their claim to Fort Sumter in South Carolina and Forts Pickens, Zachary Taylor, and Jefferson in Florida. [25] They soon made it clear that they would use force if necessary to gain possession of Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens. President Abraham Lincoln resolved not to cede them without a fight. Secretary of State William H. Seward, Captain Montgomery C. Meigs of the US Army, and Porter devised a plan for the relief of Fort Pickens. The principal element of their plan required use of the steam frigate USS Powhatan, which would be commanded by Porter and would carry reinforcements to the fort from New York. Because no one was above suspicion in those days, the plan had to be implemented in complete secrecy not even Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles was to be advised. [26]

Welles was in the meantime preparing an expedition for the relief of the garrison at Fort Sumter. As he was unaware that Powhatan would not be available, he included it in his plans. When the other vessels assigned to the effort showed up, the South Carolina troops at Charleston began to bombard Fort Sumter, and the Civil War was on. The relief expedition could only wait outside the harbor. The expedition had little chance to be successful in any case without the support of the guns on Powhatan, it was completely impotent. The only contribution made by the expedition was to carry the soldiers who had defended Fort Sumter back to the North following their surrender and parole. [27]

Lincoln did not punish Seward for his part in the incident, so Welles felt that he had no choice but to forgive Porter, whose culpability was less. Later, he reasoned that it had at least a redeeming feature in that Porter, whose loyalty had been suspect, was henceforth firmly attached to the Union. As he wrote, [28]

In detaching the Powhatan from the Sumter expedition and giving the command to Porter, Mr. Seward extricated that officer from Secession influences, and committed him at once, and decisively, to the Union cause."

Mortar fleet at New Orleans and Vicksburg Edit

In late 1861, the Navy Department began to develop plans to open the Mississippi River. [29] The first move would be to capture New Orleans. For this Porter, by this time advanced to rank of commander, was given the responsibility of organizing a flotilla of some twenty mortar boats that would participate in the reduction of the forts defending the city from the south. The flotilla was a semi-autonomous part of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron, which was to be commanded by Porter's adoptive brother Captain David G. Farragut. [30]

The bombardment of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip began on April 18, 1862. Porter had opined that two days of concentrated fire would be enough to reduce the forts, but after five days they seemed as strong as ever. The mortars were beginning to run low on ammunition. Farragut, who put little reliance on the mortars anyway, made the decision to bypass the forts on the night of April 24. The fleet successfully ran past the forts the mortars were left behind, but they bombarded the forts during the passage in order to distract the enemy gunners. Once the fleet was above the forts, nothing significant stood between them and New Orleans Farragut demanded the surrender of the city, and it fell to his fleet on April 29. The forts were still between him and Porter's mortar fleet, but when the latter again began to pummel Fort Jackson, its garrison mutinied and forced its surrender. Fort St. Philip had to follow suit. Surrender of the two forts was accepted by Commander Porter on April 28. [31]

Following orders from the Navy Department, Farragut took his fleet upstream to capture other strongpoints on the river, with the aim of complete possession of the Mississippi. At Vicksburg, Mississippi he found that the bluffs were too high to be reached by the guns of his fleet, so he ordered Porter to bring his mortar flotilla up. The mortars suppressed the Rebel artillery well enough that Farragut's ships could pass the batteries at Vicksburg and link up with a Union flotilla coming down from the north. The city could not be taken, however, without active participation by the army, which did not happen. On July 8, the bombardment ceased when Porter was ordered to Hampton Roads to assist in Major General George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign. A few days later, Farragut followed, and the first attempt to take Vicksburg was over. [32]

Acting rear admiral: the Vicksburg Campaign Edit

In the summer of 1862, shortly after Porter left Vicksburg, the U.S. Navy was extensively modified among the features of the revised organization were a set of officer ranks from ensign to rear admiral that paralleled the ranks in the Army. Among the new ranks created were those of commodore and rear admiral. [33] According to the organization charts, the persons in command of the blockading squadrons were to be rear admirals. Another part of the reorganization transferred the Western gunboat flotilla from the army to the navy, and retitled it the Mississippi River Squadron. The change of title implied that it was formally equivalent to the other squadrons, so its commanding officer would likewise be a rear admiral. The problem was that the commandant of the gunboat flotilla, Flag Officer Charles H. Davis, had not shown the initiative that the Navy Department wanted, so he had to be removed. He was made rear admiral, but he was recalled to Washington to serve as chief of the Bureau of Navigation. [34]

Most of the men who could have replaced Davis were either less suitable or were unavailable because of other assignments, so finally Secretary Welles decided to appoint Porter to the position. He did this despite some doubt. As he wrote in his Diary, [35]

Relieved Davis and appointed D. D. Porter to the Western Flotilla, which is hereafter to be recognized as a squadron. Porter is but a Commander. He has, however, stirring and positive qualities, is fertile in resources, has great energy, excessive and sometimes not over-scrupulous ambition, is impressed with and boastful of his own powers, given to exaggeration in relation to himself, —a Porter infirmity, —is not generous to older and superior living officers, whom he is too ready to traduce, but is kind and patronizing to favorites who are juniors, and generally to official inferiors. Is given to cliquism but is brave and daring like all his family. It is a question, with his mixture of good and bad traits, how he will succeed.

Thus Commander Porter became Acting Rear Admiral Porter without going through the intermediate ranks of captain and commodore. (He was one of only three US Navy admirals to have been promoted to rear admiral without having first served in the rank of captain. The others being Richard E. Byrd and Ben Moreell.) He was assigned to command the Mississippi Squadron and left Washington for his new command on October 9, 1862, and arrived in Cairo, Illinois, on October 15. [36]

Secretary of War Edwin Stanton considered Porter "a gas bag . blowing his own trumpet and stealing credit which belongs to others." [37] Historian John D. Winters, in his The Civil War in Louisiana, describes Porter as having "possessed the qualities of abundant energy, recklessness, resourcefulness, and fighting spirit needed for the trying role ahead. Porter was assigned the task of aiding General John A. McClernand in opening the upper Mississippi. The choice of McClernand, a volunteer political general, pleased Porter because he felt that all West Point men were 'too self-sufficient, pedantic, and unpractical.'" [38]

Winters also writes that Porter "revealed a weakness he was to display many times: he belittled a superior officer [Charles H. Poor]. He often heaped undue praise upon a subordinate, but rarely could find much to admire in a superior." [39]

The Army was showing renewed interest in opening the Mississippi River at just this time, and Porter met two men who would have great influence on the campaign. First was Major General William T. Sherman, a man of similar temperament to his own, with whom he immediately formed a particularly strong friendship. [40] The other was Major General McClernand, whom he just as quickly came to dislike. [41] Later they would be joined by Major General Ulysses S. Grant Grant and Porter became friends and worked together quite well, but it was on a more strictly professional level than his relation with Sherman. [42] [43]

Close cooperation between the Army and Navy was vital to the success of the siege of Vicksburg. The most prominent contribution to the campaign was the passage of the batteries at Vicksburg and Grand Gulf by a major part of the Mississippi River Squadron. Grant had asked merely for a few gunboats to shield his troops, but Porter persuaded him to use more than half of his fleet. After nightfall on April 16, 1863, the fleet moved downstream past the batteries. Only one vessel was lost in the ensuing firefight. Six nights later, a similar run past the batteries gave Grant the transports he needed for crossing the river. [44] Now south of Vicksburg, Grant at first tried to attack the Rebels through Grand Gulf, and requested Porter to eliminate the batteries there before his troops would be sent across. On April 29, the gunboats spent most of the day bombarding two Confederate forts. They succeeded in silencing the lower of the two, but the upper fort remained. Grant called off the assault and moved downstream to Bruinsburg, where he was able to cross the river unopposed. [45]

Although the fleet made no major offensive contributions to the campaign after Grand Gulf, it remained important in its secondary role of keeping the blockade against the city. When Vicksburg was besieged, the encirclement was made complete by the Navy's control of the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. When it finally fell on July 4 (1863), Grant was unstinting in his praise of the assistance he had received from Porter and his men. [46]

For his contribution to the victory, Porter's appointment as "acting" rear admiral was made permanent, dated from July 4. [47]

Red River Expedition Edit

After the opening of the Mississippi, the political general Nathaniel P. Banks, who was in charge of army forces in Louisiana, brought pressure on the Lincoln administration to mount a campaign across Louisiana and into Texas along the line of the Red River. The ostensible purpose was to extend Union control into Texas, [48] but Banks was influenced by numerous speculators to convert the campaign into little more than a raid to seize cotton. [ citation needed ] Admiral Porter was not in favor he thought that the next objective of his fleet should be to capture Mobile, but he received direct orders from Washington to cooperate with Banks. [49]

After considerable delays caused by Banks's attention to political rather than military matters, the Red River expedition got under way in early March 1864. From the start, navigation of the river presented as great a problem for Porter and his fleet as did the Confederate army that opposed them. The army under Banks and the navy under Porter did little to cooperate, and instead often became rivals in a race to seize cotton. [ citation needed ] Confederate opposition under Major General Richard Taylor [a] succeeded in keeping them apart by defeating Banks at the Battle of Mansfield, following which Banks gave up the expedition. From that time on, Porter's primary task was to extricate his fleet. The task was made difficult by falling water levels in the river, but he ultimately got most out, with the help of heroic efforts by some of the soldiers who stayed to protect the fleet. [50]

Capture of Fort Fisher Edit

By late summer 1864, Wilmington, North Carolina, was the only port open for running the blockade, and the Navy Department began to plan to close it. Its major defense was Fort Fisher, a massive structure at the New Inlet to the Cape Fear River. [51] Secretary Welles believed that the head of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee, was inadequate for the task, so he at first assigned Rear Admiral Farragut to be Lee's replacement. Farragut was too ill to serve, however, so Welles then decided to switch Lee with Porter: Lee would command the Mississippi River Squadron, and Porter would come east and prepare for the attack on Fort Fisher. [52]

The planned attack on Fort Fisher required the cooperation of the army, and the troops were taken from the Army of the James. It was expected that Brigadier General Godfrey Weitzel would command, but Major General Benjamin F. Butler, the commander of the Army of the James, exercised one of the prerogatives of his position to install himself as leader of the expedition. Butler proposed that the fort could be flattened by exploding a ship filled with gunpowder near it, and Porter accepted the idea if successful, the scheme would avoid a protracted siege or its alternative, a frontal assault. Accordingly, the old steamer USS Louisiana was packed with powder and blown up in the early morning of December 24, 1864. It had, however, no discernible effect on the fort. Butler brought part of his troops ashore, but he was already convinced that the effort was hopeless, so he removed his force before making an all-out assault. [53]

Porter, enraged by Butler's timorousness, went to U. S. Grant and demanded that Butler be removed. Grant agreed, and placed Major General Alfred H. Terry in charge of a second assault on the fort. The second assault began on January 13, 1865, with unopposed landings and bombardment of the fort by the fleet. Porter imposed new methods of bombardment this time: each ship was assigned a specific target, with intent to destroy the enemy's guns rather than to knock down the walls. They were also to continue firing after the men ashore started their assault the ships would shift their aim to points ahead of the advancing troops. The bombardment continued for two more days, while Terry got his men into position. On the 15th, frontal assaults on opposite faces by Terry's soldiers on the land side and 2000 sailors and marines on the beach vanquished the fort. This was the last significant naval operation of the war. [54]

Tour of Richmond Edit

By April 1865, the Civil War drawing to a close, U.S. victory in the war was all but guaranteed. After the Confederate capital of Richmond was captured by U.S. forces, Porter toured the city on foot, accompanying U.S. President Abraham Lincoln with several armed bodyguards. He fondly recalled the events in his 1885 book, Incidents and Anecdotes of the Civil War, where he described witnessing scores of many freed slaves rushing to get a glimpse of Lincoln, whom they admired as a hero and credited for their emancipation, kissing his clothing and singing odes to him:

Twenty years have passed since that event it is almost too new in history to make a great impression, but the time will come when it will loom up as one of the greatest of man's achievements, and the name of Abraham Lincoln — who of his own will struck the shackles from the limbs of four millions of people — will be honored thousands of years from now as man's name was never honored before. [. ] The scene was so touching I hated to disturb it, yet we could not stay there all day we had to move on so I requested the patriarch to withdraw from about the President with his companions and let us pass on.

Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Edit

A few weeks after his visit to Virginia, Lincoln was assassinated. Porter, upon learning of Lincoln's assassination, was greatly upset by the news, as he admired Lincoln greatly. Porter called Lincoln the best man he ever knew and ever will know. He stated that he felt some responsibility for Lincoln's death, feeling that had he been with him on the night of his death, he might have prevented his murder. [56]

Shortly after Lincoln's death, Porter joined the newly formed Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS), a military society composed of officers of the Union armed forces and their descendants. He was assigned MOLLUS insignia number 29.

U.S. Naval Academy Edit

The U.S. Navy was rapidly downsized at the end of the war, and Porter, like most of his contemporaries, had fewer ships to command. Some feared that at sea he might provoke a foreign war, particularly with Great Britain, because of what he saw as their support for the Confederacy. To make use of his undeniable talents, Secretary Welles appointed him Superintendent of the Naval Academy in 1865. The academy at that time did little to prepare men for the duties that were expected of them. Porter resolved to change that he determined to make the Academy the rival of the Military Academy at West Point. The curriculum was revised to reflect the reality of naval life, organized sports were encouraged, discipline was enforced, and even social graces were taught. An honor system was installed, "to send honorable men from this institution into the Navy." [57] To be sure that his reforms would remain in place after his departure, he brought to the faculty a group of like-minded men, mostly young officers who had distinguished themselves in the war. [58]

Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant Edit

When Porter's friend Ulysses S. Grant became president in 1869, he appointed Philadelphia businessman Adolph E. Borie as Secretary of the Navy. Borie had no knowledge of the navy and little desire to learn, so he leaned on Porter for advice that the latter was quite willing to give. In a short time, Borie came to defer to him even on trivial routine matters. Porter used his influence with the secretary to push through several policies to shape the navy as he wanted it in the process, he made a new set of enemies who either were harmed by his actions or merely resented his blunt methods. Borie was strongly criticized for his failure to control his subordinate, and after three months he resigned. The new secretary, George Robeson, promptly curtailed Porter's powers. [59]

Final years Edit

In 1866, the rank of admiral was created in the U.S. Navy. Naval hero David G. Farragut, his adoptive brother, was named as the nation's first admiral, and Porter became vice admiral at the same time. In 1870, Farragut died, and it was expected that Porter would be promoted to fill the vacancy.

Eventually, he did become the second admiral, but it was after much controversy that was provoked by his many enemies. Among them were several very powerful politicians, including some of the political generals he had contended with in the war. [60] Porter reached the mandatory retirement age of 62 in June 1875 but was allowed to remain on active duty.

Despite the prestige of the high rank, Porter's eclipse in influence continued. For the last twenty years of his life, he had little to do with the operations of the Navy. Porter turned to writing, producing some naval histories and which may provide insights into his own beliefs and character.

On October 4, 1866, Porter was elected a Companion of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, a military society of officers who had served in the Union Armed Force during the Civil War, and was assigned insignia number 29. [61] Porter resigned from the Loyal Legion and returned his insignia on January 4, 1880. [62]

In 1890 he became the founding president of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was assigned national membership number 1801 and District of Columbia Society membership number 1. He served as president of the society until his death the next year. He was also an honorary member of the Society of the Cincinnati.


Brief Biography

John Porter was born in Felsted, Essex County, England. In 1620 he married, in Messing, Anna White. Both were of fairly prosperous families. They had nine known children born in Felsted the marriage and birth records are found in Essex County records. In 1638, when John was 44, the family emigrated to New England, probably with the Huit party on the "Susan and Ellen", in company with Anna's brother-in-law, Joseph Loomis.

In April of 1639 John acquired a home lot in Windsor on the Island. He resided next door to Joseph Loomis, whose wife, Mary White, was a sister to John's wife. Both John and Joseph were influential and prosperous men in Windsor. By 1641 John had grants from the town totaling 400 acres, ranking among the top quarter in Windsor. John Porter and Joseph Loomis were also brother-in-laws to William Goodwin and John White, both influential men in Hartford.

John and Anna had two more known children born in Windsor. He was active in the community serving in both town and colony offices, serving as Deputy from Windsor to the Connecticut Legislature in August 1639, October 1646, and May 1647. He was involved in the merchant trade, probably in cloth, and probably traded with his son James, who was a merchant in London. James would also eventually act as agent of the Colony of Connecticut in London. John Porter died at the age of 53 at Windsor, 21 April 1648, and was was buried the next day. His will, dated 20 April 1648 and found in Connecticut Colonial Records, mentions his "sonne Josepgh Judgson", who was actually his son-in-law. His large estate was probated on 7 June 1649.


Competition in the Industry

The first of the five forces refers to the number of competitors and their ability to undercut a company. The larger the number of competitors, along with the number of equivalent products and services they offer, the lesser the power of a company. Suppliers and buyers seek out a company's competition if they are able to offer a better deal or lower prices. Conversely, when competitive rivalry is low, a company has greater power to charge higher prices and set the terms of deals to achieve higher sales and profits.


The warship completed outfitting in October and, on the 19th, embarked upon a shakedown cruise which took her to ports in Sweden, England, France, Portugal, and Africa. Upon her return to the western hemisphere, she passed her final acceptance trials off the coast of Maine and was assigned to Battle Force, Destroyers, in the Pacific. Early in 1938, she transited the Panama Canal and joined Destroyer Squadron 9 at San Diego. Over the next three years, Winslow conducted operations in the eastern Pacific generally between Hawaii and the west coast from her home port at San Diego.

By 1941, events in Europe where World War II was already in its second year necessitated the strengthening of American naval forces in the Atlantic. Accordingly, Winslow retransited the canal in April and, after visiting Guantánamo Bay in Cuba, reported for duty at Norfolk, Va. That summer, she conducted training operations with submarines off the New England coast. Later, she also participated in neutrality patrols, particularly those directed at keeping watch over the Vichy French ships at Martinique and Guadeloupe in the French Antilles. Early in August, Winslow joined Tuscaloosa (CA 37) in escorting Augusta (CA 31) as that heavy cruiser carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Argentia, Newfoundland, to meet British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the conference which resulted in the Atlantic Charter. Then, after escorting transports carrying reinforcements to Iceland, the destroyer arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia, early in November and became a unit in the screen of America's first convoy to the Orient. Convoy WS-12X, bound via the Cape of Good Hope for Singapore, departed Halifax on 10 November. Just before the convoy reached Capetown, South Africa, where the destroyers were to part company with the convoy and head for home, word arrived that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor.

After leaving the convoy at Capetown, Winslow returned to the United States where she was assigned to Vice Admiral Jonas H. Ingram's 4th Fleet, which had grown out of the South Atlantic neutrality patrols. The warship patrolled the area between Brazil and Africa, hunting German submarines and blockade runners until April 1944. On two occasions during that period, she returned briefly to the United States in June 1942 and in October 1943 to undergo repairs at Charleston, South Carolina.

In April 1944, the warship began escorting newly constructed warships from Boston, via Norfolk, to the West Indies. After three such voyages she began escorting convoys from New York to England and Ireland in August. She made five round-trip voyages across the Atlantic before putting into Charleston again in March 1945 for a four-month overhaul.

While in Charleston for alterations, she lost her torpedo tubes, traded her light, single purpose, 5-inch guns for five dual-purpose 5-inch guns. In addition, she received 16 40 millimeter and four 20-millimeter antiaircraft guns in preparation for services in the Pacific.

However, by the end of her refresher training out of Casco Bay, Maine, hostilities had ceased. Accordingly, Winslow received orders to begin experimental work testing antiaircraft ordnance. On 17 September 1945 the ship was redesignated AG-127. She continued her experimental work with the Operational Development Force until she was decommissioned on 28 June 1950. Winslow remained in reserve, berthed with the Charleston Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet, until declared unfit for further naval service on 5 December 1957. Her name was struck from the Navy list on that same day, and she was sold on 23 February 1959 for scrapping.


Patrick Adair of Cairncastle

From the time of his arrival at Cairncastle in 1646 till his death in Belfast forty-eight years later, Patrick Adair played a major role, as pastor, negotiator, and chronicler, in the fluctuating fortunes of the Irish Presbyterian Church.

Because of his deep and active concern for the welfare of that Church &ndash still in his day the feeble infant of the Kirk in his native Scotland &ndash his ministerial career cannot be viewed in isolation from the civil history of the seventeenth century.

In this short account of his life we must therefore touch, however briefly, on contemporary occurrences, for some of which Adair is himself the only authority, as well as on such enactments as affected, for better or worse, the condition of the Presbyterians of Ulster three hundred years ago.

It is a remarkable fact that no biographical study of Patrick Adair, first historian of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, has yet been published. Neither has there appeared in this century, to my knowledge at any rate, any assessment, critical or otherwise, of his work. Remarkable, I say, because Adair was, in the words of a near-contemporary, &hellip. A man of great natural parts and wisdom, eminent piety and exemplary holiness, great ministerial gravity and authority, endued with savoury and most edifying gifts for his sacred function, wherein he was laborious, painful and faithful was a constant, curious and accurate observer of all public occurrences and with all these rare qualities, had not only the blood and descent, but the spirit and just decorum of a gentleman. [1]

This glowing attestation was written two hundred and seventy years ago by the Rev. James Kirkpatrick. D.D., M.D. (Glasgow) author of Presbyterian Loyalty, which was printed &ndash in Belfast, we are told &ndash in the year 1713. Dr Kirkpatrick, who was also a faithful recorder of the events of his time, wrote from knowledge of Patrick Adair communicated to him by his father, the Rev. Hugh Kirkpatrick, who died in 1712. The first historian of the Southern congregations of the Irish Presbyterian Church, the Rev. James Armstrong, M.A (Dublin), D.D (Geneva), M.R.I.A., wrote in 1829 that Adair was &ldquo&hellip. Deservedly the most conspicuous and influential minister amongst the Presbyterians of Ulster&rdquo [2] And, says Armstrong, &ldquothere has been no minister, at any period in the history of the Irish Presbyterians, engaged in such a continuous series of important transactions as Patrick Adair. An authentic biography of this excellent man, embracing a general view of the contemporary affairs of Ulster, would be a most valuable work&rdquo. [3]

An authentic biography of Patrick Adair is, as I said at the outset, still awaited. That is not to say, however, that no notices of Adair&rsquos life and work have appeared in print. Much of Adair&rsquos own manuscript history of the early Presbyterian Church in Ireland, covering the period 1623-1670 and generally referred to as The Narrative, is autobiographical. This manuscript, which was lost to public view for many years, was eventually discovered by the Rev. Samuel Martin Stephenson. M.D. (Edinburgh) who was, interestingly enough, the immediate predecessor at Greyabbey, Co. Down. of the Rev. James Porter who was executed in 1798. The Narrative, unfinished at the time of Adair&rsquos death in 1694, was edited and published in 1866 by the Rev. William Dool Killen. D.D., continuator of Reid&rsquos History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. It is disappointing that Killen in his introduction to this valuable Narrative gives us scarcely any account of its compiler&rsquos life. [4]
In 1879 the Rev. Professor Thomas Witherow of Magee College, Derry, published an eight-page account of Patrick Adair, to which he appended extracts from the Narrative and from an unpublished sermon which he believed to have been preached by Mr Adair in Dublin in 1672. [5] A few years later the Rev. Classon Porter of Ballygally Castle, who was minister of the Old Congregation of Larne from 1834 till 1885, left us what is by far the fullest account of the minister of Cairncastle. Porter&rsquos lengthy essay on Patrick Adair appears in a booklet published in 1884. By this time the Dictionary of National Biography had been set on foot (1882) and its first volume, published on New Year&rsquos Day 1885, contains a notice of Adair by the Rev. Alexander Gordon. This notice, concise but all too short, takes up little more than a page of the volume. There have been other short articles on Patrick Adair, but the essays by Witherow, Porter and Gordon are the principal, and perhaps the most accessible accounts of his life.

Of immediate interest to us here is Adair&rsquos connection with Cairncastle. How did he come to be settled in this area? What did he do while he was minister here? Was his Narrative or any part of it compiled here? Where exactly did he live? Did he hold any land? Did he marry and rear a family here? These are only some of the questions which will occur to the local historian and, with the materials available to me. I cannot pretend to be able to answer them as fully or as satisfactorily as I would wish to.

We are told that Patrick Adair was of the Adair family of Galloway. Classon Porter asserts, however, that the family was originally Irish, or, more correctly Norman Irish. This had already been stated by George Hill in the MacDonnells of Antrim. [6] reissued in facsimile by this Society in 1976, and the assertion is repeated by Alexander Gordon in D.N.B. Porter, Hill and Gordon were, as it happens, all Non-Subscribing Presbyterian ministers they were also highly respected historical writers. I feel that Classon Porter&rsquos remarks about the Adairs&rsquo origin ought to be quoted in full:

The Adairs of the North of Ireland, of whom the eminent Presbyterian minister above named was one, and whose present head had been ennobled under the title of Lord Waveney, are commonly said to be of Scotch extraction. And they certainly did come from Scotland to Ireland in the seventeenth century. But it is equally certain, although not so well known, that, like most &lsquoScots&rsquo (so called), they had previously gone from Ireland to Scotland. Their family name originally was not Adair, but Fitzgerald, and their founder was a young man called Robert Fitzgerald, a son of the Earl of Desmond. This Robert Fitzgerald lived in the latter part of the fourteenth century, and was the owner of the lands of Adare, in the South of Ireland. Having, in a family feud, killed a person of distinction, he was obliged to leave his native country.

He took refuge in Galloway, in Scotland, where he assumed the name of Adare, or Adair, from his forfeited Milesian patrimony, and obtaining for himself, by means which were not uncommon in those days, a Scotch estate in place of the Irish one he had lost, he founded a family, which, for some time, was known as the Adairs of Portree, afterwards of Kinhilt, and, most recently (on their return to Ireland) , as the Adairs of Ballymena, in this country, where they have been for many generations respected and beloved. [7]
Patrick, who was born in 1624, [8] was third son of John Adair of Genoch, Galloway. [9] Of his boyhood years we know only that he was present in Edinburgh High Church (St. Gile&rsquos) on 23 July 1637, when Janet Geddes, robust Presbyterian that she was, threw her stool at the Dean, who was introducing Archbishop Laud&rsquos new Service-book. [10] He went to the University of St. Andrew&rsquos in 1644 [11] and following a two-year theological course was duly licensed to preach. Very soon after, on 7 May 1646, he was ordained for Cairncastle by the &lsquoArmy Presbytery,&rsquo constituted at Carrickfergus on 10 June 1642. [12] &lsquoBut although Mr Adair was ordained by a presbytery,&rsquo writes Porter, &lsquothere can be little doubt that his ordination took place in the parish church of Cairncastle, and also that he continued to occupy that edifice until his ejection therefrom in 1661&rsquo. [13]

On a tablet in the porch of the meeting-house, listing the ministers who served Cairncastle Old Congregation (Non-Subscribing), Patrick Adair is the first recorded pastor, and the years 1661-1674 are correctly assigned to his pastorate there, even though he had no meeting-house for several years after his ejection. The year of Adair&rsquos arrival in Cairncastle was marked by the completion (26 November 1646) by the Westminster Assembly of the Confession of Faith, which is still the subordinate standard of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
Porter, who had made himself well acquainted with the history of the area, tells us that Patrick Adair&rsquos settlement in Cairncastle was brought about by James Shaw of Ballygally, &lsquowho then owned a considerable property in that parish where he resided, and who was himself, a few years previously, come over to Ireland from the west of Scotland, where he may possibly have known Mr Adair or his family. Mr Shaw at that time occupied a very prominent position among the Presbyterians of Ulster&rsquo [14] Richard Dobbs, in his account of County Antrim written exactly three hundred years ago, referred to the Shaw&rsquos&rsquo residence: &lsquo&hellip hard by the shore stands the house of Ballygelly, belonging to Captain Shaw. A strong house, yet robbed lately by the Tories of Londonderry&hellip.&rsquo [15] When Dobbs wrote the people of the parish were &lsquoall Presbiterians&rsquo. [16]
In 1648, two years after his ordination, Patrick Adair and his patron, James Shaw, who was a Presbyterian elder, were, with others, appointed on a committee to treat with George Monck and Sir Charles Coote, the Parliamentary generals in Ulster, for the establishment of Presbyterianism in the province. But, on the beheading of Charles l on 30 January 1649, the Presbyterian ministers of Antrim and Down broke with the Parliament and in February held a meeting in Belfast, at which they vehemently protested against the King&rsquos death and agreed to pray for Charles ll, who for his part promised to establish Presbyterianism in Ulster. The Parliamentary generals replaced the Presbyterian ministers with Independents and Baptists, and, as Gordon says, &lsquoAdair had to hide among the rocks near Cairncastle&rsquo. [17]

That he had his liberty in the following year is evident, for in 1650, if not slightly earlier, he married Margaret, daughter of the Rev. Robert Cunningham of Holywood. [18]The Rev. William Adair of Ballyeaston and later of Antrim, who was born in 1651 and whom we shall again have occasion to mention was a son of this marriage. [19] William was in all probability born at Cairncastle. In March 1652 Patrick Adair, who was then a young married man with an infant son, took part in a public discussion between Presbyterian and Independent ministers at Antrim Castle, the seat of Sir John Clotworthy, afterwards first Lord Massereene.

&lsquo In this discussions,&rsquo says Porter, &lsquo Mr Adair acquitted himself in a very creditable manner, and on his return from Antrim seems to have been encouraged to appear more openly than before among his people.&rsquo [20] He was the spokesman of the ministers who in October and November of the same year declined to take the &lsquo Engagement&rsquo to be true to the Commonwealth against the King, and was with another minister deputed to meet Charles Fleetwood and the council in Dublin Castle in January 1653, to seek relief from the &lsquoEngagement&rsquo. But because of Adair&rsquos outspokenness on that occasion no relief was obtained. Indeed, commissioners were sent from Dublin to East Ulster early in April to search houses of such Presbyterian ministers (of whom there were only seven) as had not fled the country, and seize any papers they could find. In Adair&rsquos own words:

The soldiers narrowly searched all, but found papers with none but Mr Adair. They took from him every paper, though to never so little purpose &ndash for they could not distinguish papers, there being none, among sixteen soldiers and a sergeant who took the papers that could read. Among the papers they took there was one bundle which contained the Presbytery&rsquos Representation against the sectaries and that party, and another declaring the horridness of their murdering the King, with other papers much reflecting on their party.
This bundle they took away with them in a cloak bag among others, though Mr Adair has used all means to preserve it, knowing they might take much occasion against the brethren upon sight of these papers&hellip That night the sergeant kept one of the cloak bags in the chamber where he lay, about two miles from Mr Adair&rsquos house, and in this was that bundle. The maid of the house, hearing a report that these were Mr Adair&rsquos papers, resolved to restore some of them to him again. And so she went in the night when the sergeant and soldiers were asleep, and quietly brought a bundle of papers out of the cloak bag, not knowing what papers they were. This bundle was that which Mr Adair only cared for, and she sent it to him next morning. [21]

Classon Porter conjectures, perhaps rightly, that this incident took place in the town of Larne. [22]

In the following month Adair and six other Presbyterian ministers then in Ulster were called before the Parliamentary commissioners at Carrickfergus and were again required to take the &lsquoEngagement&rsquo to the Commonwealth. This they refused to do and the commissioners then formulated a scheme for transplanting the Presbyterians of Antrim and Down to Kilkenny, Tipperary and Waterford, where it was thought, they would be rendered harmless to the government. A proclamation for this purpose was issued at Carrickfergus on 23 May 1653 but in Adair&rsquos homely prose &lsquothis motion of the governors here in Ireland had no bottom to rest upon, and therefore their project&hellip. Did evanish within a little time, and the ministers and people in this country began to have a great calm after all the former storms which they had endured.&rsquo [23]

In the months of April and May 1654 we find Patrick Adair in Dublin once more, pleading for the restoration to the Presbyterian ministers of the tithes which had been sequestered by the Cromwellian government. They got instead maintenance by way of annual salary, which was in accordance with the policy of the protectorate. Adair, who seems to have been put on salary in 1655 [24], at first got only fifty pounds a year, but this was increased to a hundred in 1656 [25]. His actual tithe entitlement at Cairncastle was sixty-three pounds a year: he fared rather better under the protectorate. He and his fellow ministers did not compromise themselves in accepting the maintenance. They preserved their independence and did not observe the Commonwealth fasts and thanksgivings.

Cromwell died in 1658 and the payment to the ministers fell into some disarray for a time. But Adair seems to have got all the arrears due to him. He was one of the ministers summoned to the convention at Dublin in February 1660 &ndash &lsquothe only one called from the North&rsquo says Classon Porter, &lsquoto give&hellip advice in order to the settling of the Church in Ireland.&rsquo [26]Dr Barnard in his study of the Cromwellian period says that Adair was one of eight chaplains chosen to advise on religious matters. [27] Hopes were high that a Presbyterian establishment would materialise, but these hopes were dashed by the restoration of Charles ll, who soon forgot his promise to the Presbyterians.

In January 1661, prelacy having been restored, Jeremy Taylor was consecrated bishop of Down and Connor. Taylor summoned the Presbyterian ministers to his visitation, but on their ignoring the summons he declared all their charges vacant and, as Adair says, &lsquoprocured priests and curates for these parishes as he thought fit.&rsquo [28] Adair was ejected from Cairncastle parish church and never again entered it. Nothing daunted, he went to Dublin to seek relief for his brethren from the Duke of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant, who, to quote Adair himself, &lsquoperceived they had suffered for the King, and now they were like to suffer under the King.&rsquo [29]
The best terms Adair could obtain was permission for the ministers to &lsquoserve God in their own families without gathering multitudes together&hellip&hellip&rsquo [30
Adair and his brethren were thus left effectively without means of support. &lsquoThey lived upon any small thing they had of their own, among the people, without maintenance from them, and yet must see others bountifully gratified.&rsquo The ejected ministers, continues the author of the Narrative, &lsquogenerally took themselves to the houses that they had, either formerly of their own or had lately built in their several parishes, and judged it their duty, as far as possible, to stay among their people, and to take such opportunities for their education as the times could admit&hellip.&rsquo [31
More trouble was in store for Patrick Adair. In 1663 he was apprehended in his own house and secured a close prisoner in Carrickfergus jail for three nights. He was brought to Dublin on a charge of complicity in Thomas Blood&rsquos plot for the overthrow of the restored monarchy. Sir John Clotworthy (who was now Viscount Massereene), having interceded on his behalf and testified as to his loyalty, Adair was discharged after three months confinement, with a temporary indulgence on condition of living peaceably. By degrees, he once again set about exercising his ministry among his flock, &lsquopreaching more publicly in barns and such places in this parish where the bulk of the people met, and at night administering the Sacrament to them.&rsquo [32]

About the year 1668 a meeting-house was built for him at Cairncastle. [33] It is believed that the present Non-Subscribing meeting-house, whose sundial by Andrew Snoddy bears the date 1779, is on the site of the place of worship built for Patrick Adair. Despite the severity of the Acts of Uniformity of the English Parliament, 1662, and of the Irish Parliament, 1665, Professor Reid tells us that
&lsquoat the beginning of the year 1669 the Presbyterian Church in Ulster had attained considerable freedom.&rsquo [34] The Hearth-Money Rolls for the parish of Cairncastle for that year (1669) was printed, as many of you will recall, in Vol.5 The Glynns, published in 1977. At the time of the Hearth-Money Roll the Presbyterian minister, who&rsquos name, it will be noted, appears as &lsquoMr.Patr.Adare&rsquo, &lsquolived in Ballyhackett townland.&rsquo [35]
When Glasson Porter wrote a hundred years ago the house where Patrick Adair lived had until a recent period &lsquopresented a rather antiquated appearance, but it is now completely modernised. This house is not far from the parish church, in which Mr Adair preached, and from this circumstance, as well as the fact that it was on the Ballygally estate, it was for many years the residence of the ministers of Cairncastle, being a sort of manse, with a parish farm attached to it.&rsquo [36]

In September 1669 John, Baron Robartes, who subsequently became first earl of Radnor, was sworn in as Lord Lieutenant in place of the Duke of Ormond. He advocated a policy of toleration towards Nonconformists and this led the Presbyterians of Ulster to expect some indulgence. But being an austere man of the strictest probity, and intolerant of vice, Robartes was too strongly marked a character to go through life without making enemies, and the work he had to do, or felt he should do in Ireland was not of a sort to increase his popularity. He was recalled at his own request in the following April. &lsquoThe short time of his government in Ireland,&rsquo says Adair, &lsquogave a dash to open profaneness, and some encouragement to the lovers of truth.&rsquo [37]
The end of 1760 &ndash the year Robartes was recalled &ndash marks the rather abrupt termination of Patrick Adair&rsquos Narrative, which he obviously intended to bring down to &lsquoa period of deliverance,&rsquo to use Killen&rsquos words, &lsquowhen the history would reach a pleasing termination.&rsquo [38] The Narrative falls short by something over twenty-three years of the date of its author&rsquos death.

Patrick Adair was in Dublin was in Dublin again in October 1671, trying to settle a dispute in the congregation of Bull Alley. He seems to have been absent for two months or so and did not return to Cairncastle till about Christmas. &lsquoBeing unwell after his travels&rsquo [39] (on horseback), he did not attend the meeting of ministers held in January 1672 but about the middle of October of that year he was in Dublin once more, negotiating along with three other ministers through Sir Arthur Forbes (afterwards first earl of Granard) for a grant to the Ulster ministers. Charles 11 gave them six hundred pounds a year &ndash about seven or eight pounds each. &lsquoIt was,&rsquo says Professor Reid, &lsquostrictly a pension not an endowment.&rsquo [40]
In the course of this visit to Dublin Patrick Adair preached at Bull Alley on 10 November 1672 (Communion Sunday) his sermon on Christ in the Pharisee&rsquos house (Luke, chapter 7), of which Professor Witherow gives an extract in his Memorials. [41] The trouble in Bull Alley must have been still unresolved, or have erupted again in 1673, for Patrick Adair&rsquos services as a healer of quarrels were again requisitioned by the congregation in that year. This time he declined to visit Bull Alley and the schism was eventually healed when the congregation issued a call dated 8 April 1673 to the Rev. William Keyes, minister at Belfast. [42]

This event brings us almost to the end of Patrick Adair&rsquos ministry at Cairncastle. for the removal to Dublin of Mr Keyes of Belfast &lsquoopened the way,&rsquo as Glasson Porter puts it, &lsquo for Mr Adair&rsquos transportation to the latter town.&rsquo [43] Two events to which we are unable to assign dates occurred during Adair&rsquos pastorate at Cairncastle the death of his first wife and his remarriage to his cousin Jean, second daughter of Sir Robert Adair of Ballymena. [44] Regrettably, Classon Porter had to record that Patrick Adair&rsquos congregational stipend at Cairncastle was much in arrears when the question of his removal to Belfast was mooted.
On 7 April 1674 Patrick Adair&rsquos neighbour, The Rev. John Anderson, M.A. (Edinburgh), of Glenarm, who had been appointed to take an account of the parish, reported &lsquothat the people (of Cairncastle) are considerably in arrear for every year of four, concluding All Saints 1672, and that (the) year commencing from that date and concluding at All Saints 1673 is not yet applotted, and no mention of the year current.&rsquo [45] Porter doesn&rsquot say whether the arrears due to Mr Adair were paid or not Mr Anderson, who had done Cairncastle congregation&rsquos sums in 1674 removed to Antrim in 1685, &lsquo his arrears on leaving Glenarm being upward of £120,&rsquo [46 or more than four years stipend. But Mr Anderson died in Scotland in 1708 leaving over four thousand pounds, [47 which is far more than Patrick Adair left at his death.

Adair had evidently become very attached to Cairncastle in the twenty-eight years of his ministry there. Asked what his thoughts were about the call to Belfast congregation, he declared himself &lsquounclear to be loosed from Cairncastle.&rsquo [48] But loosed he eventually was, and his settlement at Belfast seems to have taken place towards the close of the year 1674. We must now in the interest of completeness mention the chief events of his careers from the time of his removal to Belfast, where he was to spend the last twenty years of this life.
The Donegalls, especially Lady Donegall, were opposed to his settlement and refused to attend his ministrations. &lsquoIndeed&rsquo says Porter, &lsquo for some time Mr Adair&rsquos position in his new charge at Belfast was apparently not a pleasant one, and he may have sometimes wished himself back again in Cairncastle.&rsquo [49] He wasn&rsquot long settled in Belfast when his second wife Jean took ill and died (1675).
The opposition of the Donegall family to his ministry gradually subsided and he was, writes Classon Porter, &lsquoplaced altogether on a more comfortable footing with regard to them and the other members of his flock.&rsquo [50] His meeting-house was in North Street, and there he conducted services during the whole period of his Belfast ministry, the years 1769 to 1687 excepted. In June 1679 the Scottish Covenanters were utterly defeated at Bothwell Brig. Their abortive insurrection injured their co-religionists in this country, for thereafter the Ulster Presbyterians were treated with increasing rigour by the government. Their meeting-houses were closed they were forbidden to assemble anywhere for public worship, and even the monthly meetings of their ministers had to be held secretly under the cover of darkness. [51]

This state of affairs continued till 1687, when James II from motives of state policy, issued his &lsquoDeclaration&rsquo, which gave the Presbyterians renewed liberty. Patrick Adair resumed his clerical functions in Belfast and re-entered his meeting house in North Street, which had been closed to him for about eight years. The ministers resumed their monthly meetings and once again ventured to bring elders to those meetings. The increased liberty they enjoyed was confirmed on the accession of William III, who as Prince of Orange landed at Torbay, Devon on 5 November 1688. Patrick Adair was one of two ministers who early in 1689 were appointed by the committee of the Ulster Presbyterians to carry to England a congratulatory address to William.
On 124 th July 1690 William landed at Carrickfergus. At Belfast two days later he was presented with another congratulatory address from the Presbyterians of Ulster by a deputation of which the minister of the town, Patrick Adair, was one. &lsquoIt was said,&rsquo writes the historian Latimer, &lsquothat Mr Patrick Adair had several interviews with the King, who took great interest in his conversation and was evidently impressed by the information he communicated.&rsquo [52] Three days afterwards the King issued from Hillsborough his orders for the payment of his royal bounty of twelve hundred pounds a year to the Presbyterian ministers of Ulster. In this order he named Patrick Adair and his son William, who had been minister at Ballyeaston from 1681, two of the trustees for distributing the regium donum.

We find no further mention of Patrick Adair in connection with the public events of his time. His closing years were evidently devoted to the writing of his Narrative, for Gordon asserts that he wrote it &lsquolate in life&rsquo. [53] If that be so he can hardly have written any part of it at Cairncastle. He was at the General Synod of Ulster at Antrim in 1691 [55 and he was again present at the same venue in 1692. [54] For the year 1693 we have no record, but at the General Synod held once again at Antrim in 5 June 1694 his name, in brackets, heads the list of the Antrim ministers as &lsquo Mr Patrick Adair&rsquo&hellip. being now dead.&rsquo [56]
His will was dated 26 January 1693, but probate was not taken out until 6 July 1695, more than a year after his death. &lsquoIn his will&rsquo says Classon Porter, &lsquoMr Adair mentions a sum of four hundred pounds belonging to him which was in the hands of Lord Donegall, and the interest of which he leaves to his wife as a jointure.&rsquo [57] This was his third wife, Elizabeth Anderson, a widow whom he married while he was minister at Belfast. Her maiden name was Martin. He had four sons: William, Archibald, Alexander and Patrick, and a daughter, Helen. Gordon says that Patrick junior was a minister at Carrickfergus and that he died in June 1717. [58] William, his eldest son by Margaret Cunningham, was an executor of his father&rsquos will, and his third son Alexander, a witness to it.

In 1697 the Synod of Ulster voted an honorarium to the Rev. William Adair for his trouble in copying out, with the aid of an amanuensis, his father&rsquos &lsquocollections&rsquo. [59] Dr Reid afterwards copied the greater part of his manuscript and made much use of it in his history of the Church. [60] The Rev. William Adair&rsquos copy appears to be the one which the Rev. Classon Porter&rsquos son, Classon Porter B.L. donated to the Presbyterian Historical Society of Ireland. [61] When Dr Killen published the Narrative in 1866 he followed Dr Reid&rsquos copy, no doubt collating it with the Rev. William Adair&rsquos manuscript.
By which wife Patrick Adair had his second, third and fourth sons, and his only daughter, we do not know. Possibly they were all born at Cairncastle, for Adair was fifty years of age when he relinquished his charge there. He was buried in Belfast in accordance with the terms of his will but (says Porter) &lsquo we have not heard of any monument of any kind having been erected to this faithful pastor, this brave sufferer for what he believed to be the truth, this able negotiator, this honest man.&rsquo [62 No likeness of Patrick Adair has survived &ndash if indeed any was ever drawn or painter.

To the frailties of human nature Patrick Adair was no more immune than many another. Killen says in the introduction to the Narrative that he &lsquowas not free from the prejudices of his party or the superstitions of his age.&rsquo [63] Two quotations from his Narrative will prove this to be so. In January 1653 when Adair was in Dublin seeking relief from the &lsquoEngagement&rsquo on the grounds of conscience
One Allen, Anabaptist, (remarked):&rsquoPapists would and might say as much for themselves, and pretend conscience as well as they&rsquo. Mr Adair answered &ndash &lsquosir, under favour, it&rsquos a mistake to compare our conscience with hose of papists, for Papist&rsquos conscience could digest to kill Protestant kings, but so would not ours, to which our principals are contrary.&rsquo This harsh expression, reflecting on many there who had a hand in the King&rsquos murder, procured a great silence, some drawing their hats down on their faces&hellip. and others were angry. [64]
It&rsquos hardly surprising that Adair and his fellow minister were sent home empty handed.

The other quotation relates to Owen O&rsquoConnolly and his family. O&rsquoConnolly, a sketch of whose life has also been written by Classon Porter, was originally a Monaghan Catholic who became a Presbyterian under the tutelage of the Clotworthy family at Antrim Castle, where he was a servant. He was later an elder of the Church. O&rsquoConnolly had betrayed his own foster brother, Hugh Og MacMahon, Conor, Baron Maguire and others in Dublin on the morning of 23 October 1641, thereby saving Dublin Castle at the onset of the insurrection. He afterwards joined the Independent sect and rose to a colonel in the Parliamentary Army, getting command of the regiment at Antrim. In October 1649 O&rsquoConnolly was mortally wounded in an ambush at Dunadry. Adair wrote:
This man, from what could be observed, was of an ingenious nature, and truly sincere, yet he was then deceived by the pretences of that party (the Independents) and seemed violent that way. Therefore, though God had brought him to great respect and a considerable estate upon occasion of his former faithfulness at the breaking out of the rebellion, yet falling from his first principles, and going along with the declining party, the Lord would punish him with the temporal stroke of being thus cut off for a warning to others to beware of such courses. His wife died shortly after, and left a son and a daughter &ndash his son a very idiot unto the greatest height, and the daughter, though thereafter married to a worthy gentleman (Mr Hugh Rowley), yet proved but more than half a fool, and a burden to her husband for many years, and without posterity. [65]

Much as he believed in the justice of the cause for which he suffered, Adair&rsquos manifest antipathy to Catholics, Churchmen, Independents, Baptists, and indeed to all who were not of his own persuasion (with the possible exception of Primate Ussher), deprives his Narrative of that impartiality called for in an historical work, however accurate. He was a man of his time and for this fact we must make due allowance. Born the year before the death of James I and the succession of Charles I, he came as minister to this district two days after Charles had given himself up to the Scots near Newark, and a month before the Battle of Benburb, at which Owen Roe O &lsquoNeill defeated Robert Monro&rsquos forces. He arrived in the midst of strife and saw much of it during his lifetime, dying almost on the eve of the penal laws, which ushered in another era in the troubled history of his adopted country.
Three hundred years after Patrick Adair&rsquos day we&rsquore still living through troubled times in Ireland. May the One who died for us all and who holds all hearts in His hand give us the strength of will and forbearance to live peaceable together.

Additional Notes
A glance at the telephone directories show that the Adairs are very numerous in Northern Ireland and that a few of the name reside in the Republic. The name is now invariably spelt Adair, but Adare is the spelling in the Hearth- Money Roll and in Hill&rsquos Macdonnells of Antrim. This old spelling might be adduced as evidence in support of the statements of Hill, Porter and Gordon that the name derives from Adare in Co. Limerick but the Fitzgerald of Desmond origin of the Galloway family is a tradition which, according to the leading authority on Scottish surnames, Dr George Fraser Black, &lsquoseems hypothetical for belief&rsquo (Surnames of Scotland, New York, 1965 reprint, p.6). Black says that &lsquoChalmers and other think that Adair is but a different pronunciation of Edzear &hellip or Edgar&hellip&rsquo
The Adair&rsquos Waveney title has been extinct since 1886 (Complete Peerage. Vol.12, pt2, 1959, p.435)
Adair of Cairncastle.
Mr Jim Maxwell, who grew up in Ballyhackett townland, in a letter to me quotes Classon Porter as stating in 1865 that Adair&rsquos house was then occupied by a family named McKee. &lsquoThe house almost adjacent to the parish church and known as Church Farm has been the residence of the Mc Kee family for several generations. However, &lsquowrites Mr Maxwell, &lsquoI cannot say for sure of it was occupied by them as long ago as 1865, and that it the house referred to by Classon Port.&rsquo There is , seemingly, some slight conflict in Classon Porter&rsquos statements about the precise location of Adair&rsquos residence.
c. 1983 Seamus O Saothrai/James Seery


History of Porter County, 1912 County history published by The Lewis Publishing Company . . . .

Source Citation:
The Lewis Publishing Company. 1912. History of Porter County, Indiana: A Narrative Account of its Historical Progress, its People and its Principal Interests. Volume I. Chicago, Illinois: The Lewis Publishing Company. 357 p.

HISTORY OF PORTER COUNTY

THE MOUND BUILDERS - WHO WERE THEY - DIFFERENT THEORIES - DISTRICTS - EFFIGY MOUNDS - PURPOSES FOR WHICH THE MOUNDS WERE ERECTED - MOUNDS IN NORTHERN INDIANA - IN PORTER COUNTY - PREHISTORIC REMAINS - COLLECTIONS OF RELICS - THE MODERN INDIAN - POTTAWATOMIES - THEIR TRADITIONS AND CUSTOMS - THEIR ALLIANCES WITH THE FRENCH AND ENGLISH - TREATIES OF CESSION - INDIAN TRAILS.

Before the white man the Indian before the Indian the Mound Builder. Who were the Mound Builders? Whence came they and wither did they go? These questions have enlisted the attention of ethnologists for many years, but they have never been definitely nor satisfactorily answered, and probably never will be. The earthworks and implements left by the Mound Builders show that they practiced agriculture, and that in some respects they were more civilized than the Indians found here by the white men.

The glacial drift has revealed human bones near the skeletons of mastodons, and this fact has led some of the early writers - notably Foster, Squier & Davis, Baldwin, Conant and Bancroft - to advance the theory that the Mound Builders constituted a race of great antiquity - a race that has been extinct for thousands of years. Later investigations have caused other ethnologists to arrive at the conclusion that the Mound Builders were the ancestors, and not so very remote either, of the Indians who inhabited North America at the time the continent was discovered

by Columbus. Among the representatives of this later school are Bishop Madison, Schoolcraft, Sir John Lubbock, Prof. Lucien Carr, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Cyrus Thomas of the United States Bureau of Ethnology.

All over that portion of the United States east of the Rocky mountains are scattered the mounds erected by this peculiar people. Mr. Thomas, in the Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, divides the country into eight districts, as follows: 1. Wisconsin including the state of that name 2. Illinois and Upper Mississippi, embracing eastern Iowa, northeastern Missouri and northern and central Illinois 3. Ohio, which includes the State of Ohio, the western part of West Virginia and eastern Indiana 4. New York and the lake region of the central portion 5. The Appalachian district, embracing western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia and southeastern Kentucky 6. The Middle Mississippi district, which includes southeastern Missouri, northern Arkansas, middle and western Tennessee, western Kentucky, southern Illinois and the Wabash Valley in. Indiana 7. The Lower Mississippi district, including the southern half of Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi 8. The Gulf district which embraces all the Gulf states east of Mississippi. While the mounds in general bear a striking resemblance to each other in structure, etc., those of each district possess certain characteristics peculiar to the locality, indicating that the Mound Builders were divided into tribes or families, each of which followed certain customs not known or practiced by the others. Frequently the mounds take the form of birds, serpents or animals. This is especially true of the mounds of Wisconsin, in which the outlines of the deer, fox, lynx and eagle have been distinctly traced. Some writers think these effigy mounds were totems, worshipped by the people as guardians of the villages, but no inscriptions nor traditions have been found to tell how or what the Mound Builders worshipped, and the mounds themselves a tell a meager story.

One of the greatest effigy mounds so far discovered is the "Great Serpent Mound" in Adams county, Ohio. It is located on a bluff, which

is itself serpentine in form, overlooking Brush creek, and is 1,348 feet in length. The mouth of the serpent is open and directly in front of it is a low artificial mound, while in the vicinity are several burial mounds. From the fact that the serpent appears to have been a favorite form of effigy, Peet thinks that the serpent worship prevailed to some extent among the Mound Builders, but this, like other theories, is largely a matter of conjecture and speculation. About all that is definitely settled regarding the mounds is that some were erected for sacrificial purposes some for signal stations or lookout towers, but by far the greater number mark the burial places of priests, warriors or rulers. In the Tennessee district, graves were often formed by slabs of stone set on edge and contained one or more skeletons. One mound, not far from Nashville, about forty-five in diameter, when opened was found to contain about 100 skeletons.

A large part of the Twelfth Annual Report of the United States Bureau of Ethnology is devoted to the Mound Builders and their works. On page 526 of this report Mr. Thomas, who had charge of the work, says: "Examining the maps of Indiana and Illinois, which are given together, we see that the works are confined principally to the eastern portion of the former and the western portion of the latter. In the eastern part of Indiana the rule of following the streams seems to have been to a large extent abandoned especially is this the case with the cluster in the extreme northeastern corner and the belt commencing a little north of the middle of the state and extending down the eastern border to the Ohio river. This belt, which pertains to the group in southwestern Ohio, seems to be connected with the Wabash series by lines of works along the east and west forks of White river. The group along the Wabash is confined chiefly to the middle and lower portions of the valley."

From this quotation one would naturally infer that there are no mounds of consequence in the lake region of northern Indiana. This is true, in the main, but in the counties of Laporte, Porter and Lake there are abundant evidences that the Mound Builders once inhabited this

region. A few years ago Dr. Higday explored a group of some twenty mounds on a small tributary of the Kankakee some twelve miles from the city of Laporte. Among other things he found three skeleton - two adults and one child - one skull, two copper hatchets, a bear-shaped pipe, two copper needles, an earthen vessel filled with mould and pieces of tortoise shell, a few flint knives and pieces of galena and mica.

In Lake county there are several mounds along the shores of Cedar lake, from which several skeletons, pieces of lead ore, arrow points, etc., have been taken. About a mile south of Hobart are the remains of four mounds which have been almost leveled by cultivation. They have never been explored, but a stone hatchet and several small flints have been found in the immediate vicinity. From two mounds south of Orchard Grove have been taken portions of human skeletons, arrow heads and pottery, and on a "sand island" near by is the so-called "Indian Battle Ground," showing a low breastwork or artificial ridge of earth enclosing two sides of an area of some three acres of ground. Within the enclosure were about 200 holes resembling the rifle pits of modern warfare. Numerous skeletons have been found in this immediate locality.

Although Porter county has not been found so rich in prehistoric remains as some of her sister counties, one of the finest groups of mounds in northern Indiana lies within her borders. The original field notes of the United States land survey in 1834, mention the fact that the north and south line between sections 33 and 34, township 34 north, range 6 west, "passes over a large artificial mound surrounded by a number of smaller ones." A copy of the original plat now on file in the state auditor's office at Indianapolis shows this larger mound on the section line, with a group of nine smaller mounds surrounding it in a circle. This is the group of mounds located about a mile and a half east of the village of Boone Grove, on the south side of Wolf creek. At the present time there are eight mounds visible on an area of some thirty acres. The plat of the original survey above mentioned shows ten mounds, but it is possible that two of them have been obliterated by the plow. Seven of the mounds are situated on the high wooded ground

close to Wolf creek. The eighth, and largest, is in an open field near the northeast corner of section 33, township 34 north, range 6 west. It is about 100 feet in diameter and twelve feet in height. In the fall of 1897 the owner of the farm, John Wark, gave the state geologist the privilege of investigating the mound, and the result is thus told by Mr. Blatchley in his official report for that year. "A ditch was dug three feet wide, 32 feet long, and, at the center of the mound, 14 feet in depth. The mound was found to be composed of a compact, yellowish clay, in which were a few scattered pebbles of small size. In the exact center and ten feet from the crest, the earth became darker, harder and more compact. Six inches lower was a layer of black organic matter, in which were the remains of a very badly decayed human skeleton. It lay in a reclining position with its head to the south. Only a few pieces of bone and 14 teeth were removed, the remainder crumbling to dust. The crowns of the teeth were hard and solid, but the fangs for the most part crumbled like the bone. No implements of any kind were found, though the excavations were extended four feet lower and over an area 5x7 feet in the center of the mound."

Of the mound in the woods, the largest is the one near the creek. It is about seventy feet in diameter and ten feet high. On this mound are several black oak trees, one of which is about eighteen inches in diameter. The other six mounds vary from thirty to sixty feet in diameter and from six to eight feet in height. Four of the mounds were explored in the fall of 1897, but no skeletons or implements of any kind were found, charcoal and ashes being the only evidence that the mounds had been constructed by human hands.

Some years ago Hon. George C. Gregg excavated a mound near Cornell creek, about four miles east of Hebron, and found several skeletons. This mound was composed entirely of black earth which had been carried from the banks of the creek some 170 feet distant. From a mound south of Hebron was taken some pottery in a fair state of preservation. A little north of Woodvale, near the western boundary of the county and not far from Deep river, is a mound resembling a flat-iron in shape,

190 feet long, 75 feet in its greatest width, and rising to a height of 22 feet about the surrounding lowlands. Battey's History of Porter and Lake Counties (1882), says that near the apex of this mound "there is a well, which was formerly of enormous depth. The excavation is circular, and has a diameter of eight or nine feet. Into this well, the early settlers threw the debris of their clearings, with the intention of filling it up but the capacity has been so great that it remains yet unfilled. Numerous small excavations in the adjacent soil and rocks have led to the conclusion that this was once a 'water-cure' establishment, and resorted to in ancient times for its baths."

Later geologists have expressed the belief that this mound is a natural formation, cut off at some period from the adjacent highlands by an overflow of Deep river. This opinion is based on observations that all the mounds in this region are composed of clay, while matter thrown out of this elevation by woodchucks for a depth of from eight to fifteen feet below the crest shows that it is composed of sand, which is the same as the highlands in the immediate neighborhood.

Several interesting collections of Mound Builders' relics have been made at times from those found in Porter county. The Valparaiso high school has a number of arrow points, spear heads, stones, axes, etc., but in many instances the specimens are unaccompanied by data as to when, where or by whom they were found. Dr. J. K. Blackstone of Hebron at one time had a large collection gathered in the southern part of the county, but this collection has become scattered. A number of fine specimens have been found in the vicinity of Boone Grove near the southeast corner of the county was found some years ago a Celt formed of diorite about ten inches long and finely polished and near by was discovered a cache containing over a peck of flint arrow heads.

At the beginning of the Nineteenth century the region now included within the limits of Porter county was inhabited by the Pottawatomie tribe of Indians. The Pottawatomies belonged to the Algonquian group, and were first met by the white men about the head and on the islands of Green bay, Wisconsin. It is known, however, that as early as 1616

they were one of the four tribes whose habitat was along the western shore of Lake Huron. The Jesuit Relation for 1671, in referring to the west coast of Lake Huron, says: "Four nations made their abode here, namely: those who bear the name Puans (i.e. Winnebago), who have always lived here as their own country, and who have been reduced to nothing from being a very flourishing and populous people, having been exterminated by the Illinois, their enemies the Pottawatomi, the Sauk and the Nation of the Fork (la Fourche) also live here, but as strangers, or foreigners, driven by fear of the Iroquois (the Neuters and the Ottawa) from their own lands which are between the lake of the Hurons and that of the Illinois."

Bottineau says the Pottawatomies were known as the "People of the place of fire." Other authorities say that the Pottawatomies and Sauk together were called the "Nation of fire" that after the former tribe became separated, that portion known as the Mascoutins or Maskotens - the prairie band - took the name "Nation of fire," and that it was never afterward applied to the remainder of the tribe. They were "The most docile and affectionate toward the French of all the savages," were naturally polite, resisted the encroachments of "fire water," were kindly disposed toward Christianity and manifested a willingness to adopt the customs of civilization. Polygamy was common among them and in their religion they believed in two spirits which governed the world - Kitchemonedo, the Great Spirit, and Matchemonedo, the Evil Spirit. The great ceremonial observance among them was the "Feast of Dreams," at which dog meat was the principal article of food, and during which a special or individual Manitou was selected.

Chauvignerie, wrote in 1736, says the chief totems of the Pottawatomies were the golden carp, the frog, the tortoise, the crab and the crane. Morgan divides the tribe into fifteen gentes, as follows: 1st, Moah (wolf) 2nd, Mko (bear) 3d, Muk (beaver) 4th, Mishawa (elk) 5th, Maak (loon) 6th, Knou (eagle) 7th, Nma (sturgeon) 8th, Nmapena (carp) 9th, Mgezewa (bald eagle) 10th, Chekwa (thunder) 11th, Wabozo (rabbit) 12th, Kakaghe (crow) 13th, Wakeshi (fox)

14th, Penna (turkey) 15th, Mketashshekakah (black hawk). In the Wabozo gens cremation was practiced to some extent, but as a rule the dead were buried in the earth. In the early '50s a sawmill was set up near the mouth of Sandy Hook creek in Boone township, and soon after it was started a number of old Indians visited the neighborhood to pay their respects to the graves of some of their ancestors. This led to the discovery of an old Indian burying ground some seven or eight acres in extent, located in section 21, township 33 north, range 6 west, a short distance north of the Kankakee river. After the departure of the Indian visitors, excavations were made and a number of implements, weapons, ornaments, images, etc., were found.

Prior to 1763 the Pottawatomies were loyal to the French, but after the peace of that year they became allies of the British. They took part in Pontiac's conspiracy and fought on the side of Great Britain in the Revolutionary war. They participated in the defeat of General St. Clair near the headwaters of the Wabash river on November 4, 1791, and when Major Hamtramck tried to make a treaty of peace with the tribe the next year the head chief declined, claiming that he was threatened by other Indians. Twenty-five Pottawatomie chiefs took part in the negotiation of the treaty of Greeneville, August 3, 1795. Soon after that treaty was made they moved westward and took possession of lands along the Wabash river, notwithstanding the opposition and objections of the Miamis, and by the beginning of the Nineteenth century they were in possession of the country about the head of Lake Michigan, extending from Milwaukee to the Grand river in Michigan, southward to the Wabash river, southwestward over a large part of Indiana and Illinois, and eastward across Michigan to Lake Erie. It was estimated that at that time the tribe had fifty populous villages in the above mentioned territory.

In the War of 1812 some of the Pottawatomies again took sides with the British. At a great Indian council held on the Mississinewa river in May, 1812, most of the tribal chiefs favored peace with the United States and the neighboring Indian tribes. Dillon, in his History of

Indiana (p. 484), reports a speech of one of the Pottawatomie chiefs in which the orator said: "We are glad that it should please the Great Spirit for us to meet today, and incline all our hearts for peace. Some of the foolish young men of our tribe, that have, for some winters past, ceased to listen to the voice of their chiefs, and followed the council of the Shawnee that pretended to be a prophet, have killed some of our white brothers this spring at different places. We have believed that they were encouraged in this mischief by this pretended prophet, who, we know, has taken great pains to detach them from their own chiefs and attach them to himself. We have no control over those few vagabonds and consider them not belonging to our nation and we will be thankful to any people who will put them to death wherever found."

In reply to this, Tecumseh insisted that he had been misrepresented "to our white brothers by pretended chiefs of the Pottawatomie and others who have been in the habit of selling land that did not belong to them."

The Pottawatomies were among the first Indians to enter into treaties of peace with the representatives of the United States at the close of the war in 1815. Not long after these treaties were made a few adventurous white men began to encroach upon the Pottawatomie lands and a clamor arose that these lands be opened to white settlement. A few small tracts were reluctantly ceded to the United States by the tribe, but it was not until 1832 that all their lands In the State of Indiana were relinquished to the government. The first treaty of cession that included a part of what is now Porter county was concluded on the Wabash river, near the mouth of the Mississinewa, October 16, 1826. Lewis Cass, James B. Ray and John Tipton acted as commissioners on the part of the United States, and the treaty was signed by sixty-two of the chiefs and head men of the Pottawatomie tribe. That portion of the cession within the present limits of Porter county is thus described "Begining at a point upon Lake Michigan, ten miles due north of the southern extreme thereof running thence, due east, to the land ceded by the Indians to the United States by the treaty of Chicago

(August 29, 1820) thence south, with the boundary thereof, ten miles thence west, to the southern extreme of Lake Michigan thence with the shore thereof to the place of beginning."

At the same time and place the tribe ceded to the United States "a strip of land, commencing at Lake Michigan and running thence to the Wabash river, one hundred feet wide, for a road, and also, one section of good land contiguous to the said road, for each mile of the same, and also for each mile of a road from the termination thereof, through Indianapolis to the Ohio river, for the purpose of making a road aforesaid from Lake Michigan, by the way of Indianapolis, to some convenient point on the Ohio river."

The remaining portion of Porter county was ceded to the United States by the treaty of October 26, 1832, which was concluded on the Tippecanoe river "between Jonathan Jennings, John W. Davis and Mark Crume, Commissioners on the part of the United States, and the Chiefs, Headman and Warriors of the Pottawatomie Indians." The lands ceded by the tribe at this time are thus described in Article I of the treaty: "Beginning at a point on Lake Michigan, where the line dividing the States of Indiana and Illinois intersects the same thence with the margin of said lake, to the intersection of the southern boundary of a cession made by the Pottawatomies, at the treaty of the Wabash, of eighteen hundred and twenty-six thence east, to the northwest corner of the cession made by the treaty of St. Joseph's in eighteen hundred and twenty-eight thence south ten miles thence with the Indian boundary line to the Michigan road thence south with said road to the northern boundary line, as designated in the treaty of eighteen hundred and twenty-six with the Pottawatomies thence west with the Indian boundary line to the river Tippecanoe thence with the Indian boundary line, as established by the treaty of eighteen hundred and eighteen at St. Mary's, to the line dividing the States of Indiana and Illinois and thence north with the line dividing said states to the place of beginning."

For this tract of land, now worth millions of dollars, the United

States paid the Indians an annuity of $20,000 for twenty years, gave them goods to the value of $130,000, and assumed an indebtedness of certain members of the tribe amounting to $62,412. The next day (October 27, 1832,) the Pottawatomies concluded a treaty with the same commissioners, relinquishing title to all their lands in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, south of the Grand river, and a few years later a reservation was set apart for them in what is now the State of Kansas. When the time came for their removal to the new reservation, some of them refused to leave the old hunting grounds and had to be expelled by soldiers. A portion of the tribe escaped into Canada and later settled upon Walpole island in Lake St. Clair.

A number of Indian trails passed through Porter county. The most noted of these aboriginal thoroughfares was probably the old Sauk trail, which ran from St. Joseph river via Laporte, Valparaiso and Crown Point to the Kankakee river in Illinois. Another important trail crossed the eastern boundary of the county near the line between townships 36 and 37, north, and pursued a course a little north of west until it crossed the Calumet river about a mile west of the present town of Chesterton. After crossing the Calumet it followed approximately the ridge to which Leverett has given the name of "Calumet Beach" and crossed the west line of the county about a mile south of the shore of Lake Michigan. The original survey, made in 1834 and 1835, shows in some portions of the county local trails, but as they were not carefully traced by the surveyors it is impossible at this late day to determine their sources or the exact direction they pursued. They were generally "short cuts" between Indian villages or from one water-course to another. The Wabash railroad follows closely one of these trails from Clear Lake to Morris in Jackson township another local trail ran almost parallel to the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad a little north of Wheeler, and a third left the old Lafayette & Michigan City road n little north of Tassinong and ran in a southwesterly direction to Sandy Hook creek, where the surveyors ceased to trace its course. There was also an Indian trail from John lake in Jackson township to Long

lake in Liberty township. But, in the three-quarters of a century that have elapsed since the Indians gave up their lands, the trails have been obliterated, and within another generation or two both the trails and the men who made them will have been forgotten. The following poem by Hubert M. Skinner was published a few years ago in the Northwestern Sportsman:

THE SONG OF THE OLD SAC TRAIL

"The Old Sac Trail, trod first by Indians, later by the explorers, and in early days the pathway of important military expeditions, followed the narrow strip of land between Lake Michigan and the swamp of the Kankakee, now covered by a network of railway lines, the greatest highway of commerce in the world. - Editor."

My course I take by marge of lake or river gentle flowing,
Where footsteps light in rapid flight may find their surest going.
I hold my way through forests gray, beneath their rustling arches,
And on I pass through prairie grass, to guide the silent marches.

In single file, through mile on mile, the braves their chieftains follow,
By night or day they keep their way, they wind round hill and hollow.
From sun to sun I guide them on, the men of bow and quiver,
And on I pass through prairie grass, as flows the living river.

Where waters gleam, I ford the stream and where the land is broken,
My way I grope down rocky slope, by many a friendly token.
The shrubs and vines, the oaks and pines, the lonely firs and larches
I leave, and pass through prairie grass, to guide the silent marches.

To charts unknown, in books unshown, I am no lane or byway.
Complete with me from seat to sea the continental highway!
I guide the quest from East to West - From West to East deliver,
For on I pass through prairie grass, as flows the living river.

The bivouac leaves embers black amid the fern and clover,
And prints of feet the searchers greet, to tell of journeys over.
The sun beats hot. I reckon not how sear its splendor parches,
I onward pass through prairie grass, to guide the silent marches.

The Red Man's God prepared the sod, and to his children gave it.
His wrath is shown in every zone against the men who brave it.
The righteous be, who follow me, and praise the Heavenly Giver,
While on I pass through prairie grass, as flows the living river.

There is an old tribal tradition to the effect that at some period in the remote past the Pottawatomies, the Chippewas and the Ottawas were one people. In the early ཤs, after the three tribes were removed to reservations west of the Mississippi, they made a request to be reunited, but the government declined to grant the request, probably because the combined strength of the three tribes would be so great as to render them a formidable foe in case of an Indian outbreak. In 1910 there were about 2,600 Pottawatomies still living. About two-thirds of them occupied a reservation in Oklahoma the prairie band, numbering over 600, lived in Kansas about 75 were in Calhoun county, Michigan, and some 220 lived in Canada.

Such, in brief, is the history of the once powerful Indian tribe that inhabited Porter county. With the relinquishment of their lands in 1832, the power of the Pottawatomies began to wane. After their removal to their reservation west of the Mississippi they seemed to lose energy and ambition, becoming satisfied to live upon the slender annuities doled out to them by the United States government, and

"The pale face rears his wigwam where the Indian hunters roved
His hatchet fells the forest fair the Indian maidens loved."


The History of England: From the Accession of James II Including the Life and Most Important Letters of Lord Macaulay, By His Nephew, George Otto Trevelyan, M.P. [Five Volume Set]

Macaulay, Thomas Babington

Published by Wm. L. Allison, New York, 1887

Used - Hardcover
Condition: Near Fine

Hardcover. Condition: Near Fine. Near fine condition dark brown glossy textured boards with gold and brown spine lettering. Volumes I and V have light to moderate upper and lower spine rubbing and volume three contains pencil notes at the rear two blank endpapers and approximately 12 pages of pencil notes in margins. Volume I contains penciled notes at the blank rear free endpaperIncludes an Index in Volume V. Besides these points noted in Volume III, the pages of all volumes are in fine condition, and each volume's spine is exceedingly tight and square. Volume I is 522 pages Volume II is 523 pages Volume III is 475 pages Volume IV is 481 pages Volume V is 482 pages.


Return to Europe

Following the US government's refusal to permit the passengers to disembark, the St. Louis sailed back to Europe on June 6, 1939. The passengers did not return to Germany, however. Jewish organizations (particularly the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee) negotiated with four European governments to secure entry visas for the passengers:

  • Great Britain took 288 passengers
  • the Netherlands admitted 181 passengers
  • Belgium took in 214 passengers
  • 224 passengers found at least temporary refuge in France.

Of the 288 passengers admitted by Great Britain, all survived World War II save one, who was killed during an air raid in 1940. Of the 620 passengers who returned to the continent, 87 (14%) managed to emigrate before the German invasion of western Europe in May 1940. 532 St. Louis passengers were trapped when Germany conquered western Europe. Just over half, 278 survived the Holocaust. 254 died: 84 who had been in Belgium 84 who had found refuge in Holland, and 86 who had been admitted to France.


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