Transitional Heer Helmets (M16 – M18)
Look in the Decals sub menu for details on Heer decals.
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Gebrüder Gnüchtel A.G size 62 – M16
- This is probably one of the earliest decalled Third Reich helmets you can find.
- Original WW1 leather liner configuration
- Original WW1 chinstrap (not pictured)
- Toned Pocher Eagle decal – A good example that shows how hard a decal can tone to gold/yellow.
Unidentified maker size 64 – M18
- Has a the earliest style single aluminium liner band , recogniseable by the thick rivets used to secure the leather.
- No size stamp imprinted in the leather but ink stamped in the inner shell
- The helmet was roughly painted with the liner band in it , paint has spilled onto the band and the leather
- Early (pre 35) rollerbuckle chinstrap
- Uneven toned Pocher decal , also notice how the white of the tricolor has yellowed
- Unit stamp
Unidentified maker size 64 – M18
- Typical mid war single decal issue M18 with steel liner band
- Has the HJ&K decal often seen on Transitionals
- Interesting identifying tag stuck on the back.
Unidentified maker size 64 – M16
- Single band aluminium liner with the flat rivet heads as commonly observed
- Size stamp imprinted in the leather
- 1933 Roller buckle chinstrap
- Rare W Abels type decal (only observed on early TR helmets)
Unidentified maker – Austrian M17
- Pea green Austrian helmet with the more rare E Jutner decal set.
- Has a field manufactured camo band made from the elastic band they use for dust goggles.
- Leather and chinstrap were treated with product unfortunately. I always advise to leave things as they are , you can read more about it here.
Unidentified maker – Austrian M17
- This helmet was found in the woodwork in the USA in 2011.
- 1939 dated alu reinforced liner
- Sports the Methner and Burger Heer eagle
- Note that the old chinstrap attachments which were attached to the shell have been skilfully removed. You can see them still attached on the Austrian shells above.
Eisenhüttenwerke Thale size 64 – M18 Cut out (WW1 Cavalry helmet)
- Steel liner band , date not readable
- Textured paintjob as observed on helmets after 1939 in combination with a single decal.
- Sports a Huber Jordan Heer adler
Eisenhüttenwerke Thale size 64 – M18 Cut out (WW1 Cavalry helmet)
Eisenhüttenwerke Thale size 64 – M18 Cut out (WW1 Cavalry helmet)
The Guisborough Helmet, discovered in England in 1864, is believed to be the cavalry headgear of an ancient Roman
There have been times in history when hundreds, if not thousands, of cavalrymen, stood along Hadrian’s Wall, which once marked the Roman border of Britannia. Each member of the garrison was distanced from another by about 150 feet, which would make for quite a staggering formation. Each of the soldiers was probably clear on how important it was to have their face protected, and the greater portion of the garrison members likely did wear some type of headgear.
Perhaps one such item of Roman cavalry headgear–the famed Guisborough Helmet, discovered in August 1864 at Barnaby Grange Farm, not very far from the small town after which it took its name–belonged to a member of a garrison who at some point guarded the very wall marking the northernmost limits of the Roman Empire.
When the helmet was initially found, amid road-building efforts in North Yorkshire country, it wasn’t immediately recognized what it was, nor was an appropriate estimate made for its age. Its finders only thought they had come across an interesting item, a strange piece of metal you don’t happen to stumble upon every day.
The Guisborough Helmet, as seen from the front left, Prioryman, GFDL
Made of copper alloy, the gear was at first supposedly interpreted as a breastplate of Anglo-Saxon or Celtic origin. Only when it was later donated to the British Museum, in 1878, was the piece suitably classified as a 3rd-century Roman artifact, a helmet worn by a warrior. As such, it was carefully taken care of, restored, and displayed in an appropriate quarter of the museum. Originally, the headgear would have also had fitted cheekpieces, which unfortunately seem to be lost.
As seen from the front right, Photo: Prioryman, CC BY-SA 3.0
The helmet is lightly decorated with engravings of three ancient Roman deities, Victory, Mars, and Minerva. It is believed that the Guisborough Helmet was intentionally disposed of by its owner as it was reportedly found deployed just inches away from a stream, flattened and folded.
For everything to make even less sense, no related objects have been found in the proximity of the cavalry helmet, and it was buried at a considerable distance of any location associated with the Roman military or anything Roman, whatsoever. In this sense, the depositor of the helmet has acted as its accidental encryptor, leaving behind many open questions for modern-day archaeologists.
Rear view of the ancient helmet, Photo: Prioryman, CC BY-SA 3.0
One answer might lie in the writings of Dutch history writer, Johan Nicolay, who has pondered on the topic of the use of weapons in contexts other than warfare. A potential explanation for the enigma might be that the Roman military equipment perhaps had a certain kind of “lifecycle,” in which retired soldiers took some of their gadgets home as memorabilia after their service ended. Another consideration is that some of them may have disposed of the items, burying them as part of particular religious beliefs, and away from any barracks or other military infrastructure.
The rear-left view of the helmet, also showing some ruptures, Photo: Prioryman, CC BY-SA 3.0
It has been a puzzle for historians and archaeologists to determine if the Guisborough Helmet was intended for combat use or perhaps for military events like parades and cavalry sports. The truth might be both.
More recent research has also suggested that the artifact was of high value as it has been proven that just engraving the decorations on it would have taken several days of work.
The front peak of the Guisborough helmet, displaying some of the fine embossed work on the piece, Photo: Prioryman, CC BY-SA 3.0
That the Guisborough Helmet could have been a much-treasured item is no surprise, especially when bearing in mind that other Roman cavalry headwear such as the Crosby Garrett Helmet, found with a metal detector by a British treasure hunter and sold at auction in 2010, hit a mesmerizing $3.6 million.
Unlike the Guisborough Helmet, though, the Crosby Garrett Helmet may feel a bit more imposing, thanks to its fully preserved face mask part, with even more elaborate details such as tufts of curly hair and a griffin on top. More likely, this more recently found headwear had not been in any combat but was reserved for some of the special Roman cavalry ceremonies.
Roman helmet turns history on its head
Every school child used to learn how the British defended their land during the Roman Conquest.
But the discovery of a 2,000-year-old Roman helmet beneath a Leicestershire hillside suggests a different story. Rather than repel the invaders, some Britons fought in the Roman ranks.
The ornate helmet was awarded to high-ranking cavalry officers and was found at the burial site of a British tribal leader. According to experts, it transforms our understanding of the Roman Conquest.
“How did it get there? The simple answer is that it was worn on the head of a Briton,” said Dr J D Hill, head of research at the British Museum.
“The old view is 'Romans bad, Britons good’. This discovery muddies the waters. You can’t overestimate the shock and surprise when it was first found.
“This is a major discovery that says we have to rethink the relationship between the Britons and the Romans. It is an iconic object and every book on Roman history from now on will have this in it.”
The treasure, known as the Hallaton Helmet after the area where it was found, dates to around the time of the Roman invasion in AD43. A Roman goddess flanked by lions adorns the brow, while the cheek pieces feature a Roman emperor trampling a barbarian beneath his horse’s hooves.
In its day, the helmet would have been a stunning sight – the ironwork plated with silver and details picked out in shimmering gold.
It was first unearthed in 2000 by Ken Wallace, a retired design and technology teacher who was out testing his £260 second-hand metal detector near his Leicestershire home. “I was extremely lucky,” said Mr Wallace, 71. “It was late one afternoon and I found about 200 coins. But the metal detector was telling me something was iron but not iron. I covered it up and went back the next day. Sure enough, there was a silver ear.”
Realising he had stumbled across a site of some significance, Mr Wallace reported the find to the county archaeologist and professionals were brought in. Under the Treasure Act, Mr Wallace and the landowner were awarded £150,000 each.
The site yielded 5,500 coins – the largest Iron Age hoard ever found in Britain – and the helmet, which had been broken into nearly 1,000 pieces.
Experts at the British Museum were presented with a “lump of mud” and set about painstakingly piecing together the fragments. “It was a bit of a task, but we knew we had something special,” said Marilyn Hockey, the museum’s head of conservation.
The helmet was unveiled at the British Museum yesterday after a decade of restoration work paid for by a £650,000 Heritage Lottery Fund grant.
The identity of the Briton commemorated at the burial site is unknown but the artefacts show that he was an important figure.
According to Dr Hill, British tribal leaders travelled to the Continent to join the Roman cavalry. “We know that the Roman cavalry recruited from outside the Empire in later years, but this is the first concrete evidence that Britons fought on the other side at the time of the Roman Conquest,” he added.
An alternative theory that the helmet was seized as booty can be discounted because it was a symbolic item not designed to be worn in battle. Dr Hill said: “It would be the equivalent of taking something worn for the passing-out ceremony at Sandhurst and packing it in your bag when you go to Afghanistan.”
It is difficult to put a price on the helmet, but in 2010 a bronze Roman helmet with face mask was sold for £2.3 million at Christie’s.
Dr Hill said: “This one may not look like much by comparison but it is far, far more significant a find.
“Before it was restored, it was a lump of rust in a block of soil. When I see it now, my jaw drops.”
Although the British Museum carried out the restoration work, the helmet will remain close to home. It will be displayed permanently at Harborough Museum in Leicestershire from January 28 alongside other finds from the site.
A sheet bronze face-plate from a cavalry sports helmet (Russel-Robinson Type E) with repoussé detailing to the hair and coif, brow-band of square panels with ovoid centers, raised herringbone eyebrows and eyelashes openwork eyes each with central ring, pierced nostrils and mouth hole to each side of the chin.
The face-plate resembles a mask from the Straubing Hoard. The features have an &lsquoEastern&rsquo appearance enhanced by the construction of the eye-rings. 'Cavalry Sports&rsquo helmets are a class of ornate, embossed headgear used in parades, military exercises and on the battlefield. According to Arrian of Nicomedia, a Roman provincial governor and a close friend of Hadrian, face mask helmets were used in cavalry parades and sporting mock battles called hippika gymnasia.
Parades or tournaments played an important part in maintaining unit morale and fighting effectiveness. They took place on a parade ground situated outside a fort and involved the cavalry practicing maneuvering and the handling of weapons such as javelins and spears. Parades would have taken place at several times in the year, especially at religious festivals and on days marking the birth, and accession to the throne, of the Emperor. Hippika gymnasia were colorful tournaments among the elite cavalry of the army, the alae. Both men and horses wore elaborate suites of equipment on these occasions, often in the guise of Greeks and Amazons. Calvary helmets were made from a variety of metals and alloys, often from gold-colored alloys or iron covered with tin. They were decorated with embossed reliefs and engravings depicting the war god Mars and other divine and semi-divine figures associated with the military.
Today in History: Born on June 20
Adam Ferguson, Scottish historian and philosopher (Principals of Moral and Political Science).
Charles Chesnutt, African-American novelist.
Kurt Schwitters, German artist.
Jean Moulin, French Resistance fighter during World War II.
Lillian Hellman, playwright (The Little Foxes, Toys in the Attic).
Errol Flynn, film actor (The Adventures of Robin Hood, Captain Blood).
Josephine Johnson, Pulitzer Prize-winning author (Jordanstown, Wildwood).
Steel Pot: The Combat Helmet
The story goes like this: When World War I began in August 1914, no soldiers in any army wore helmets, since such headgear had disappeared from battlefields at the end of the Middle Ages. Thus when French infantrymen (nicknamed “poilus”) entered the incredibly lethal, shell- swept battlefields of World War I, only wool kepis (mil- itary caps) covered their heads. (See Great Warriors, p. 16.) Then one day in the Western Front trenches early in the war, an enterprising French soldier removed his kepi and placed his metal soup bowl on his head to gain some protection against bursting artillery shells, thereby saving his life during a German bombardment. French officers witnessing this innovation reported it to higher command, and France’s military officials were so impressed by the idea that they immediately adopted it. They rushed to develop the first modern combat helmet and soon issued to all French army soldiers their lifesaving creation, the Model 1915 “Adrian” steel helmet. Thanks solely to the French soldier and his soup bowl, by 1916 all of the war’s major powers began using steel helmets.
A variation of the story claims that French army Intendant-Général August-Louis Adrian witnessed the plucky poilu’s lifesaving “soup bowl” battlefield expedient. Then, inspired by the stunning revelation that protective headgear could save soldiers’ lives, Adrian invented the Model 1915 helmet that bears his name.
This is such a great story that it continues to be repeated as the factual account of the true origin of the modern combat helmet in numerous books and articles written by historians with academic degrees after their names and by avid militaria collectors known for their obsessively detailed study of their hobby’s minutiae. Yet except for the fact that the French army did develop and issue the Model 1915 steel helmet named for Intendant-Général Adrian, there is not a soupçon of truth in the “soldier and the soup bowl” tale.
FACT VS. FICTION, PART I
Perhaps the most telling fact that exposes the story as fiction is that, as historians at the U.S. Army Center of Military History have confirmed, World War I “French soldiers were not issued ‘soup bowls.’” Furthermore, the size, shape and thin sheet-metal material of the field mess items issued to French troops meant that “nothing in the poilus’ mess kit could have been used as head protection.”
However, there is a possible explanation for the origin of the soup bowl legend: From March to September 1915, the French army issued 200,000 dome-shaped steel or sheet-iron skullcaps to provide soldiers at least some measure of head protection while the Adrian helmets were being developed and produced in quantity, and when inverted, these skullcaps somewhat resembled bowls. The skullcaps were extremely uncomfortable because they lacked ventilation holes and interior liners. Yet they proved relatively effective as a stopgap measure, since 40 percent of soldiers hit in the head wearing skullcaps were wounded versus 77 percent without them.
With the widespread issue of the Adrian helmets in September 1915, the skullcaps were relegated to more mundane uses. Although they were impractical for holding soup, they did make handy containers for loose ammunition for French sentries manning trench parapets.
FACT VS. FICTION, PART II
The story’s claim that no nation’s soldiers wore helmets at the beginning of World War I is also fiction. Notably, German army soldiers were equipped with Pickelhauben, leather “spiked” helmets that incorporated some metal parts. While hardly considered combat helmets by today’s standards, they were certainly a prominent part of German battle uniforms and had been since the Prussians (who borrowed the pattern from the Russians) introduced them in the 1840s. The Prussians used these helmets in three wars in Europe, and the Germans wore them during the first half of World War I, until the Model 1916 Stahlhelme (“steel helmets”) replaced them.
Additionally, many mounted troops, including dragoons and cuirassiers, entered World War I wearing the same shiny metal helmets that had been issued as uniform headgear throughout the 19th century. Indeed, both France and Germany fielded cavalry units whose troopers were fitted out with helmets and breastplates. Although the cavalry helmets looked anachronistic on the brutal “industrial warfare” battlefields of World War I, they proved somewhat effective as head protection. During the winter of 1914-15, dismounted cavalrymen who wore metal helmets while serving front-line duty in the trenches recorded far fewer casualties than did troops wearing only wool kepis.
Other soldiers wearing helmets at the outbreak of World War I included those in British Home Service infantry regiments. These men wore cloth-covered cork helmets, although they served in Britain and not in combat. Yet similarly styled cloth and cork “sun helmets” were worn by troops from many nations in World War I colonial combat, including German and British troops in the 1914-18 East Africa campaign. (See You Command, September 2013 ACG.) The sun helmets had been introduced in the 1840s in India and then were widely adopted by the military forces of European colonial powers in the 1870s and 1880s. Although they provided no protection from shellfire, they did save lives since they shielded the troops’ heads from the heat and blistering rays of the tropical sun – soldiers who died of sunstroke were just as dead as those cut down by bullets or artillery shells.
The fact is, therefore, that at the start of World War I, soldiers in the major powers’ armies wore helmets of varying sizes, shapes and construction, including headgear that was part of their combat uniforms.
FACT VS. FICTION, PART III
Certainly, the part of the story that is the most damning condemnation of World War I senior military leadership is the claim that commanders were so oblivious to the grim realities of front-line combat that they needed the “soldier and the soup bowl” example to point out to them that troops required head protection. However, the French army had become aware of the need for metal helmets years before World War I, and the artillery branch had conducted experimental trials at least as early as 1902. Soon after combat started, all belligerent nations recognized the importance of head protection and began working on suitable helmet designs.
The British army’s Mark I “Brodie” steel helmet was based on a design patented by John Leopold Brodie in 1915 and subsequently approved by Britain’s War Office for issue beginning in October of that year. Later, when America entered World War I in April 1917, U.S. forces adopted the Brodie helmet as the M1917, although troops in African-American units serving as part of French forces wore the Adrian helmets.
Germany also joined the trend in 1915. Early that year, after studying head wounds suffered by German army soldiers, Dr. Friedrich Schwerd recommended that Germany create a steel helmet. In mid-1915, he was ordered to begin developing one. After extensive trials, the Model 1916 Stahlhelm was formally adopted on January 1, 1916, and introduced into combat in the early days of the Battle of Verdun (February-December 1916).
France won the “steel helmet” race, even though when compared to the military forces of some other nations (notably Germany) the French army entered World War I plagued by technological disadvantages (conspicuously colored combat uniforms, lack of heavy artillery and barely adequate rifles and machine guns). Because of the French military’s prewar trials and France’s war industry that already provided cavalrymen with metal helmets, the French had a head start. They quickly developed and fielded the first modern combat helmet before the other belligerents could create and issue their versions.
MODEL 1915 “ADRIAN” HELMET
From a stylistic perspective, the Model 1915 Adrian helmet closely resembled the French cavalry helmet, but without the latter’s tall crest and scalloped rear neck guard. The steel Adrian also was a near copy of the brass Parisian firefighter helmet, yet that design too was based on the French cavalry helmet. Thus, although the introduction of the Adrian onto World War I battlefields as the first modern combat helmet was revolutionary, the design merely replicated that of other helmets already long in use.
The Model 1915 Adrian helmet’s design was rather complex, and therefore the helmet required a more time-consuming manufacturing process than either the British Brodie helmet or the German M1916 Stahlhelm. The Adrian consisted of several individual stamped components that were riveted and/or welded together, including an oversized dome-shaped skullcap, a two-piece brim with front and rear visor, and a crest over the top of the helmet that covered the ventilation holes to keep out the elements. The steel from which the helmet was made was a mere 0.7 millimeters thick, which was even thinner than the brass used to construct the contemporary firefighter helmet. Yet the Adrian’s steel provided better protection than the firefighter helmet’s soft brass.
The Adrian helmet’s interior liner varied somewhat in design but typically consisted of a leather headband with additional leather pieces that extended over the top of the wearer’s head to provide padding. This rested on a tin corrugated metal sheet that was designed to provide additional ventilation and suspension. A leather chinstrap was attached to a pair of fixed D-rings on each side of the helmet.
The Model 1915 Adrian helmet was introduced in the same “horizon blue” (blue-gray) color that was adopted for the French field uniform that year, and from late 1915 to mid-1916 a fabric helmet cover in light blue or khaki was issued. Later, the Adrian helmets were factory painted a darker blue-gray with a matte finish to reduce light reflection. However, French Foreign Legionnaires and other colonial troops typically wore brown- and khaki-painted helmets, as they applied these colors over the helmets’ original blue-gray. Additionally, while uncommon (authentic surviving examples are extremely rare), some French soldiers camouflaged their helmets with splotches of brown, green and black paint.
From mid-1915, five factories in France began manufacturing the Model 1915, and eventually more than 3 million Adrian helmets were produced and distributed to French army soldiers. The Adrian helmet proved popular with other countries, as well. During or soon after World War I, more than a dozen nations (including Belgium, Italy, Romania, Poland and Russia/USSR) adopted it for use by their respective armed forces.
In 1926, the French army improved the Model 1915 by using stronger steel and by greatly simplifying the helmet’s construction (replacing the Adrian’s three main pieces with a helmet body brim stamped out of a single piece of steel). As the M26, this updated version of the Adrian was used by France’s armed forces in World War II and by French police until the 1970s.
Peter Suciuhas collected military helmets for 30 years. He has written dozens of articles on this subject and is the author of “Military Sun Helmets of the World” (co-published by Service Publications, 2009).
Jerry D. Morelock, PhD, is Editor in Chief of “Armchair General” magazine.
“ACG” thanks Colonel (Ret.) Robert J. Dalessandro, U.S. Army Chief of Military History, and Charles H. Curetonat the Center of Military History for their assistance with this article.
Originally published in the March 2014 issue of Armchair General.
Iberian [Hispanic] cavalryman, 2nd C. BC. Iberian cavalry were certainly trained and equipped to fight en masse (Polybios 3.65.6) The ancient writer Strabo described Hispanics wearing helmets with three crests, and there are also references to iron helmet-masks rather in the manner of those worn by the Romans for their cavalry sports but for the moment we have no archaeological evidence.
From the second century on, an army sometimes included small bodies of specialist support troops too, like Balearic slingers whose accurate hurling of stones and lead bullets was legendary, or Gallic and Iberian cavalry – more maneuverable (and expendable) than citizen or Italian horse. Polybius (6.19-42) vividly depicts how the early to mid-second-century army functioned: the procedures for recruitment, the armament, the efficiently laid-out and maintained marching camp, the fearsome discipline. Much of his account is illustrated by further evidence, including archaeological: second-century Roman siege-camps near Numantia in Spain, like the famous site at Renieblas, obey Polybian principles so far as the terrain permits. Finds there and elsewhere support his description, too (6.23-24), of the legionary pila, heavy oblong shield (scutum), gladius, and armor (breastplate or, for wealthier soldiers, chain-mail coat).
The Iberians harboured a great deal of respect for horses, even worshipping them as divine creatures. In times of war the horse had previously played a minor role, but gradually progressed from a symbol of prestige and noble warrior’s ride to the battlefield, to becoming a major presence in the battle itself. Blessed with horses of great quality, Iberian cavalry grew to become one of the most potent weapons in the ancient world. Their horses were as fast and as nimble as the renowned Numidian steeds and, having been trained to cope with the rough terrain of the Peninsula, were hardy beasts also. The combination of fine mounts and dextrous riders enabled Iberian cavalry to earn a reputation that established them as mercenaries, sought after by both Carthage and Rome.
Hannibal’s Iberian cavalry
The Carthaginian army seems to have been remarkably effective under the Barcids. The core of the army which Hannibal brought to Italy was made up of subject and allied levies of Libyan and Iberian infantry and Numidian and Iberian cavalry. These troops seem to have had a strong personal tie to Hannibal, having picked him as their commander following the death of Hasdrubal. This would have given the army a very high degree of esprit de corps, and a sense of having a common purpose, which would doubtless have spread to the various mercenary contingents in the army, as well as the new Celtic and Ligurian allies who joined the army when it arrived in Italy. Such a sense of purpose could well have assumed a greater importance than the individual motives of the respective national groups.
Full dress is the most elaborate and traditional order worn by the British Army. It generally consists of a scarlet, dark blue or rifle green high-necked tunic (without chest pockets), elaborate headwear and other colourful items. It was withdrawn from a general issue in 1914, but is still listed in the Army Dress Regulations, which speaks of it as "the ultimate statement of tradition and regimental identity in uniform" and the "key" to all other orders of dress.  Each regiment and corps has its own pattern, approved by the Army Dress Committee.  They are generally a modified version of the pre-1914 uniforms. In the case of units created since the First World War, such as the Army Air Corps, the Full Dress order incorporates both traditional and modern elements.
Full dress is still regularly worn on ceremonial occasions by the Foot Guards, the Household Cavalry and the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. It is issued at public expense to these units and to the various Royal Corps of Army Music Bands for ceremonial use.  Other units may obtain Full Dress on occasion, as it can be worn whenever a parade is attended or ordained by the monarch or a member of the British Royal Family, including ceremonial parades, state funerals, and public duties around royal residences (such as the Changing of the Guard), or participating in the Lord Mayor's Show. 
Most regiments maintain full dress for limited numbers of personnel, including musicians and guards of honour (in some cases). However, all of these uniforms must be purchased and maintained from non-public funds. 
Historically, musicians were an important means of communication on the battlefield and wore distinctive uniforms for easy identification. This is recalled in the extra uniform lace worn by infantry regiments' corps of drums, and the different coloured helmet plumes worn by trumpeters in the Household Cavalry. Shoulder 'wings', which were originally used to distinguish specialist companies in line infantry battalions (grenadiers or light infantry) are now a distinguishing feature worn by musicians of non-mounted regiments and corps in ceremonial forms of dress.
Headgear, as worn with full dress, differs considerably from the peaked caps and berets worn in other orders of dress: field marshals, generals, lieutenant generals, major generals, brigadiers and colonels wear cocked hats with varying amounts of ostrich feathers according to rank the Life Guards, Blues and Royals, 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards and Royal Dragoon Guards wear metal helmets with plumes, the plumes variously coloured to distinguish them. The Kings Royal Hussars, Queen's Royal Hussars, Light Dragoons, and the Royal Horse Artillery wear a black fur busby, with different coloured plumes and bags (this is the coloured lining of the busby that is pulled out and displayed on the left-hand side of the headdress), as do the Royal Regiment of Artillery and the Royal Signals, despite not being hussar regiments. As the uniforms of Rifles regiments traditionally aped those of the hussars, a somewhat similar lambskin busby is worn by The Rifles and the Royal Gurkha Rifles, with coloured plumes to distinguish them. However, these busbies do not feature bags like in their hussar counterparts. The Royal Lancers as well as the band of the Royal Yeomanry, feature the czapka, or 'lancer's cap'. The plumes and top of this headgear historically distinguished the various Lancer regiments. The Grenadier Guards, Coldstream Guards, Scots Guards, Irish Guards, Welsh Guards and Royal Scots Dragoon Guards wear bearskins, as do officers of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers whose other ranks, however, wear the flat-topped fusilier cap. The Royal Regiment of Scotland wears the feathered bonnet, as do pipers in the Scots Guards and Royal Scots Dragoon Guards. The Princess of Wales' Royal Regiment, Mercian Regiment, Duke of Lancaster's Regiment, Royal Anglian Regiment, Yorkshire Regiment, and Royal Welsh, as Line infantry regiments, wear the dark blue Home Service Helmet with a spike ornament on top, as do the Royal Engineers, Adjutant General's Corps and Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. The Royal Logistic Corps, Royal Army Medical Corps, Royal Army Veterinary Corps and Royal Army Dental Corps wear the Home Service Helmet, but with a ball ornament on the top rather than a spike. The Royal Gibraltar Regiment wear a white helmet with a spike ornament on the top. The Royal Tank Regiment, Army Air Corps, Parachute Regiment, Special Air Service, Intelligence Corps and the Special Reconnaissance Regiment wear berets as they do with all orders of dress. The Royal Irish Regiment, as well as the pipers of the Queen's Royal Hussars wear the caubeen.
Not all full-dress uniforms are scarlet light cavalry regiments (hussars, light dragoons and lancers) and the Royal Artillery have worn blue since the 18th century, while rifle regiments wear green. The seven support corps and departments in existence in 1914 all wore dark blue dress uniforms, with different coloured facings. Hussar and Rifle regiments' tunics feature cording across the chest, while that of the Royal Lancers and Army Air Corps features a plastron in the facing colours. 
Each regiment and corps of the British Army has an allotted facing colour according to Part 14 Section 2 Annex F of the British Army dress regulations. Where full dress is currently not used, the notional colours can be ascertained by the colours of the mess dress if the regiment in question has not been amalgamated with another. The Intelligence Corps, SAS and SRR have no design on record for full dress, and the Intelligence Corps mess dress colour of cypress green would make this unlikely for full dress, and the full dress facing colours of the SAS and SRR can be inferred from their beret colours (like the Parachute Regiment) according to this section of the regulations. The London Regiment and existing Yeomanry regiments have a variety of colours for their various sub-units.
Blue: The Life Guards, 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards, The Royal Dragoon Guards, The Queen's Royal Lancers, Foot Guards Regiments, The Royal Regiment of Scotland, The Royal Welsh, Adjutant General's Corps, Honourable Artillery Company (Artillery dress), Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers
Scarlet: The Blues and Royals, Queen's Royal Hussars, Royal Horse Artillery, Royal Artillery, The Rifles, Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, Educational and Training Services (part of Adjutant General's Corps), Royal Military Police (part of Adjutant General's Corps) Royal Army Physical Training Corps, Royal Corps of Army Music, Honourable Artillery Company (Infantry dress), The Royal Yeomanry
Yellow: Royal Scots Dragoon Guards, Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment.
Crimson: The King's Royal Hussars, Army Cadet Corps
Buff: The Light Dragoons, The Mercian Regiment
Royal blue: The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment
Maroon: The Parachute Regiment, Royal Army Veterinary Corps , Royal Army Medical Corps
Dark blue: The Royal Anglian Regiment, The Queen's Own Gurkha Logistics Regiment
Black: Royal Corps of Signals, Army Legal Services (part of Adjutant General's Corps)
Blue velvet: Royal Engineers, Queen's Gurkha Engineers, The Royal Logistic Corps
If a samurai would cover himself in terrifying representations of folklore and nature, he would naturally want the same for his horse. The bamen (&ldquohorse mask&rdquo) and bagai (&ldquohorse armor&rdquo) were used by samurai after the 17th century.
The armor was crafted from many small tiles of leather and gold that were sewn into cloth. The mask was made from boiled leather that was then shaped into the likeness of a horse or dragons, complete with horns, scales, and fiery red nostrils. The entire battle-ready horse and rider conveyed the owner&rsquos prestige and power.