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(DD-539: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'1"; b. 39'7"; dr. 17'9"; s. 37 k.; cgl. 273; a. 5 5", 4 40mm., 4 20 mm., 10 21" tt., 2 dct., 6 dcp.; cl. Fletcher)
The third Tingey (DD-539) was laid down on 22 October 1942 by the Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco
Calif.; launched on 28 May 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Garry Owen; and commissioned on 25 November 1943, Comdr. John Odgers Miner in command.
Following shakedown off the west coast, Tingey departed San Francisco for the Pacific theater on 2 February 1944. The destroyer participated in exercises out of Pearl Harbor in February and March before screening a convoy en route to the Marshalls early in April. On 13 April, she sortied Majuro to join Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carrier attack force. Later that month, while supporting carrier strikes on Eton and Dublon in the Truk Islands, Tingey suffered casualties during an engagement with Japanese aircraft.
Tingey continued on her mission acting as a member of the destroyer screen for Battleship Division 7. On 1 May, Tingey participated in the bombardment of Tumu Point to eliminate the site as a Japanese submarine and air base. On 29 April, Tingey continued screening duties for the task force while one of its cruiser units bombarded Satawan Island.
On 15 May, Tingey sortied Majuro in company with Rear Admiral Alfred E. Montgomery's carrier task group and set course for Marcus and Wake Islands. Early in June, she steamed as a member of Task Force (TF) 58 for the Philippine Sea. During the following week, she operated in the vicinity of Saipan and Tinian participating in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. The carriers of the group launched strike after strike against Guam and Rota and decimated the massed attacks of enemy aircraft flung at them by Japanese Admiral Ozawa in the 19 June battle, later known as "the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot." Also in June, Tingey accompanied the group as it conducted air strikes on Pagan Island
On the last day of June, Tingey sortied from Eniwetok with Rear Admiral Ralph E. Davison's carrier task group for air strikes in the Bonins. She then rejoined the 6th Fleet off Saipan to support invasion forces in the Marianas. On 21 July, the carriers launched 10 strikes in support of the 'assault on Guam. After replenishment at Saipan, Tingey cut course for the northern Palaus where she supported carrier air sweeps and strikes. She then assumed screening duties for Rear Admiral Gerald F. Bogan's carrier task group as it conducted strikes on enemy concentrations on Guam.
After mooring at Eniwetok for upkeep and inspection, Tingey resumed her duties late in August. During the first two weeks of September, she supported carrier strikes on Leyte, Bulan, and Samar, before proceeding to Luzon. There, the destroyer encountered night enemy attacks while supporting carrier strikes on the Philippines. After replenishment at Tanapag Harbor, Tingey got underway for Ulithi where she conducted antisubmarine patrols.
In October, Tingey continued operations with Mitscher's fast carrier force. On 17 and 18 October, she supported strikes on Visayan Island, and, on the 24th, the carriers launched strikes in the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea. Steaming off San Bernardino Strait on the night of 25 and 26 October, Tingey joined with the battleships and cruisers of the task group to sink the Nowaki. This ill-fated Japanese destroyer was a straggler from Admiral Kurita's Center Force retiring from the Battle off Samar. Following this engagement, Tingey steamed northward for strikes on Manila Bay; then returned in the first week of November for additional strikes on Luzon and Bicol.
Departing Ulithi on 14 November, Tingey steamed for the Philippines. En route, she weathered a typhoon which swallowed up three destroyers on 18 December. After a fruitless search for survivors, the carrier group aborted planned strikes on Luson because of bad weather and rough seas and returned to Ulithi.
On 30 December 1944, the task group conducted strikes on Formosa and Luzon. In January 1945, Tingey proceeded to the South China Sea for strikes on French Indochina and Hong Kong before returning to Ulithi. In February, she participated in Operation "Jamboree" strikes on Tokyo Bay and experienced enemy air attacks as she performed screening duties in support of the Iwo Jima landings. She accompanied carriers making strikes on Kyushu and Okinawa in March When enemy aircraft bombed carrier Franklin (CV-13) on the 19th, causing fire and extensive damage, Tingey rescued survivors and escorted the battered vessel to Ulithi.
During April and May, enemy air activity was frequent as Tingey screened carriers providing direct air support for ground troops on Okinawa. Tingeg made three assists, splashed a Japanese raider, and rescued downed fliers from Essex (CV-9) and Bunker Hill (CV-17). Under constant enemy air attacks, Tingey continued her duties off Okinawa in May, making one quick run north to Kyushu on 13 May for air strikes Tingey spent most of June undergoing upkeep in the Philippines before getting underway for San Francisco. On 9 July, she arrived at Mare Island where she remained until the end of the war. Tingey was decommissioned in March 1946.
The outbreak of the Korean War led to Tingey's recommissioning on 27 January 1951. After two months of operations out of San Diego, she was soon taking part in American efforts in the Korean conflict. Following a brief period at Pearl Harbor in May, Tinge1J steamed via Sasebo and Yokosuka for Korea. From August to December 1951, she operated off Wonsan on the east coast of Korea supplying gunfire support for United Nations ground troops, conducting antimining and shore bombardment patrols off Hungnam, and destroying many enemy targets. In December Tingey provided support for Republic of Korea (ROK) commando raids before getting underway for Yokosuka on 4 December.
Tingey spent the first six months of 1952 in San Diego; then steamed on 11 July, via Midway and Pearl Harbor, toward Korea. On 13 August, Tingey was again off the east coast of Korea providing gunfire support for ROK forces ashore. She also engaged in antisubmarine searches and conducted night patrols between Nan Do Island and the Korean peninsula. During this six-month tour off Korea, Tingey completed successful fire missions on enemy troops, railroads, and gun and mortar positions. She departed Korea on 26 January 1953 and arrived at San Diego on 16 February.
In mid-August, she got underway again for WestPac, arriving off Korea on 10 November 1953. During this tour, Tingey operated out of Sasebo, Japan conducted missions off the east and west coasts of Korea; and visited Taiwan and the Philippines before she returned to San Diego in April 1954.
Tingey again departed San Diego on 16 November 1954 for operations in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan. During this tour, she plied the waters of Taiwan Strait to protect Taiwan against invasion and also conducted surveillance of shipping. Tingey trained Chinese Nationalist personnel and visited Bangkok and Manila before setting course for Hong Kong on 27 January. Between January and April, she operated off Taiwan, Korea, and Okinawa, then steamed in May for San Diego. In the following three years Tingey served additional tours in the Far East. Returning from WestPac in 1957, she operated out of San Diego as a naval reserve training ship until 1962 when SEATO exercises sent Tingey to the Far East once more. After completing these exercises, she returned to San Diego to resume reserve training cruises.
On 1 August 1963, Tingey was involved in a collision with Vammen (DE-644) off southern California. Tingeg sustained no casualties and was able to return to San Diego under her own power despite severe flooding and damage. She was decommissioned on 30 November 1963, and her name was struck from the Navy list.
Tingey received eight battle stars for World War II service and five battle stars for the Korean War.
THE NEPTUNE STRATEGY
John was a guest on This Week in America with Ric Bratton. He discusses A CALL TO COLORS and shares historical anecdotes. Click through to watch the recording!
Now in Hardcover!
Published by the U.S. Naval Institute Press, EDGE OF VALOR is the next thrilling Todd Ingram novel set during events right after August 15, 1945 in the Pacific. This time, Ingram discovers a secret so terrible, all sides try to suppress it. Now available in Hardcover! Buy it today.
TODD INGRAM Series
These are stand-alone naval action adventure novels featuring Todd Ingram. Historically accurate, they are set in World War II's Pacific Theater and portray some of the critical naval battles in that period.
A CALL TO COLORS
Now Available from StarboardSide Productions, this ebook features Commander Mike Donovan, skipper of the destroyer USS Matthew. With General MacArthur's 165,000 troops just ashore to begin the Philippine liberation, Donovan finds himself embroiled in what becomes the Battle of Leyte Gulf - the largest naval engagement in the history of mankind. It is available for Kindle and Nook.
THE BRUTUS LIE
This contemporary techno-thriller was published by Charles Scribner's Sons in hardback in 1991. John likes to feature technical-centerpieces in his works and BRUTUS, a long-legged mini-submarine powered by fuel cells, takes former SEAL Brad Lofton to Petropovlovsk, Kamchatka, where he meets Spetsnaz Colonel Anton Dobrynyn, an identical twin Lofton never knew that.
Meet John J Gobbell by watching his interviews or finding events near you.
A Call to Colors
A Call to Colors: A Novel of the Battle of Leyte Gulf is now available for your favorite eReading device or computer.
Todd Ingram Novels
Action-packed World War II historical stand-alone adventures featuring Lieutenant Todd Ingram.
On Brotherly Love
In Italy, for thirty years under the Borgias, they had warfare, terror, murder, bloodshed. They produced Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and the Renaissance. In Switzerland, they had brotherly love five hundred years of democracy and peace, and what did they produce? The cuckoo clock. Read the article »
(This article appeared in THE SCROLL of Phi Delta Theta in the Fall 1995 issue)
Mix and Match
How a Fletcher Class Destroyer Became a DDG Overnight
This article was published in the Tin Can Sailor quarterly newsletter and is basically a coming-of-age reminiscence of John's WESPAC cruise aboard the destroyer USS Tingey (DD 539).
Surrender at Tokyo Bay
Military.com&mdashone of the nation's largest online magazines with a circulation of about 8 million&mdashasked John write a piece about the Surrender Ceremony aboard the USS Missouri (BB63) on September 2, 1945. In the research phase, compelling stories surfaced that show our leaders of the time looked far into the future. The way the ceremony was structured and the instrument of surrender were unprecedented this marvelous legacy remains with us today.
THE NEPTUNE STRATEGY
CHIPMAN v. MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS, (W.D.Mich. 2002)
This is a civil rights action brought by a state prisoner pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983 pertaining to Plaintiff's placement in segregation for approximately twelve years. Shortly after the action was filed, the Court dismissed the majority of Plaintiff's complaint pursuant to the Prison Litigation Reform Act for lack of exhaustion, except for a procedural due process claim. See March 27, 2001 Op. Ord. (docket #3-#4). The Court also dismissed the Michigan Department of Corrections as immune and Defendants Martin, Gundy, Ludwick and McDonald because Plaintiff failed to state a claim against them. The procedural due process claim was served upon the remaining defendants.
Thereafter, Plaintiff filed an amended complaint (docket #12) seeking to re-add Defendants Gundy and Ludwick and to submit evidence of exhaustion. The Court dismissed Plaintiff's amended complaint to the extent it attempted to re-add Defendants Ludwick and Gundy and claims that were dismissed as unexhausted. However, the Court denied Defendants' motion to dismiss based on abstention (docket #18).
The matter now is before the Court on the motion of remaining defendants Luoma, Wolfe, Porter, Panzer, Szymke, Abbott and Sharp for dismissal and for summary judgment (docket #20) on the sole remaining claim against them for violation of procedural due process.
Plaintiff presently is incarcerated at the Oaks Correctional Facility. In his pro se complaint, he originally sued twelve defendants: the Michigan Department of Corrections its director, Bill Martin, MDOC Classification Director Nick Ludwick David Gundy, the warden at the Oaks Correctional Facility Oaks Deputy Wardens Wolfe and Tim Luoma Oaks Assistant Deputy Wardens Syzmke, Panzer, and Pager Oaks Resident Unit Managers Abbott and Sharpe and Oaks Grievance Coordinator M.E. McDonald. As previously noted, following the prior decisions of this Court, the only remaining defendants are defendants Luoma, Wolfe, Porter, Panzer, Szymke, Abbott and Sharpe. Plaintiff's remaining claim arises from his continuing placement in segregation for more than twelve years.
The following facts are not in genuine dispute. On May 10, 1970, in Flint, Michigan, Plaintiff shot a .22 caliber rifle through the window of a car, seriously wounding Ronald Hastings and killing James Gardner. (Def. Ex. R: Bolden dep., ¶ 4.) On November 23, 1970, Plaintiff was arrested in Gainesville, Florida, on charges of First Degree Murder, and he was extradited to Michigan on December 17, 1970. (Bolden dep., ¶ 5.) On April 6, 1971, while in the custody of Genessee County Sheriff at a dentist's office in Flint, Plaintiff was involved in an attempted escape, which resulted in the death of Deputy Ben Walker and serious injury to Deputy Harry Abbott. (Bolden dep., ¶ 6.) On August 9, 1971, Plaintiff was sentenced to life imprisonment for First Degree Murder and 50-70 years for Assault with Intent to Commit Murder for the incident involving the sheriff's deputies. (Bolden dep., ¶ 7.) Plaintiff pleaded guilty to manslaughter on the incident involving Gardner and Hastings and received a sentence of 7 ½ -to-15 years. (Bolden dep., ¶ 8.)
On January 2, 1984, Plaintiff escaped through a window of the Dental Clinic at Huron Valley Men's Correctional Facility in Ypsilanti, Michigan, which was at the time a maximum security prison. He was apprehended in Arizona on February 17, 1984 and placed in administrative segregation at the Reception and Guidance Center in Jackson, Michigan. (Bolden dep., ¶ 9.) On July 15, 1988, Plaintiff was transferred on his own request to the maximum security unit of the State Prison of Southern Michigan in Jackson, Michigan. On April 24, 1989, he was transferred to the close security unit of that facility. (Bolden dep., ¶¶ 11, 12.)
In the MDOC, security classifications, from least to most secure, are: Community Status, Levels I, II, III, IV, V, VI, and segregation. MICH. DEP'T OF CORR., Policy Directive 05.01.130, ¶ H (effective May 28, 1996).
In 1990, Plaintiff was classified at Level IV at the State Prison of Southern Michigan. On January 26, 1990, Plaintiff escaped with four other prisoners through storm tunnels, kidnaping two corrections officers and stealing a department van. He was apprehended the same day following a high speed chase and was returned to the maximum security unit of the State Prison of Southern Michigan. (Bolden dep., ¶ 13.) Plaintiff was charged with five misconducts for assault on staff not causing serious injury, misuse of state property, possession of money, theft of property, and escape. Plaintiff was found guilty of all charges on February 1, 1990, and he was reclassified to Level V, administrative segregation at that facility. (Bolden dep., ¶ 14.)
There are various types of segregation, including administrative segregation and detention. Administrative segregation is the most restrictive and is imposed for institutional security, e.g., when a prisoner poses a serious escape risk. MICH. DEP'T OF CORR., Policy Directive 04.05.120, ¶ D (effective Feb. 21, 2000). Detention, or "punitive segregation" can be imposed as a sanction for committing a major misconduct, if ordered by the hearing officer. Id., ¶ G. If possible, detention is served in a "designated detention cell" rather than in administrative segregation. Id. A prisoner may not remain on detention for a period longer than that ordered by the hearing officer. Id. The behavioral adjustment of a prisoner in segregation is reviewed periodically with the prisoner. Id. ¶ WW. Reclassification from administrative segregation occurs only with the approval of the Security Classification Committee. Id., ¶ DDD. If the prisoner committed a serious assault, the approval of the Regional Prison Administrator is also required. Id.
In July 1990, in the Jackson County Circuit Court, Plaintiff was convicted of escape, kidnaping, auto theft, and assault on a correctional employee. He was acquitted of hostage taking and escape through the use of violence. On August 29, 1990, Plaintiff was sentenced to terms of 25-to-50 years for kidnaping, three years and four months for escape, 3-to-4 years for assaulting a prison employee and three years and four months for unlawfully driving away an automobile. (Bolden dep., ¶ 15.)
On September 4, 1990, Plaintiff was transferred to the Ionia Maximum Correctional Facility, a Level VI facility. (Bolden dep., ¶ 16.) All the inmates at IMAX are classified to administrative segregation. See Policy Directive, 05.01.140, attach. B. Approximately six years later, on April 5, 1996, Plaintiff was transferred to the administrative segregation unit at Oaks Correctional Facility, Level V. (Bolden dep., ¶ 17.)
Plaintiff alleges that Defendant Abbott actually placed him in punitive detention, which is a form of segregation, for two years and four months. He contends that that while he was segregated, the inmates around him caused the area to flood by clogging their toilets. Plaintiff was unable to use his electrical outlet and his legal papers were ruined. Inmates also threw feces and urine in the showers, and Plaintiff was forced to choose whether to take a shower in filthy conditions or not shower at all. Inmates also threw feces and urine on the meal trays as they were being wheeled by on a cart for distribution. The prisoners also made noise constantly, by banging on their footlockers, smashing their windows, drumming on their steel doors, and screaming. More than two years later, on August 26, 1998, Plaintiff was reassigned to administrative segregation. Plaintiff has provided a lengthy list of the privileges that prisoners in the general population had that Plaintiff did not. (See Compl., ¶¶ 67-88.) Plaintiff's claims relating to his punitive detention previously were dismissed for lack of exhaustion.
Pursuant to section 5 of Administrative Rule 791.44-5(4) and MICH. DEP'T OF CORR., Policy Directive 4.05.120, because Plaintiff was confined to administrative segregation for more than 30 days, Defendants were required to conduct monthly reviews of his segregation status. After 60 days, such reviews were required to be forwarded to the Deputy Director of the Bureau of Correctional Facilities. The reviews must advise the reasons for continued segregation, alternatives considered, the date classified to segregation, and the prospects for reclassification in the immediate future. R 791.4405(6). The policy directive also requires Warden approval for continuation in segregation for more than 30 days.See MICH. DEP'T OF CORR., Policy Directive 04.05.120 (III) (DD), (EE) (eff. 7-22-91) (NN), (00) (eff. 10-23-95) (WW), (XX), (YY) (eff. 2-21-00). Under the current policy directive, reclassification from administrative segregation status can occur only with the approval of the Security Classification Committee. Defendants have attached a complete set of copies of the monthly "Administrative Segregation Interview Reports" completed regarding Plaintiff's segregation. (Def. Ex. A.) Defendants also attach the annual "Security Classification Screen — Review" forms completed by the Oaks Correctional Facility between 1996 and 2000. (Def. Ex. B.)
Plaintiff complains that on January 26, 2000, Plaintiff's classification should have been but was not reduced to a Level II facility because in the past ten years, he had not attempted escape or assault and he had remained misconduct-free. In support of this proposition, Plaintiff relies upon the form responses on the February 11, 2000, Security Classification Screen — Review, which recites two sets of criteria and, depending on responses, results in a recommended confinement level for each set. (See Def. Ex. B.) The higher of the two is the presumptive confinement level, absent a decision to depart for reasons listed at the lower portion of the form. In his 2000 annual security classification review, because Plaintiff's escape attempt was now more than 10 years old, he presumptively would have been classified as a Level II. However, a decision was made to retain Plaintiff at Level V, representing a departure from the form questionnaire recommendation of Level II. (See Def. Ex. B.) The reason stated is "CFA Hold. Held staff hostage, SPSM escape 1990. Departed to Level V due to security concerns/management needs." (See 2/24/00 Security Class. Screen, attach. to Verified Compl.) Plaintiff has also provided a list of the numerous privileges that a Level II prisoner enjoys, in contrast to a person in administrative segregation. (See Verified Compl., ¶¶ 95-115 Chipman Aff. ¶¶ 65-84.)
In September 2001, Joe Barrett, Classification Director in Correctional Facilities Administration, brought to the attention of Deputy Director of Correctional Facilities Administration, Dan Bolden, a memorandum from the Corrections Ombudsman's Office that requested a review of Plaintiff's segregation status. (Bolden dep., ¶ 18.) After conducting the requested review, Bolden attests that he approved Plaintiff's reclassification to a level V general population facility. Bolden concluded that while Plaintiff's history of escape remained of concern, his ten subsequent years of administrative segregation with no major misconduct reports supported a release from administrative segregation. He determined that the general population units at Marquette Branch Prison provided the most optimal setting for Plaintiff's reduction in custody. (Bolden dep., ¶ 20.) Plaintiff acknowledges Bolden's decision and the reason for his transfer to Marquette Branch Prison. (See Pl. Ex. 13, p. 8.)
On the afternoon of September 18, 2001, Plaintiff was transferred from Oaks Correctional Facility to Marquette Branch Prison. On September 19, 2001, while conducting a shakedown of Plaintiff's property from Oaks Correctional Facility, Corrections Officer Terry Johnson found a handcuff key concealed in a deodorant container in Plaintiff's duffel bag, and he subsequently was found guilty of possession of Dangerous Contraband on October 2, 2001. (Bolden dep., ¶ 22 Def. Ex. 1 (Misconduct Summary) Def. Ex. P (Misconduct Record).)
In his original complaint Plaintiff listed seventy-seven counts for relief (see Compl., ¶¶ 124-282), which previously were summarized by this Court into the following five general grounds: (1) eleven years of segregation is inhumane, atypical cruel and unusual punishment (2) administrative segregation is actually a form of punitive segregation (3) the MDOC, to determine Plaintiff's classification and parole eligibility, relied on the false information that he was convicted of hostage taking (4) Plaintiff's right to petition the government was violated because the MDOC has a policy of using its grievance mechanism to thwart full and fair redress of administrative remedies and (5) the MDOC implements vague and overbroad rules governing his parole and classification. Plaintiff's only claim that was fully exhausted, and therefore the only one pending, in this action is whether he received procedural due process in the continuing reviews and decisions to maintain his placement in administrative segregation.
Under Rule 12(b)(6), a complaint may be dismissed if "it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claim which would entitled him to relief." Conley v. Gibson, 355 U.S. 41, 45-46 (1957) see also Hishon v. King Spalding, 467 U.S. 69, 73 (1984). The complaint must be construed in the light most favorable to the plaintiff, and its well-pleaded facts must be accepted as true.Morgan v. Church's Fried Chicken, 829 F.2d 10, 12 (6th Cir. 1987). However, the court need not accept as true legal conclusions or unwarranted factual inferences. Lewis v. ACB Business Serv., Inc., 135 F.3d 389, 405 (6th Cir. 1998). A complaint fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted when it is clear that no relief could be granted under any set of facts that could be proved consistent with the allegations of the complaint. Jones v. City of Carlisle, 3 F.3d 945, 947 (6th Cir. 1993) cert. denied, 510 U.S. 1177 (1994).
A court may decide a motion to dismiss only on the basis of the pleadings. Song v. City of Elyria, 985 F.2d 840, 842 (6th Cir. 1993). Dismissal is appropriate if the complaint fails to set forth an allegation of a required element of a claim. Craighead v. E.F. Hutton Co., 899 F.3d 485, 489-90 (6th Cir. 1990). Here, however, both Defendant and Plaintiff have attached and referred to materials outside the pleadings. Because the record contains material outside of the pleadings, which the Court will consider, the motion will be construed as one for summary judgment. FED.R.CIV.P. 12(b) Soper v. Hoben, 195 F.3d 845, 850 (6th Cir. 1999), cert. denied, 530 U.S. 1262 (2000).
On a motion for summary judgment, the court must consider all pleadings, depositions, affidavits and admissions and draw all justifiable inferences in favor of the party opposing the motion. Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co., Ltd. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574, 587 (1986). The court, however, "`need not accept as true legal conclusions or unwarranted factual inferences.'" Michigan Paytel Joint Venture v. City of Detroit, 287 F.3d 527, 533 (6th Cir. 2002) (quoting Morgan v. Church's Fried Chicken, 829 F.2d 10, 12 (6th Cir. 1987). The party moving for summary judgment has the burden of pointing the court to the absence of evidence in support of some essential element of the opponent's case.Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323 (1986) Street v. J.C. Bradford Co., 886 F.2d 1472, 1479 (6th Cir. 1989). Once the moving party has made such a showing, the burden is on the nonmoving party to demonstrate the existence of a genuine issue for trial. Id.
In order to prove that a triable issue exists, the nonmoving party must do more than rely upon allegations, but must come forward with specific facts in support of his or her claim. Celotex, 477 U.S. at 322 Mulhall v. Ashcroft, 287 F.3d 543, 550 (6th Cir. 2002). After reviewing the whole record, the court must determine "whether the evidence presents a sufficient disagreement to require submission to a jury or whether it is so one-sided that one party must prevail as a matter of law." Booker v. Brown Williamson Tobacco Co., Inc., 879 F.2d 1304, 1310 (6th Cir. 1989) (quoting Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 251-52 (1986)). "`[D]iscredited testimony is not [normally] considered a sufficient basis'" for defeating the motion. Anderson, 477 U.S. at 256-57 (quoting Bose Corp. v. Consumers Union of United States, Inc., 466 U.S. 485, 512 (1984)). In addition, where the factual context makes a party's claim implausible, that party must come forward with more persuasive evidence demonstrating a genuine issue for trial. Celotex, 477 U.S. at 323-24 Matsushita, 475 U.S. at 586-87 Street, 886 F.2d at 1480.
III. Procedural Due Process
Plaintiff alleges that he is deprived of a liberty interest without due process by being detained in administrative segregation for more than ten years. The Supreme Court consistently has recognized that prisoners may claim the protections of the Due Process Clause. See, e.g., Wolff v. McDonnell, 418 U.S. 539, 556 (1974). As a result, prisoners may not be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Id. (citing Haines v. Kerkner, 404 U.S. 519 (1972) Wilwording v. Swenson, 404 U.S. 249 (1971) Screws v. United States, 325 U.S. 91 (1945)). However, the scope of prisoner due process rights may be subject to "restrictions imposed by the nature of the regime to which they have been lawfully committed." Wolff, 418 U.S. at 556.
The seminal decision in this area is the 1995 decision of the Supreme Court in Sandin v. Connor, 515 U.S. 472 (1995). In Sandin, a Hawaiian prisoner served approximately one month in disciplinary segregation after he was convicted of two misconduct charges. One of the misconduct charges was overturned. The Ninth Circuit found that the Hawaiian prison regulation created a liberty interest in remaining free of segregation by requiring substantial evidence to support a finding of guilty on a misconduct charge. The Supreme Court reversed, holding that neither the Hawaiian regulation nor the Due Process Clause created a liberty interest entitling the inmate to procedural due process. Id. at 487.
The Court emphasized that the inquiry of whether a liberty interest existed was not focused upon the language of the prison regulations, but upon the nature of the deprivation. Sandin, 515 U.S. at 481-82. Focusing upon the regulations themselves had improperly fostered a disincentive to codify prison management procedures and the involvement of federal courts in the operation of prisons. Id. at 482. A State could create a liberty interest of "real substance," for example, when its laws permitted an inmate to earn good-time credits which resulted in a shortened prison term. Id. at 483 (citing Wolfe, 418 U.S. 539). However, these interests "will be generally limited to freedom from restraint which, while not exceeding the sentence in such an unexpected manner as to give rise to protection by the Due Process Clause of its own force, nonetheless imposes atypical and significant hardship on the inmate in relation to the ordinary incidents of prison life." Sandin, 515 U.S. at 483-84 (citations omitted).
The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals, applying Sandin in three different cases, has held that an inmate's placement in administrative segregation does not violate the Due Process Clause. See Rimmer-Bey v. Brown, 62 F.3d 789 (6th Cir. 1995) Mackey v. Dyke, 111 F.3d 460 (6th Cir. 1997), cert. denied, 522 U.S. 848 (1997) Jones v. Baker, 155 F.3d 810 (6th Cir. 1998). In Rimmer-Bey, 62 F.3d 789, a Michigan prisoner was placed in punitive segregation for thirty days after he was convicted of conspiracy to commit assault and battery for stabbing a guard. After he served the time, the inmate was placed in administrative segregation. The Sixth Circuit rejected the inmate's claim that mandatory language in Michigan's prison regulations created a liberty interest in remaining in general population. The Court of Appeals further found that the placement in segregation was not an atypical and significant hardship in the context of the inmate's life sentence. Rimmer-Bey, 62 F.3d at 791. Further, because the plaintiff had been given a hearing related to his misconduct conviction, even if he had a liberty interest, his procedural due process rights had not been violated. Id.
In Mackey, a Michigan prisoner was placed in segregation after he was found guilty of misconduct. His release to general population was approved nine months later. However, he remained in administrative segregation for an additional four months due to a scarcity of beds at the two facilities that were eligible to receive him. The Sixth Circuit stated that the inmate "does not, and could not after Sandin, argue that placement in segregation is an `atypical and significant hardship.'"Mackey, 111 F.3d at 463. Further, the circumstances of the inmate's placement in segregation for almost one year did not create a liberty interest, and the failure to release him did not amount to a procedural due process violation. Id.
In its most recent published decision on this issue, Jones v. Baker, the Sixth Circuit addressed circumstances when an inmate was placed in segregation. During rioting, prisoners took nine hostages and murdered one guard. Before placement in segregation, each inmate was given a hearing, and the plaintiff refused to speak at his. If an inmate was cleared of wrongdoing, the inmate was returned to the general population. Eventually, the plaintiff was implicated in the murder, and thus remained in segregation. A period of 2 ½ years passed until the plaintiff was charged with misconduct and found guilty. The plaintiff challenged the 2 ½ -year period preceding the misconduct hearing. In analyzing the claim, the Sixth Circuit began with the proposition that "administrative segregations have repeatedly been held not to involve an `atypical and significant' hardship implicating a protected liberty interest without regard to duration." Jones, 155 F.3d at 812. Because a liberty interest is based upon whether the segregation affects the overall duration of the inmate's sentence, and the plaintiff was serving a term of 15 to 25 years for aggravated robbery, there was no evidence of any impact. Id. at 812. Further, the "atypical" length of his stay was justified given the investigation that was taking place regarding the riots. Id. at 812-13. Also, the record did not demonstrate that the conditions of the plaintiff's confinement were an "atypical and significant hardship" because his stay in segregation was not "much different than that experienced by other inmates in segregation." Id. at 813.
Applying these cases, Plaintiff has no liberty interest in remaining free of segregation on the facts of this case. Ordinarily, segregation does not present an "atypical and significant" hardship implicating a protected liberty interest. Although Plaintiff's twelve-year placement is lengthy, the Sixth Circuit has expressly indicated that length is not the determining factor. In Jones, the Sixth Circuit acknowledged that under Ohio law, segregation may continue indefinitely however, the determination of whether a liberty interest exists is based upon "whether it will affect the overall duration of the inmate's sentence." Jones, 155 F.3d at 812 accord McGowan v. Settles, No. 99-5921, 2000 WL 658071, at *1 (6th Cir. May 9, 2000). As in Jones, there is no evidence that the segregation will impact Plaintiff's sentence. Plaintiff is serving a life term for first-degree murder. In addition, with the possible exception of the first two years at Oaks Correctional Facility, there is little on this record to indicate that Plaintiff's experience in administrative segregation has been any different from the experiences of all the other inmates who are segregated in administrative detention. See McGowan, 2000 WL 658017, at *1 (plaintiff failed to allege that "continued placement in segregation significantly disrupts his environment"). Plaintiff alleges that some prisoners in administrative segregation are allowed to participate in religious and educational programming, while he is not. This allegation, however, fails to demonstrate the sort of atypical hardship required under Sandin. Plaintiff's pending claim does not raise a First Amendment issue. Likewise, no Equal Protection claim presently is before the court. Instead, Plaintiff attempts to demonstrate that the difference renders his confinement "atypical." The prison regulations upon which Plaintiff relies, however, expressly contemplate that privileges such as religious programming are only available to prisoners in administrative segregation when "they can be afforded safely and are administratively feasible." Plaintiff provides no specific evidence that his own treatment is in any way unusual.
Any arguable defect at Oaks between 1996 and 1998 is not relevant to plaintiff's continuing complaint regarding procedural due process, but instead is relevant to his Eighth Amendment claims.
Indeed, at least two of the other prisoners who participated in the 1990 escape also have been subjected to long periods of segregation, strongly suggesting that Plaintiff's treatment is far from atypical. See Rodgers v. Johnson, Case No. 2:00-cv-46 (W.D. Mich.) McGaughey v. Johnson, Case No. 99-CV-70944-DT (E.D. Mich.). In McGaughey, the magistrate judge issued a report and recommendation on September 27, 2001, which was adopted by the district court on March 29, 2002, granting defendant's motion for summary judgment. In Rodgers, the magistrate judge issued a report and recommendation on January 15, 2002, which was adopted on March 18, 2002, dismissing Plaintiff's complaint on the grounds that continued confinement in administrative segregation is not an atypical or significant hardship. See also Williams v. Palmer, Case No. 4:00-cv-195 (W.D.Mich. July 23, 2001) (finding no due process violation in an 18-year confinement to administrative segregation).
I therefore conclude that Plaintiff has no liberty interest in being released from administrative segregation.
Even if Plaintiff's incarceration for a 12-year period is deemed to be atypical and significant, Plaintiff has received all the process to which he is entitled under the Due Process Clause. The Due Process Clause does not guarantee that the procedure will produce a correct decision. "It must be remembered that even if a state decision does deprive an individual of life, [liberty], or property, and even if that decision is erroneous, it does not necessarily follow that the decision violated that individual's right to due process." Martinez v. California, 444 U.S. 277, 284, n. 9 (1980). "[T]he deprivation by state action of a constitutionally protected interest in "life, liberty or property" is not in itself unconstitutional what is unconstitutional is the deprivation of such an interest without due process of law." Zinermon v. Burch, 494 U.S. 113, 125 (1990) (emphasis in original).
Before Sandin was decided, the law in this area was supplied by Hewitt v. Helms, 459 U.S. 460 (1983). In Hewitt, the Supreme Court held that the states could create a liberty interest in general population classification through mandatory language found in regulations. If so, the Due Process Clause required some sort of periodic review of segregation status:
Applying Hewitt, I find that Plaintiff's original placement and continuation in segregation is well-supported in the record and therefore meets due process standards. The decision to place Plaintiff in administrative segregation in 1990 occurred after Plaintiff was found guilty of a major misconduct for escape, assault on staff not causing serious injury, misuse of state property, possession of money, and theft of property. He thereafter was convicted in a criminal trial of escape, kidnaping, assaulting a prison employee, and unlawfully driving away an automobile. The 1990 escape itself followed his 1971 escape from custody that resulted in the death of a deputy and Plaintiff's conviction for first-degree murder. It also followed Plaintiff's 1984 escape from a maximum security facility. Plaintiff presented an obvious and serious security risk.
The decision to continue plaintiff's segregation status also is penalogically justified. Plaintiff's history of escape and assault demonstrates a highly risky potential for further escapes. Plaintiff made not one, but three, escape attempts, in 1971 (when he killed one deputy and injured another), in 1984 (when he escaped from custody at a maximum security institution), and 1990 (during which he kidnaped and assaulted prison officers). His 1990 escape attempt followed very shortly upon the heels of a reduction in his prison classification. While Plaintiff remained misconduct — and escape — free during eleven years in administrative segregation, Plaintiff's prior history of escaping from a maximum security general population and the physical risks and injuries to officers during those prior escapes represent a more significant risk than a single escape attempt.
Moreover, in September 2001, Deputy Director Dan Bolden, responding to a request from the Ombudsman's Office, conducted a new review of Plaintiff's status. At that time, Bolden concluded that while Plaintiff continued to represent a very substantial risk, he could be managed at a Level V general population facility. Bolden therefore authorized Plaintiff's release from administrative segregation and ordered Plaintiff transferred to the Marquette Branch Prison for confinement in the general population. Plaintiff was transferred to that facility on September 18, 2001. In a shakedown of the property that was transferred with Plaintiff from Oaks, corrections officers found a handcuff key secreted in a deodorant container. Plaintiff was charged with Possession of Dangerous Contraband and was convicted on October 2, 2001. The behavior leading to the October 2, 2001, misconduct conviction is directly related to the prior reason for his confinement in administrative segregation — his potential for attempting further escapes.
Plaintiff does not claim that his misconduct finding was somehow invalidated. He may not now re-litigate the circumstances giving rise to the guilty finding without showing that the guilty finding has somehow been invalidated. See Edwards v. Balisok, 520 U.S. 641, 646 (1997) Heck v. Humphrey, 512 U.S. 477, 486-87 (1994). In cases decided under Hewitt, the Sixth Circuit routinely has held that an administrative finding of guilty in a misconduct proceeding was sufficient to justify placement or maintenance in segregation, without the necessity for a separate hearing. See Walker v. Mintzes, 771 F.2d 920, 933-34 (6th Cir. 1985)Harris-Bey v. Foresman, No. 93-1963, 1994 WL 18013, at *1-*2 (6th Cir. Jan. 21, 1994) Fleetwood v. Brown, No. 91-1699, 1991 WL 225559, at *1 (6th Cir. Nov. 4, 1991) Eaddy v. Spurgis, No. 84-1419, 1985 WL 14065, at *1 (6th Cir. Dec. 18, 1985).
Thus, just as he did in 1990, Plaintiff broke the trust of his captors. It is no surprise that Plaintiff will be required to maintain good behavior for an additional period of time before he can regain that trust. Otherwise, returning him to general population at the present time poses a security risk that defendants have determined is not reasonable.
Consequently, Plaintiff's maintenance in administrative segregation is amply supported by numerous findings against him, some of them made in criminal trials beyond a reasonable doubt. As his rights in this area are procedural only, the requirements of the Due Process Clause were amply satisfied by the administrative misconduct findings and convictions for escape and violent criminal behavior that formed the basis for his segregation. Moreover, Plaintiff received the periodic reviews required by Hewitt. Defendants have submitted copies of his numerous periodic reviews. (See Def. Ex. A, B.) Plaintiff does not dispute this fact rather, he contends that defendants' review was simply rote and meaningless because he claims he was not interviewed during these reviews. On this point, as well, he is incorrect. The decision to continue an inmate in segregation is partially based upon a recommendation by the unit team directly responsible for Plaintiff's supervision. Plaintiff does not allege that the unit team's investigation into his history was incomplete or rote rather, he wishes the defendants had accepted the unit team officers' off-and-on recommendations beginning in 1996 that Plaintiff be released to general population. When the SCC rejected the unit team's recommendation, it clearly noted the reason for the rejection, citing the nature of Plaintiff's prior escape attempts. The request for unit team review and independent review with explanation by the SCC is evidence that each decision is made with serious consideration. Thus, there is nothing to show that the decision was a "pretext for indefinite confinement." Hewitt, 459 U.S. at 477 n. 9.
Moreover, to the extent Plaintiff contends that a genuine issue of fact exists whether he was entitled to be interviewed during the course of his reviews under MICH. DEP'T OF CORR., Policy Directive 4.05.120(III)(WW), that dispute is not material to the question before this court. The fact that Michigan Department of Corrections policy may require an interview does not itself create a constitutional entitlement to such procedure. Claims under § 1983 may not be based upon alleged violations of state law, nor may federal courts order state officials to comply with their own law. See Pennhurst State School Hosp. v. Halderman, 465 U.S. 89, 106 (1984). Plaintiff does not enjoy any federally protected liberty or property interest in state procedure. See Olim v. Wakinekona, 461 U.S. 238, 250 (1983) Sweeton v. Brown, 27 F.3d 1162, 1164 (6th Cir. 1994), cert. denied, 115 S.Ct. 1118 (1995).
Instead, the procedure required by the Constitution is that set forth in Hewitt, which mandates no more than "some sort of periodic review. . . ."Hewitt, 459 U.S. at 477 n. 9. It does not impose the requirements of any particular state procedure. Plaintiff unquestionably received regular monthly reviews of his confinement. Each review required input from several sources and varied in some respect from review to review. Each review, by its terms, was based on Plaintiff's conduct both before segregation and after. On the undisputed factual record, Plaintiff received more than adequate procedural due process.
In essence, Plaintiff asks this Court to substitute its judgment for that of prison officials concerning the most appropriate classification of a highly assaultive prisoner. It is not for the federal court to engage in oversight of decisions affecting prison management. The Supreme Court has continuously cautioned federal courts from assuming "a greater role in decisions affecting prison administration." Shaw v. Murphy, 121 S.Ct. 1475, 1480 (2001) see also Washintgon v. Harper, 494 U.S. 210, 224 (1990) Turner v. Safley, 482 U.S. 78, 84-96 (1987) O'Lone v. Estate of Shabazz, 482 U.S. 342, 349 (1987) Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520, 547 (1979) Jones v. North Carolina Prisoners' Labor Union, 433 U.S. 119, 125-126 (1977). These concerns are even stronger when a state penal institution is involved. Glover v. Johnson, 138 F.3d 229, 241 (6th Cir. 1998). Plaintiff's circumstances do not present a constitutional violation necessitating federal court intervention.
For the foregoing reasons, I respectfully recommend that the Court grant Defendants' motion to dismiss and for summary judgment (docket # 20) and that judgment be entered for defendants.
Gloria Jean Rolfe Brown-- 73 of Sebago, passed away on Thursday, November 25, 2010 at Bridgton Nursing Home.
She was born on December 23, 1937 the daughter of Jordan & Julia Rolfe.
She was a member So. Bridgton Congregational Church where she held the position of Treasurer for several years. She was also a member of the Bluegrass Music Association of Maine.
Gloria enjoyed doing Crossword puzzles, planting, caring for her flowers and especially time spent with her grandchildren. She loved Bluegrass music and spent many weekends, in season, attending bluegrass festivals and private picking parties. She also looked forward to family get gatherings and reunions.
She worked for many years as a certified nurse's aide at Fryeburg Health Care Center. She held several other temporary employments, finally retiring from RTS packaging after six years in 2001.
Gloria was predeceased by son James, her parents Jordan & Julia Rolfe and a sister Pheobe.
She is survived by her husband Clayton of 54 years of Sebago, Maine, children Clayton (Skip) II of Sebago, Robert of South Portland, Trina of Bowdoin, Billy of E Baldwin and his wife Missy. She is also survived by her sisters, Elva, Arleen, Nancy, Linda, Clara, two brothers Wesley and Michael, 5 grandchildren and 4 great grandchildren..
Family and friends are invited to calling hours at 12pm with services at 1pm at the So. Bridgton Congregational Church on Fosterville Rd in S. Bridgton off Route 107, with immediate burial to follow at the Steep Falls Cemetery on Route 113 in Steep Falls, Maine.
Arrangements are under the care of Kincer Funeral Home 130 Pleasant ST. Richmond, Me 04357.
Charlie Lee Baker Jr. 60, died Tuesday, Feb. 25, 1989.
Born in Sumter, he was a son of the late Charlie Lee Sr. and Lottle Watts Baker.
He was a member of Wise Drive Baptist Church and an employee of the city of Sumter with the Parks and Recreation Department.
He was a retired civil service employee of Shaw Air Force Base, a World War II Army veteran and a member and former commander and adjutant of American Legion Post 15.
Surviving are his wife, Euretha Newton Baker two sons, C. Stanley Baker of Corbin. Ky., and Michael W. Baker of Washington, Ga. a brother, M. Douglas Baker of Sumter and three sisters, Alma Smith, Jean Hammett and Sara Jernigan of Sumter.
Services will be held at 4 p.m. Thursday at Elmore-Hill Funeral Home, with burial in Sumter Cemetery with Dr. Thomas L. Painter and the Rev. Darryl R. Davids officiating.
Pallbearers will be the deacons of Wise Drive Baptist Church. Honorary pallbearers will be Walt McGee, Sim Wright, Lea B. Givens, Mayor W.A. "Bubba" McElveen, Horace Curtis, Talmage Tobias, Ed Lewis and the executive committee of the American Legion Post 15.
The family will be at 527 Benton Drive. Memorials may be made to Wise Drive Baptist Church building fund.
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A placebo-controlled trial of selegiline ( l -deprenyl) in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia ☆
The goal of this study was to determine whether selegiline ( l -deprenyl), a selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor and antioxidant, would improve neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD). Thirty-three patients with TD were randomly assigned to selegiline 10 mg/day or placebo for 6 weeks and were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 for TD, parkinsonism, akathisia, depression, and positive and negative symptoms. Examinations for TD were videotaped and scored by a rater unaware of the temporal sequence of examination. Twenty-eight subjects completed at least 1 week of treatment all five dropouts were receiving selegiline. When baseline score and gender were controlled, the group receiving selegiline displayed significantly less improvement of TD compared with the placebo group. The two treatment groups did not differ in any other outcome measure. Selegiline was less effective than placebo in reducing symptoms of TD over a 6-week trial. This may be the result of the dopamine agonist effects associated with selegiline.
Tingey III DD- 539 - History
Korea: THE PUSAN PERIMETER: AUGUST-SEPTEMBER 1950
Aug. 4 - Sept. 16 16 84,478 U.S. troops participate in the defense of the Pusan Perimeter, including the U.S.Army's 1st Cavalry Division, 2nd, 24th, and 25th Infantry Divisions, and the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade.
Hoover Institute on War Stanford University (Stanford)
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USAF in Korea
Modern Military Records Branch, National Archives
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National Security Council.
Roy Appleman's collection of letters and comments from participants in the Korean War.
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Army Plans and Operations Division, Record Group 319.
Department of the Army, Record Group 336.
Office of the Secretary of Defense, Record Group 330.
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Intelligence (G-2) Library, United States Army, Record Group 319.
The National Archives, Federal Records Center
Far Eastern Command, Record Group 332.
Far East Command "Chinese Communist Military Operations in Korea", Record Group 407.
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Records Group 331.
War Diaries (to 1 December 1950) Record Group 407.
War Diaries, staff section journals, unit journals, periodic operation reports, operation instruction, telephone logs, map overlays, 24th Infantry Division, 34th Regiment.
Ist Provisional Brigade, United States Marine Corps, are housed at Suitland but remain under the control of the Historical Branch USMC.
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Military personnel (201) files.
Naval Historical Center, Office of Nayy History (Washington)
General Headquarters, Tokyo, History of the North Korean Army.
Office of the Chief of Military History (Washington)
Orientation Folder, General William L. Roberts, 1950.
Still Picture Division, Main Archives (Washington)
Still photographs of the Korean War.
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United States Army Military History Institute
(Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania)
Oral History Collection
Edward M. Almond
Mark W. Clark
Matthew B. Ridgway
Maxwell D. Taylor
U. S. Marine Corps History (Division) Museum
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Role of Echocardiography in the Diagnostic Assessment and Etiology of Heart Failure in the Elderly—Opacify, Quantify, and Rectify
Echocardiography offers comprehensive, noninvasive, and relatively inexpensive tools for diagnosing cardiac pathology in the elderly. With an organized approach using two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler echocardiography, clinicians can determine the systolic and diastolic left ventricular performance estimate the cardiac output, pulmonary artery, and ventricular filling pressures and identify surgically correctable valve disease. Meanwhile, real-time three-dimensional echocardiography provides unprecedented volume data to quantify the left ventricular status. Tissue Doppler-derived myocardial velocity and strain imaging data provide extremely fine details about the regional variations in myocardial synchrony and predict responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Thus, echocardiographic tools provide the basis for determining when to attempt to rectify the left ventricular dysfunction with strategically placed, biventricular pacemaker leads.
A version of this article originally appeared in Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, Volume 23, Issue 1.
Kantai Collection Ideas and Recs II: Azur Boogaloo
Hey, I'm trying to write something of a Kancolle fic for myself, but I was wondering if there were any good resources I could use for fact-checking and information gathering regarding the day-to-day operations, livelihoods, and high-intensity operations of various navies?
Modern ones especially, but things like how the crew would respond under battle conditions in WWII vs Today, or stories of what someone would do if they got sick on a submarine, how damage control teams actually responded to a hull breach beyond "Fix it real good", how much leeway did a captain have in commanding his ship in a fleet?. All the details, really, about what it was like on various vessels.
I've got things written and made up based on what little research I've been able to manage, but I feel like I wouldn't be doing any of it the respect it deserves if I didn't even try to find out the reality of things.
Any help on that front would be greatly appreciated.
This youtube channel has many training videos and there are sveral sources scatter thru out the thread, check threadmarks and search the term. I posted several sources and so has others.
Solar Admiral Scrublord
Probably a wallet warrior.
Well. We are getting a spaceship in 3.
We got full-sized ships before, yes. Drakensburg, Terminus, several other Dahl ships from the Pre-Sequel that suspiciously resemble UNSC designs.
Saw Sanctuary III once or twice. Yes, i tried to make a shipgirl design out of it. Front looks like a good hat. Rest of the hull could be made into a jet pack of some description. Not that it'd do much apart from delivering Vault Hunter fairies/Manju/whatever Warship Girls equivalents exist(if they do) to targets.
Gah! Given that Borderlands is a looter-shooter, I'm having mental images of Sancturary III as a thinly-veiled standin for an F2P Gacha game player!
Cross-Dimensional Magical Sith Lady
I decided to redo the list of Fletcher-class destroyers to update it so the names could incorporate (especially for those who were transferred to Spain and Latin America) the honorific names used in both Spanish and Portuguese naming conventions. I also listed which of these girls has a version appearing in KanColle (including Pacific), Azur Lane or Warship Girls for those who have multiple versions, I made a choice as to which other destroyer would be "personified").
For everyone's information, I also include the final fate of said ship this, I believe, would influence how said destroyer would come back as a shipgirl.
Note: Entries are read as "Hull Number/Ship Name — Human Name (Fate)". I broke the list down into manageable sections so people don't see a massive wall of text.
AC — Armada de Chile ("Navy of Chile")
ARA — Armada de la República Argentina ("Navy of the Argentine Republic")
ARC — Armada de la República de Colombia ("Navy of the Colombian Republic")
AT — Antitorpilikó ("Torpedo Boat Destroyer") (type prefix)
BSM — Barco de Su Majestad ("His Majesty's Ship")
CT — Contratorpedeiro ("Torpedo Boat Destroyer") (type prefix)
DMS — Deutsches Marineschiff ("German Navy Ship")
MM — Marina Militare ("Military Navy")
NKG — Nippon-koku Gunkan ("Warship of the State of Japan")
TCG — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Gemisi ("Ship of the Turkish Republic)
TMK — Taehan Minguk Kumhan ("Warship of the Republic of Korea")
ZMZ — Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zhànjiàn ("Warship of the Republic of China")
Cross-Dimensional Magical Sith Lady
Just finished the class that preceded the Fletchers, the Gleaves-class destroyers.
This, IMO, would be the tragic class of American DDs. So many of them, who were built at the most two years before Fletcher and her sisters hit the ways. and because they were still under the various treaty restrictions, they're about 75% of the size of the newer design. Because of that, IMO, most of them wound up scrapped within a decade of the end of World War Two. Of the class, only eleven were exported to other nations as noted below look at what happened to Hunter Rodman as I note below if you want to get something of a laugh here.
Even "better", neither KanColle, Azur Lane or Warship Girls have any of these ladies as playable characters.
I'd see them as potential recruits for Abyssals.
Anyhow, you all know the drill. While not as numerous as Freddi Fletcher's siblings, I'm breaking down the list for ease of reading.
KANTAI COLLECTION/AZUR LANE/WARSHIP GIRLS
LIST OF GLEAVES-CLASS DESTROYERS
No./Ship Name — Human Name (Fate)
AT — Antitorpilikó ("Torpedo Boat Destroyer") (type prefix)
MM — Marina Militare ("Military Navy")
NKG — Nippon-koku Gunkan ("Warship of the State of Japan")
TCG — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Gemisi ("Ship of the Turkish Republic)
ZMZ — Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zhànjiàn ("Warship of the Republic of China")