The Formation of the Delian League
For the Persian Wars of 490 and 480&ndash479 we have a detailed account from Herodotus for the Peloponnesian War (chapters 8&ndash13) we have detailed accounts from Thucydides to 411 and thereafter from Xenophon but for the Pentecontaetia, the (not quite) fifty years between the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War, we are much less well informed. Thucydides includes in I. 89&ndash118. ii a sketch of the growth of Athenian power, to justify his view of the truest reason for the Peloponnesian War. He remarks that this period was not treated by his predecessors except in the Athenian history of Hellanicus, whose account was brief and not chronologically precise (I. 97. ii): Hellanicus&rsquo account has not survived, but that comment is certainly applicable to Thucydides&rsquo own account. Two later writers are particularly important for this period: Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch in hisParallel Lives (cf. p. 8). For the Delian League, usually they and other writers give more information, of varying reliability, on episodes mentioned by Thucydides rather than information on episodes not mentioned by him. Diodorus&rsquo narrative is organised in an annal-istic framework, but where it can be checked his assignment of episodes to years is unreliable we should take more seriously for dating (but still not believe uncritically) those sentences, apparently from a chronological table, which briefly mention events other than the main episode of a year. Inscriptions will become important for the history of the Delian League from the 450&rsquos (cf. pp. 51&ndash6).
Greeks and Persians
For some centuries the main barbarian power in western Asia Minor was the kingdom of Lydia, with its capital at Sardis. Under the Mermnad dynasty, beginning with Gyges in the second quarter of the seventh century, the Lydians made themselves overlords of the Greek cities on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor, but in a benign way, so that (for instance) they made dedications at Greek sanctuaries. The Lydian kingdom was overthrown in the middle of the sixth century by the Persians. Originally a small kingdom to the east of the Persian Gulf, under Cyrus II (559&ndash530) they defeated the Medes to their north in 550. The Lydian Croesus hoped to expand into the vacuum which that created, but he was defeated and Lydia was conquered by Cyrus c.546. The Greek cities of the mainland submitted to Persia after that the offshore islands may have made formal submission then but were not effectively conquered until c.520&ndash515, when the Persians brought a fleet into the Aegean. In 539 Cyrus conquered Babylon, and his restoration of the Jews to Judaea indicates that he claimed to rule as far as the Mediterranean (Hdt. I). Cambyses (530&ndash522) between 525 and 522 conquered Egypt, in which there had been Greek involvement for a century and a half (cf. p. 49: Hdt. III. 1&ndash26). Darius I (522&ndash486) conquered the Aegean islands off the coast of Asia Minor, and c. 514 ventured into Europe for an unsuccessful campaign against the Scythians north of the Danube, after which the Persians acquired nominal control of Thrace and Macedon (Hdt. IV. 1-V. 27).
In 499 Aristagoras, ruling in Miletus as a Persian vassal, incited the Persians to an unsuccessful attack on the island of Naxos in the middle of the Aegean (Hdt. V. 28&ndash34). This was the first time the Persians had shown any interest in moving into the rest of the Greek world. At the time of Cyrus&rsquo conquest the Spartans had commanded him not to harm the Greeks, but had not followed the command with action (Hdt. I. 141. iv, 152&ndash153. ii). Athens, when Sparta had become hostile after the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508/7, appealed to Persia for an alliance, but was angry when its envoys gave (or at any rate proposed that Athens should give) earth and water, tokens of submission, to the Persians (Hdt. V. 73) and a little later, when a Spartan proposal to reinstate the expelled Athenian tyrant Hippias had failed to gain Peloponnesian support and Hippias had taken refuge with the Persians, Athens protested in vain against their harbouring him (Hdt. V. 96).
After the failure of the attack on Naxos, Aristagoras led the Asiatic Greeks in the Ionian Revolt against Persia, obtaining help from Athens (which perhaps already regarded itself as the mother city of the Ionian Greeks: cf. p. 21) and Eretria but failing to persuade Sparta. In 498 the Greeks captured and burned the outer city of Sardis, but were defeated during their return to the coast and in 497 they sent forces to support Greek-inclining cities in Cyprus (cf. p. 18), and won a naval battle. After that, however, substantial Persian forces arrived and began to recover control, helped by the fact that the various Greek cities did not cooperate effectively. The revolt ended after the Persians&rsquo defeat of a disintegrating Greek fleet at Lade, near Miletus, in 495 and their capture of Miletus in 494 after a siege (Hdt. V. 35-VI. 43. iii).
The involvement of Athens and Eretria gave the Persians the incentive to attack Greece. A first attempt, by forces sent round the north of the Aegean in 492, was abandoned after the Persian fleet was wrecked off Athos, the eastern prong of Chalcidice (Hdt. VI. 43. iv-48. i). A second expedition was sent by sea through the Cyclades in 490: Naxos was captured and burned, and Eretria was captured and its inhabitants enslaved, but the Persian army was defeated by the Athenians at Marathon, in the north-east of Attica. The Athenians were helped by the army of nearby Plataea (cf. p. 93) the Spartans promised to come after celebrating a festival, but did not arrive until after the battle (Hdt. VI. 48&ndash124).
Darius died in 486, and his son Xerxes (486&ndash465) inherited the need for revenge (but we must remember, in spite of the Greek sources on which we are overwhelmingly reliant for the narrative of Persian history in the fifth and fourth centuries, that Greece was only one of the Persians&rsquo concerns, and by no means always the most pressing). In 480 a very large force, by land and sea, was taken by Xerxes himself round the north of the Aegean. Many of the Greeks united under Spartan leadership to resist them, but not all even within the Peloponnese, Argos was not prepared to submit to Spartan leadership (cf. pp. 28&ndash9) Athens, with a new fleet financed from the profits from its silver mines, provided more than half of the Greek navy. A first Greek force sent to halt the invaders in the gorge of Tempe, in Thessaly, arrived too early and had to be withdrawn. A second attempt was made on land at Thermopylae, where there was then a narrow passage between mountains and sea, and at sea at Artemisium, nearby at the north end of Euboea but the Persians found a high-level route to reach the rear of the Greeks&rsquo land force, after which the Spartans and some others fought and died heroically but these positions, and the Greek mainland north of the Isthmus of Corinth, had to be abandoned, and Athens itself (evacuated by its citizens) was captured and sacked. Later in the year, however, the Greek navy defeated the Persian in the strait between Attica and the island of Salamis. The Persian fleet, and Xerxes with most of the army, then returned to Asia but in 479 the force left in Greece was defeated by the Greeks at Plataea and the Greek navy eventually crossed the Aegean, landed on Cape Mycale, in Asia Minor opposite Samos, and defeated a Persian army there (Hdt. VII-IX). A defence which at first looked likely to fail had in the end succeeded:
we know now that the Persians were never to invade Europe again, but at the end of 479 it must have seemed inevitable that they would be even more desirous of revenge, and in due course would return.
The Origins of the League
Various stories told in connection with the battle of Plataea in 479, the battle in which the Persians invading Greece were finally defeated, seem to point forward to later developments. Plataea was one of the Greek states which had sworn to resist the Persians (e.g.Thuc. II. 72. i, 74. ii) and after the battle the commander Pausanias made the allies swear to respect Plataea&rsquos independence and neutrality in return for which Plataea would tend the graves of the fallen Greeks (Thuc. II. 71. ii, III. 58. iv, 68. i). But more than that is found in later sources. An oath claimed to have been sworn before the battle was inscribed on stone in the fourth century as an oath of the Athenians (R&O 88. 21&ndash51), and is quoted as an oath of the Greeks by the fourth-century orator Lycurgus (Leocrates 80&ndash1) and by Diodorus (XL 29. ii-iii), but was rejected as a fabrication by the fourth-century historianTheopompus (FGrH 115 F 153).The literary versions include an undertaking to leave temples destroyed by the Persians in ruins as a war memorial (known also to Isocrates, as a resolution of the Ionians: IV. Paneg. 156).This is one of a number of alleged fifth-century documents for which there is no fifth-century evidence but which were known from the fourth century onwards (the two best known are the alleged decree of Themistocles, of 480, and the alleged Peace of Callias between Athens and Persia, on which see pp. 53&ndash4). The texts which were current later were probably not essentially authentic texts (which had undergone some editing) but later reconstructions, made (not irresponsibly but on the basis of some genuine tradition) to present vividly the achievements of the glorious past. It is likely that there were one or more occasions in 479 when an oath of solidarity was sworn, but it is not likely that the text was preserved, or that there was an undertaking to leave the temples of the gods in ruins.
Diodorus also mentions a vow to celebrate a festival of freedom at Plataea (XL 29. i), and Plutarch writes of an annual meeting with games every fourth year, a Greek contribution (syntaxis, a fourth-century term: cf. pp. 268, 409) to make war on the Persians, and the Plataeans to be sacred and inviolable, sacrificing on behalf of Greece (Plut. Arist. 21. i-ii). The games are not attested until the hellenistic period, and all this looks like later elaboration.
The origins of the League are better sought in the naval campaign of 479. When the Greek fleet was at Aegina in the spring, the Ionians appealed to it to liberate them (Hdt. VIII. 132). After the battle of Mycale a council was held at Samos, at which the Peloponnesians, thinking it impossible to protect the Ionians indefinitely, wanted to transport them to Greece and give them land taken from those who had supported the Persians, but Athens, which claimed to be the mother city of the Ionians, successfully objected. Then Samos, Chios, Lesbos and the other islands were admitted to the Greek alliance (Hdt. IX. 106. ii-iv). After that, the Greeks sailed north to the Hellespont. When they found that the Persians&rsquo bridges had been broken up, the commander, Sparta&rsquos king Leotychidas, and the Peloponnesian contingents returned home but others, perhaps including some from the Asiatic mainland, stayed on under Athenian leadership and besieged Sestos, on the European side of the Hellespont (Hdt. IX. 114&ndash21, Thuc. I. 89. ii).
Herodotus ends his history there. We think of the Persian Wars as ending there, and we now know that the Persians would never invade Europe again but nobody knew at the time that the Persian Wars were at an end. The Persians had been defeated and had withdrawn from Greece but they had been defeated and had withdrawn from Greece in 490, only to return with a larger force ten years later. The Greeks could not believe that the Persian threat had been eliminated.
In 478 the two Spartans who had commanded the Greek alliance in the previous year exchanged commands. Leotychidas took an army to Thessaly to punish those who had supported the Persians (cf. pp. 29&ndash30) and Pausanias, regent for his cousin Plistarchus, took command of the fleet. He campaigned successfully, first outside the Aegean in Cyprus, which was important both as a Persian naval base and as an island some of whose inhabitants were or at least regarded themselves as Greek then he returned to the Aegean and went through the Hellespont to Byzantium, still occupied by the Persians, and captured that (Thuc. I. 94, cf. 128. v, Aesch. Pers. 891&ndash2). But Pausanias made himself unpopular with the allies. At Plataea he had mockingly contrasted Persian luxury with Spartan austerity (Hdt. IX. 82). Now, Thucydides tells us, he wore Persian costume, he went into Thrace with a &lsquoMedian&rsquo and Egyptian bodyguard (the Greeks frequently referred to the Persians as the Medes), he feasted in the Persian manner and became unapproachable. Thucydides also has him secretly releasing prisoners who were relatives of the Persian King, and exchanging letters with the King, offering to marry his daughter (I. 128&ndash30, cf. 95. i). It is hard to be sure how much of this is true, and, if true, how much belongs to this occasion rather than to Pausanias&rsquo later period in Byzantium (cf. p. 30): on this occasion there can hardly have been time for the exchange of letters, and the offer to marry the King&rsquos daughter looks suspiciously like an improvement on the rumour reported by Herodotus, that he married a satrap&rsquos daughter (V. 32).
But we can accept that his conduct made him unpopular, and that complaints reached Sparta. He was recalled, and we shall look at his further career in a Spartan context (Thuc. I. 95. iii, 128. iii: cf. pp. 30&ndash1). A new alliance was then formed under the leadership of Athens, which had taken the lead against Sestos earlier. According to Thucydides, it was the allies who took the initiative in approaching Athens (I. 95. i-iv, cf. 75. ii, 96. i) other texts suggest that the Athenians took the initiative (Hdt. VIII. 3. ii, Ath. Pol. 23. iv): there must at any rate have been willingness on both sides. By the time the Spartans had sent out a successor to Pausanias, a man called Dorcis, the new arrangements had been made, and Dorcis was rejected. According to Thucydides the Spartans were willing to acquiesce and let the alliance go ahead under Athenian leadership (I. 95. vi-vii), and that is probably true of the majority of the Spartans if not all (cf. p. 30).
Ath. Pol. 23. v writes of a full offensive and defensive alliance (&lsquoto have the same friends and enemies&rsquo), for all time (symbolised by dropping lumps of metal in the sea), made for the Athenians with the Ionians by Aristides in 478/7. Thucydides writes that aproschema (&lsquopretext&rsquo, which might imply a contrast either between professed and real intentions or between original intention and later development) was to get revenge for what they had suffered by ravaging the King&rsquos land (I. 96. i, cf. VI. 76. iii). Not all the allies had had their own land ravaged, as the Athenians had, and few scholars have felt able to believe that the purpose of this permanent alliance was simply raiding to obtain revenge. Thucydides elsewhere has speakers referring to the liberation of the Greeks (III. 10. iii, VI. 76. iv), and that theme occurs in Herodotus&rsquo account of 479: it is very likely that both that and defence against further Persian attacks were intended when the alliance was formed, and why Thucydides wrote only of revenge and ravaging in I. 96 (see box) is an unsolved problem.
The Athenians took over the leadership in this way, with the willingness of the allies, because of their hatred of Pausanias. They determined which of the cities were to provide money against the barbarian and which ships for the pretext was to get revenge for what they had suffered by ravaging the King&rsquos land. This was when the office of Greek Treasurers [hellenotamiai] was first established for the Athenians, to receive the tribute [phoros] - for that was the name given to the payment of money. The first assessment of tribute was 460 talents. Delos was their treasury, and the meetings took place at the sanctuary. The Athenians were leaders of allies who were at first autonomous and deliberated in common meetings. (Thucydides, I. 96. i&ndash97. i)
There are many other problems in Thucydides&rsquo account of the organisation of the new alliance (I. 96. i&ndash97. i).The Athenians (specifically Aristides: V. 18. v and the later sources) &lsquodetermined which of the cities were to provide money against the barbarians and which ships. &hellip This was when the office of Greek Treasurers (hellenotamiai) was first established for the Athenians, to receive the tribute (phoros) - for that was the name given to the payment of money. The first assessment of tribute was 460 talents.&rsquo The likelihood is that at first the larger states all provided ships, as in other alliances the participants contributed their own forces but it has been argued that more than half of the eventual members were so small that they could not man even one trireme for a long campaigning season, and most of the smaller states are likely from the beginning to have paid tribute. Aristides will have assessed the obligations of the different members, probably imposing a burden comparable to that imposed by the Persians when they reassessed the tribute of their Greek subjects after the Ionian Revolt of the 490&rsquos (Hdt. VI. 42). But how were obligations in ships and in tribute balanced? And can the first assessment, even if it included a cash equivalent for ships, have amounted to as much as 460 talents, given that in 453, when there were more members and nearly all paid tribute, the total seems to have been under 500 talents? There have been various attempts to reject or explain Thucydides&rsquo figure he has another surprisingly high figure for 431 (cf. p. 97) the one inscribed assessment list which survives, that of 425, is an optimistic list (IG i 3 71: cf. p. 99), and one possible explanation is that Aristides drew up an optimistic list in cash terms which included both actual and potential members, and that that list did indeed total 460 talents. Collecting the tribute, like commanding expeditions, could well have been accepted as a responsibility of the leader, and we need not doubt that the hellenotamiai were Athenians from the beginning.
Thucydides says that Delos, the small island in the southern Aegean with a major Ionian sanctuary of Apollo (whence the alliance&rsquos modern name, Delian League), &lsquowas their treasury, and the meetings took place at the sanctuary. The Athenians were leaders of allies who were at first autonomous and deliberated in common meetings.&rsquo We know that the treasury was moved from Delos in 454/3 (the first of the &lsquoAthenian tribute lists&rsquo is that of 453: cf. p. 51). We have no direct evidence for what became of the meetings, but after 454/3 we find Athens taking decisions which ought to have been taken by meetings of the whole alliance if there were any, and we have no positive evidence that there were any, so probably when the treasury was moved the meetings were discontinued. The Mytilenaeans in a speech say that originally the Athenians led on an equal basis, and that the allies were equal in votes (isopsephot), but the large number of votes (polypsephia) made it impossible to resist Athens (Thuc. III. 10. iv-v, 11. iv).Two scenarios have been proposed: that Athens on one side was balanced by a council of allies, so that the allies together were equal in voting power to Athens (somewhat as in Sparta&rsquos alliance, the Peloponnesian League, and in Athens&rsquo fourth-century alliance, the Second Athenian League) or that there was a single body in which each member including Athens had one vote (as in the recent Greek alliance under Spartan leadership to resist the Persians). The recent alliance is the more relevant precedent, and it is easier to accept the claim that Athens led on a basis of equality if there was a single body in which Athens had one vote like the other members.
When Naxos was coerced, after a few years, Thucydides writes of its being &lsquoenslaved contrary to what was established&rsquo (I. 98. iv: cf. p. 21). States which join an alliance always give up the total freedom to decide their own policy with no reference to others which they might otherwise enjoy, but it was probably not thought necessary to spell out any guarantees of autonomy at the League&rsquos foundation. No previous combination of states in Greece had seriously reduced the members&rsquo freedom and after the Ionian Revolt, in which strong leadership had been lacking and Athens had supported the Asiatic Greeks for the first year but not afterwards, it must have seemed more likely that the Athenians would withdraw from the war against the Persians than that they would interfere with the allies&rsquo freedom. (The actual word autonomia may have been coined in connection with the allies&rsquo later attempts to retain as much freedom as they could when Athens did start encroaching.)
How large did the League become, and how quickly? The League was represented as a patriotic Greek alliance to fight against the barbarians, formed when the barbarians were on the defensive: support may have been widespread, but we cannot be sure that every single state in and around the Aegean will have been eager to join such an alliance (we happen to have evidence that Adramyttium, on the Asiatic coast facing Lesbos, was still in Persian hands in 421: Thuc. V. 1). Thucydides and other writers refer to the allies as Ionians, a word which could be applied to the eastern Greeks generally, but which attached more strictly to one strand of the Greek people, who could be distinguished from the Aeolians (to the north of them in the Aegean and Asia Minor) and the Dorians (to the south). Delos was Ionian in the strict sense, and it no doubt eased Athens&rsquo relations with Dorian Sparta if it stressed its position as alleged mother city and as leader of the Ionians but, of the likely early members, the cities of Lesbos were Aeolian and Byzantium was Dorian, and the League can never have been limited to those who were Ionian in the strict sense. Indeed, its members eventually included Carians, in south-western Asia Minor, who were not Greeks though their history had for a long time been bound up with that of the Asiatic Greeks.
The League&rsquos Early Years
Thucydides gives a catalogue of episodes in the early history of the League (I. 98&ndash101). Under the command of Cimon (son of the Miltiades who commanded at Marathon in 490) they captured from the Persians Eïon, on the Thracian coast at the mouth of the River Strymon.The area was important for silver and for ship-building timber, and Plutarch adds the information that Eïon was settled as an Athenian colony (Cim. 7. iii). They captured and the Athenians settled the north Aegean island of Scyros, occupied by a non-Greek people called Dolopians, and situated on the grain route from the Black Sea and the Hellespont to Athens - and Plutarch adds that in response to an oracle Cimon found and brought back to Athens what were said to be the bones of the hero Theseus (Thes. 36. i-iii,Cim. 8. iii-vii). Carystus, at the south end of Euboea and again on the route from the Hellespont to Athens, had been sacked by the Persians in 490 and had supported them in 480: it was attacked and forced to join the League. The Aegean island of Naxos revolted from the League, and was taken by siege and (metaphorically) enslaved: the best indication of what that is likely to mean is what happened to Thasos a little later (below). Thucydides does not say why Naxos revolted, but he attaches to this episode the comment that the Athenians were strict in exacting the allies&rsquo contributions - they were using a permanent alliance to fight a permanent war - and that more and more members lessened their ability to resist by choosing to pay tribute rather than contribute their own forces.
Next came a major victory over the Persians by land and sea, attributed to Cimon again, at the mouth of the River Eurymedon, on the south coast of Asia Minor not quite as far east as Cyprus. To have gone there the Athenians must have felt safe in the Aegean, but Thucydides next mentions the revolt of the north Aegean island of Thasos - because of a dispute with Athens over its trading posts and a silver mine on the mainland. The Athenians besieged Thasos (later sources indicate that Cimon was again in command), and it was only in the third year that Thasos submitted: it had to demolish its city walls, surrender its warships, pay tribute in cash and give up its mainland possessions. The Athenians had tried to found a settlement at Nine Ways, where the Strymon could be crossed, at the time when they occupied Eïon (scholiast [ancient commentator] on Aeschin. II.Embassy 31) they tried again now, but the settlers were defeated and killed by the Thracians when they ventured further inland.
&lsquoIn the third year&rsquo is Thucydides&rsquo first indication of time a later passage (IV. 102. ii-iii) and a probable emendation of schol. Aeschin. will make the three years of the siege 465/4&ndash463/2. There are texts giving 476/5 as the date of the colony at Nine Ways coinciding with that at Eïon (schol. Aeschin.) and of the oracle leading to the capture of Scyros (Plut. Thes. 36. i): some scholars have used other texts to place Thucydides&rsquo whole series of events in the 460&rsquos, but probably we should date Eïon 476 and Scyros 475, and Carystus and Naxos not long after. It is possibly in response to success at the Eurymedon in 469 that Cimon and his fellow generals were invited to judge the tragedians&rsquo competition in the spring of 468 (Plut. Cim. 8. vii-ix). Into this period we have also to fit the reappearance of Pausanias and his occupation of Byzantium until he was dislodged by the Athenians (Thuc. I. 128. ii&ndash131. i): some have placed this before Eïon, on the basis of texts which take Cimon there from Byzantium (e.g. Diodorus XL 60. ii), but it is easier to make sense of his and Themistocles&rsquo careers if we rely on a text which has Pausanias in Byzantium until c.470 (Just.Epit. IX. 1. iii: cf. p. 30). Just before and overlapping with the siege of Thasos, there was fighting involving Cimon against Persians and Thracians in the Chersonese, the tongue of land on the European side of the Hellespont (Plut. Cim. 14. i, cf. the casualty list IG i 3 1144).
Thucydides has written a selective account to illustrate the growth of Athenian power: he does not include the last episode mentioned above, and there may well have been many other episodes which he does not include and which we do not know of. At Eïon, at the Eurymedon and in the Chersonese the League fought against the Persians at Carystus it attacked a city which had earlier supported the Persians in preventing Naxos from withdrawing it upheld the permanence of a permanent alliance. On the other hand, Eïon was settled by the Athenians Scyros had nothing to do with the Persians but was of particular interest to Athens and again was settled by the Athenians the location of Carystus gave Athens a particular interest in that city at Naxos Athens was using force against a League member (the appearance of Carystonicus and Naxiades, in an Athenian casually list of the 440&rsquos, IG i 3 1162. 27, 79, shows that these were seen as achievements to be proud of) and Athens coveted the mainland possessions of Thasos. In that case it is hard to understand how the attack can have been justified to the League, since the large islands off the coast of Asia Minor had similar peraiai, mainland dependencies, which they would not want to lose to Athens. This episode, to which Diodorus attaches his comment on Athens&rsquo growing imperialism (XL 70. ii-iii), was the most blatant case yet of Athens&rsquo using the League to further its own interests.
It is clear that from the beginning the Athenians found ways of advancing their own interests through the League, but that does not prove that they had sinister intentions from the beginning: more probably the anti-Persian intentions were genuine, and continued to be acted on, but opportunities presented themselves and were accepted, and what was decided on one occasion set the pattern for what might be decided on others.
NOTE ON FURTHER READING
On the Delian League as a whole Meritt et al., The Athenian Tribute Lists (with a general narrative in vol. iii part 3), was the major study of the mid twentieth century, showing great boldness in the restoration of fragmentary inscriptions. McGregor, The Athenians and Their Empire, gives a very uncritical account by one of Meritt&rsquos collaborators Meiggs, The Athenian Empire, is the best single-volume treatment Rhodes, The Athenian Empire, is a booklet which focuses on the main problems Low (ed.), The Athenian Empire, is a collection of reprinted articles Ma et al. (eds.),Interpreting the Athenian Empire, is a collection of new studies.
Different views of the League&rsquos origin and organisation are given by J. A. O. Larsen, &lsquoThe Constitution and Original Purpose of the Delian League&rsquo, HSCPli 1940, 175&ndash213 (which I follow) N. G. L. Hammond, &lsquoThe Origins and Nature of the Athenian Alliance of 478/7 BC&rsquo, JHS lxxxvi 1967, 41&ndash61, revised as &lsquoThe Organization of the Athenian Alliance against Persia&rsquo, in his Studies in Greek History, 311&ndash45.
The chronology of the Pentecontaetia is full of uncertainties: there are similar but not identical date tables in Gomme, Historical Commentary on Thucydides, i. 394&ndash6 Meritt et al., The Athenian Tribute Lists, iii. 175&ndash9 CAH 2 v. 506&ndash11 there is a review of the problems in Rhodes, The Athenian Empire, ch. 3 chronologies widely divergent from those of Gomme, The Athenian Tribute Lists and CAH 2 , v, have from time to time been canvassed but have not gained much support.
Main keywords of the article below: helladic, civilization, historical, setting, late, homer, ancient, mainland, bronze, mythology, minoan, palaces, 1100, bc, 1000, emerged, epics, greece, influences, transformed, mycenaean, greek, c, lasted, crete, religion, 1600, culture, collapse, age.
It emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c. 1100 BC. Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology and religion.  B.C. The Aeolians and the Ionians apparently preceded the Dorians, who migrated into Greece before 1000 BC The Ionians, moving back, perhaps as refugees or as conquerors, settled in the Ionian islands and the coasts of Asia Minor, which became part of the greek world.  To punish mainland Greece for its support of the Ionian cities (which uprising by that time had already been quelled) Darius I launched the First Persian invasion of Greece, which lasted from 492 BC till 490 BC. The Persian general Megabyzus re-subjugated Thrace and conquered Macedon in the early stages of the war, but the war eventually ended with a Greek victory.  One of the earliest civilizations to appear around Greece was the Minoan civilization in Crete, which lasted from about c. 3000 BC ( Early Minoan ) to c. 1400 BC, and the Helladic culture on the Greek mainland from circa 3200/3100 BC to 2000/1900 BC.  As Greece recovered economically, its population grew beyond the capacity of its limited arable land, and from about 750 BC the Greeks began 250 years of expansion, settling colonies in all directions. 
Ancient Greece refers to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Dark Ages to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).  It refers not only to the geographical peninsula of modern Greece, but also to areas of Hellenic culture that were settled in ancient times by Greeks: Cyprus, the Aegean coast of Turkey (then known as Ionia), Sicily and southern Italy (known as Magna Graecia), and the scattered Greek settlements on the coasts of what are now Albania, Bulgaria, Egypt, southern France, Libya, Romania, Catalonia, and Ukraine. 
Philip struck first, advancing into Greece and defeating the Greek cities at Chaeronea in 338 BC. This traditionally marks the end of the era of the Greek city-state as an independent political unit, although in fact Athens and other cities survived as independent states until Roman times.  The history of Ancient Greece is often taken to end with the reign of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 BC. Subsequent events are described in Hellenistic Greece.  The Ionian cities of Asia Minor received little help from Greece when they revolted (499 BC) against Persia, which also threatened the Greek mainland, while mainland cities were poorly united in the Persian Wars that continued until 449 BC Successes in these wars, however, was the powerful impulse of Greek civilization.  When Philip II of Macedon attacked the warring city-states and conquered Greece by defeating the Athenians and Thebans in the battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), his son, Alexander the Great, would soon spread Greek civilization in the Western world, Asia and India.  Militarily, Greece itself declined to the point that the Romans conquered the land (168 BC onwards), though Greek culture would in turn conquer Roman life. 
In the modern Greek school-books, "ancient times" is a period of about 1000 years (from the catastrophe of Mycenae until the conquest of the country by the Romans) that is divided in four periods, based on styles of art as much as culture and politics.  Ancient Greece is considered by most historians to be the foundational culture of Western Civilization.  Ancient Greece is now in the classical phase of its civilization.  This struggle opened two centuries in which the civilization of ancient Greece reached its brilliant cultural peak, culminating in the philosophical achievements of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.  The period of Thucydides ' Pentecontaetia in ancient Greece.  Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times.  Any history of Ancient Greece requires a cautionary note on sources.  All histories of Ancient Greece have to contend with these limits in their sources.  The basic unit of politics in Ancient Greece was the polis, sometimes translated as city-state. 
In 2003 a 2,400-year-old headless marble statue was found along with 14 columns depicting eagles, one of the symbols of Hypsistos Zeus, the chief deity of ancient Greece. (AP, 8/2/03) c400-300BC The Greeks founded Neopolis (Naples), their "New City" in the 4th century B.C. They carved blocks of tufa stone to build the city structures and left behind cavernous quarries.  A reference map of ancient Greece showing the Greek political territories of Peloponnese, the southern Balkan Peninsula, islands of the Ionian and Aegean seas, and coastal Asia Minor. 
However the Olympic Games began in Olympia in 776 BC in honor of Zeus, the chief god and people came from all over Greece and the Greek colonies to take part in them. 
C entered within a loose collection of city-states (often at war with one another), ancient Greek culture reached its pinnacle during the fourth century BC - an era described as its "Golden Age."  He and his team pored over raw data like population and urbanization levels in Athens and more than a thousand city-states in the Archaic and Classical periods of ancient Greece, plus some extrapolation.  The Peloponnesian Wars were fought between Athens and Sparta, two city states in ancient Greece.  The Spartan city state in ancient Greece had always strongly emphasized military.  The word "economy" traces its roots to ancient Greece, though it would have meant something a little different back then--more about managing the affairs of the household.  Our word for "democracy"also comes from ancient Greece but, despite its incredible political and cultural influence, its economy was somewhat primitive and disorganized despite its high-minded democratic ideals.  Ancient Greece had "impressive rates of economic growth that were unparalleled by its contemporaries in antiquity," according to professor Josiah Ober. 
A map of Ancient Greece, circa 1500 BC, showing the territories of the Peloponnese peninsula and southern Balkan peninsula, including the southern portions of Macedonia and Epirus.  Saint Augustus, formerly a Neo-Platonist, brought some of his ideas into Christian theism. (V.D. -H.K.p.93)(HNQ, 5/11/98) 393AD The ancient Olympic Games were held at intervals beginning in 776 BC until about 393 AD when they were abolished by Roman emperor Theodosius I after Greece lost its independence.  However the most famous Ancient Greek doctor is Hippocrates (C.460-377 BC). (Although historians now believe that he was much less famous in his own time that was once thought.  The Ancient Greeks also founded many colonies in the Mediterranean between 750 BC and 500 BC. The Greeks founded colonies in southern Italy and southern France.  The most important Ancient Greek invention was the invention of True and not only Applied Science around 600 BC with Thales. 
Located off the coast of southern Greece, Pavlopetri dates back more than 5,000 years and is thought to have been engulfed by the sea around 1,000 BC, making it the only sunken Greek.  In this compact yet comprehensive history of ancient Greece, Thomas R. Martin brings alive Greek civilization from its Stone Age roots to the fourth century B.C. Focusing on the development of the Greek city-state and the society, culture, and architecture of Athens in its Golden Age, Martin integrates political, military, social, and cultural history in a book that will appeal to students and general readers alike.  The state of the surviving ancient evidence, which consistently comes more from Athens than from other citystates, and the focus of modern popular interest in ancient Greece, which has traditionally remained on the magnificent architectural remains of Athens, have resulted in Greek history of this period being centered almost exclusively on just Athenian history. 
In 2008 Greek workers discovered around 1,000 graves, some filled with ancient treasures, while excavating for a subway system.  Invented probably in Iraq, and Egypt around 1000 BC. In Greece it was greatly improved compared to the previous locks, which were simply a board drawn across a door.  Iron Age - Era of tools made from iron, beginning around 1200 BC, in Greece around 1100 BC, in Sicily probably with Greeks circa 700 BC. Followed Bronze Age.  As the available evidence shows, the Mycenaeans of the second millennium B.C. were the first population in Greece that spoke Greek. 
"Most things in the history of Greece have become a subject of dispute" is how Pausanias, the second-century A.D. author of a famous guide to sites throughout Greece, summed up the challenge and the fascination of thinking about the significance of ancient Greek history ( Guide to Greece 4.2.3). 
Like all early civilizations Ancient Greece was an agricultural society.  Central heating appears to have been invented in ancient Greece, but it was the Romans who became the supreme heating engineers of the ancient world with their hypocaust system.  Even if they were not slaves most of the people in Ancient Greece had a very low standard of living.  Despite all the achievements of Ancient Greece for most of its people life was hard.  Euripides was one of the great Athenian playwrights and poets of ancient Greece, known for the many tragedies he wrote, including Medea and The Bacchae.  The exploits of the heroes of ancient Greece were such that they defined the very concept of heroism itself for Greece and Rome.  A map of ancient Greece, showing the territories of Messenia, Laconia, Elis, Arcadia, Argolis, Achaia, Boeotia, Attica, Acarnania, &Aeligtolia, Locris, Doris, Phocis, Euboea, Epirus, Athamania, Thessalia, the southern portions of Illyria, Macedonia,.  In Ancient Greece some girls were taught to read and write.  In Ancient Greece when boys were not at school and girls were not working they played ball games with inflated pig's bladders.  In Ancient Greece funerary urns usually had figures painted on a white background.  Painting on walls was also an important art in Ancient Greece. 
It is easier to understand the history of Greek Sicily if one knows something of ancient Greece itself.  It would be difficult to overstate the importance of ancient Greece in the history of the West.  The art and architecture of ancient Greece and Rome played a foundational role of the history of Western art, establishing numerous key concepts, techniques, and styles that artists in the subsequent millennia have revisited and responded to in countless ways.  What is often forgotten is that ancient Greece developed under significant Near Eastern influence from the days of the Mycenaeans through the tumultuous aftermath of Alexander's empire.  It is not an understatement to say that ancient Greece, despite its polytheism (in mythology) and slavery, was the cornerstone of Western civilization.  It isn't surprising that Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece had so much in common because their histories were intertwined.  This site has games from both Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece.  A highly readable account of ancient Greece, particularly useful as an introductory or review text for the student or the general reader 
The distribution of the Ionic Greek dialect in historic times indicates early movement from the mainland of Greece to the Anatolian coast to such sites as Miletus, Ephesus, and Colophon, perhaps as early as 1000, but the contemporaneous evidence is scant.  Under his auspices, the Peace of Naupactus (217 BC) brought conflict between Macedon and the Greek leagues to an end, and at this time he controlled all of Greece except Athens, Rhodes and Pergamum.  To prosecute the war and then to defend Greece from further Persian attack, Athens founded the Delian League in 477 BC. Initially, each city in the League would contribute ships and soldiers to a common army, but in time Athens allowed (and then compelled) the smaller cities to contribute funds so that it could supply their quota of ships.  Even if Athens succumbed in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) and Sparta triumphed briefly before continued fighting gave the hegemony over Greece to Corinth and Thebes, the civilization that had created continued to live.  The period from 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is described in History of Mycenaean Greece known for the reign of King Agamemnon and the wars against Troy as narrated in the epics of Homer.  The Minoan civilization of Crete came to an abrupt end about 1400 BC. The Mycenaean world continued to flourish, however, and southern Greece was the centre of a trade network which dominated the eastern Mediterranean.  Although the period of Roman rule in Greece is conventionally dated as starting from the sacking of Corinth by the Roman Lucius Mummius in 146 BC, Macedonia had already come under Roman control with the defeat of its king, Perseus, by the Roman Aemilius Paullus at Pydna in 168 BC.  Their general, Epaminondas, crushed Sparta at the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC, inaugurating a period of Theban dominance in Greece.  Philip's allies in Greece deserted him and in 197 BC he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae by the Roman proconsul Titus Quinctius Flaminius.  During the end of the 3rd millennium BC (circa 2200 BC Early Helladic III), the indigenous inhabitants of mainland Greece underwent a cultural transformation attributed to climate change, local events and developments (e.g., destruction of the " House of the Tiles "), as well as to continuous contacts with various areas such as western Asia Minor, the Cyclades, Albania and Dalmatia.  Control of Greece, Thrace, and Anatolia was contested, but by 298 BC the Antigonid dynasty had supplanted the Antipatrid.  Archaeological remains show that Greece has had a long prehistory, dating from the Neolithic (4000 BC). 
The Hellenistic period of Greek history begins with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and ends with the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of Christianity, it did mark the end of Greek political independence.  In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces (except Knossos) were devastated by fire, which allowed the Mycenaean Greeks, influenced by the Minoans' culture, to expand into Crete.  Around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek. 
Literacy had been lost and the Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet to Greek and from about 800 BC written records begin to appear.  After the Greek victory at the Battle of the Eurymedon in 466 BC, the Persians were no longer a threat, and some states, such as Naxos, tried to secede from the League, but were forced to submit.  In 490 BC the Persian Great King, Darius I, having suppressed the Ionian cities, sent a fleet to punish the Greeks.  This coincided with the last battle between the Greeks and the Persians, a sea battle off Salamis in Cyprus, followed by the Peace of Callias (450 BC) between the Greeks and Persians.  In 346 BC the Thebans appealed to Philip II of Macedon to help them against the Phocians, thus drawing Macedon into Greek affairs for the first time.  The traditional date for the end of the Classical Greek period is the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. The period that follows is classed as Hellenistic.  The historical line starts with Greek Dark Ages (1100-800 BC).  The Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000-6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea.  By the 6th century BC several cities had emerged as dominant in Greek affairs: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes.  By the late 6th century BC, the Achaemenid Persian Empire ruled over all Greek city states and had made territorial gains in the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper as well.  In '8 th, 7 th and 6 th century BC the Greeks founded important colonies, many of which became autonomous city-state, starting from the Black Sea and the Bosphorus (Byzantium, where it was founded) up in Sicily, southern Italy (Magna Graecia), Mediterranean France, the northern coasts of Africa and Spain. 
At the end of the war, the Great Powers agreed that the Ottoman city of Smyrna ( Izmir ) and its hinterland, both of which had large Greek populations, be handed over to Greece.  The war, which lasted from 1946 to 1949, was characterised by guerilla warfare between the KKE forces and Greek governmental forces mainly in the mountain ranges of northern Greece.  The outbreak of World War I in 1914 produced a split in Greek politics, with King Constantine I, an admirer of Germany, calling for neutrality while Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos pushed for Greece to join the Allies. 
Greek troops occupied Smyrna in 1919, and in 1920 the Treaty of Sèvres was signed by the Ottoman government the treaty stipulated that in five years time a plebiscite would be held in Smyrna on whether the region would join Greece.  The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages and as a result the history of Greece is similarly elastic in what it includes.  Nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Greece (independent since 1821) and Cyprus.  Xerxes ' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.  Philip V of Macedon was the last Greek ruler with both the talent and the opportunity to unite Greece and preserve its independence against the ever-increasing power of Rome.  The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer ) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9thcenturyBC.  Some scholars have argued against the concept of a Greek Dark Age, on grounds that the former lack of archaeological evidence in a period that was mute in its lack of inscriptions (thus "dark") has been shown to be an accident of discovery rather than a fact of history. 
Even though at a crucial point in the war, the Persians briefly overran northern and central Greece, the Greek city-states managed to turn this war into a victory too.  In the second phase (1944), the ascendant communists, in military control of most of Greece, confronted the returning Greek government in exile, which had been formed under the auspices of the Western Allies in Cairo and originally included six KKE-affiliated ministers. 
In the 8th century BC Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization.  By the 6th century BC Hellas had become a cultural and linguistic area much larger than the geographical area of Greece. 
The leader of the Greeks and 4 th 5 th century BC included Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Phidias, Myron, Polyclitus, Heraclitus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Hippocrates.  The other Greek states at first accepted Athenian leadership in the continuing war against the Persians, but after the fall of the conservative politician Cimon in 461 BC, Athens became an increasingly open imperialist power.  Athens, Argos, Thebes, and Corinth, the latter two formerly Spartan allies, challenged Spartan dominance in the Corinthian War, which ended inconclusively in 387 BC. That same year Sparta shocked Greek opinion by concluding the Treaty of Antalcidas with Persia by which they surrendered the Greek cities of Ionia and Cyprus, thus reversing a hundred years of Greek victories against Persia.  In 339 BC Thebes, Athens, Sparta and other Greek states formed an alliance to resist Philip and expel him from the Greek cities he had occupied in the north. 
In 267 BC, Ptolemy II persuaded the Greek cities to revolt against Macedon, in what became the Chremonidean War, after the Athenian leader Chremonides.  The new Athenian leaders, Pericles and Ephialtes, let relations between Athens and Sparta deteriorate, and in 458 BC war broke out. 
Athens, in particular, with the support of the Delian League as the basis of the empire, grew dramatically, and the time of Pericles (495-429 BC) developed a culture that would have left their mark in the Western and Eastern civilizations.  Early geometric period cremation burial of a woman, 900 BC. Ancient Agora Museum in Athens. 
There are no fixed or universally agreed upon dates for the beginning or the end of the Ancient Greek period.  During this period, a number of Byzantine Greek successor states emerged such as the Empire of Nicaea, the Despotate of Epirus and the Empire of Trebizond.  The Byzantine Empire was full of Greek origin, and Hellenistic civilization, centered at Alexandria, Pergamum, Dura, and other cities, spread Greek influence and preserved the heritage greek in later centuries.  The leading role of Constantinople began when Constantine the Great turned Byzantium into the new capital of the Roman Empire, from then on to be known as Constantinople, placing the city at the center of Hellenism, a beacon for the Greeks that lasted to the modern era.  The history of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire is described by Byzantinist August Heisenberg as the history of "the Christianized Roman empire of the Greek nation".  In common usage it refers to all Greek history before the Roman Empire, but historians use the term more precisely.  The division of the empire into East and West and the subsequent collapse of the Western Roman Empire were developments that constantly accentuated the position of the Greeks in the empire and eventually allowed them to become identified with it altogether. 
The Persian Wars ushered in a century of Athenian dominance of Greek affairs.  The Persians landed in Attica, but were defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a Greek army led by the Athenian general Miltiades. 
The obviate cause was the growing resentment of Sparta and its allies at the dominance of Athens over Greek affairs.  Athens and Sparta developed a rivalry that dominated Greek politics for generations.  There was disagreement among the Greeks as to which party violated the treaty between the Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues, as Athens was technically defending a new ally.  Athens became the centre of Greek literature, philosophy and the arts.  Some Greeks became Crypto-Christians to avoid heavy taxes and at the same time express their identity by maintaining their ties to the Greek Orthodox Church. 
His intervention in the war between Thebes and Phocis brought him recognition as a Greek leader, and gave him his opportunity to become a power in Greek affairs.  Turkish nationalists, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, overthrew the Ottoman government and organised a military campaign against the Greek troops, resulting in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922).  In 1967, the Greek military seized power in a coup d'état, overthrowing the centre right government of Panagiotis Kanellopoulos.  The transition from the Greek Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (or Early Helladic I-II) occurred gradually when Greece's agricultural population began to import bronze and copper and used basic bronze-working techniques.  The first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, arrived in the Greek mainland sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.  Bronze Age Migrations in the Aegean Archaeological and Linguistic Problems in Greek Prehistory: Proceedings of the first International Colloquium on Aegean Prehistory, Sheffield. 
Cyprus was inhabited by a mix of " Pelasgians " and Phoenicians, joined during this period by the first Greek settlements.  The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople resulted in the official end of both Byzantium and the Byzantine period of Greek history though medieval Greek life would continue well into the Ottoman period.  The Greeks were the first to write narrative secular history, and the works of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon and Polybius were the sources of events and contemporary ideas, as well as the classics of world literature. 
The millet system contributed to the ethnic cohesion of Orthodox Greeks by segregating the various peoples within the Ottoman Empire based on religion.  The Latin Empire, however, lasted only 57 years when in 1261, Constantinople was reclaimed by the Byzantine Greeks and the Byzantine Empire was restored.  A year later, the Greeks, under the Spartan Pausanius, defeated the Persian army at Plataea.  In Cyprus, some archaeological sites begin to show identifiably Greek ceramics, a colony of Euboean Greeks was established at Al Mina on the Syrian coast, and a reviving Aegean Greek network of exchange can be detected from 10th-century Attic Proto-geometric pottery found in Crete and at Samos, off the coast of Asia Minor.  The period that follows these events is collectively known as the Greek Dark Ages.  Although the Greeks did not rival as sailors with the Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans, the sea offered them an opportunity for expansion and trade.  When Russia attacked the Ottoman Empire in 1853, Greek leaders saw an opportunity to expand North and South into Ottoman areas that had a Christian majority. 
The first literate civilizations in European history flourish - the Minoan on Crete and the Mycenaean in Greece.  As a result of the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, Epirus, southern Macedonia, Crete and the Aegean Islands were annexed into the Kingdom of Greece.  The conflict resulted in a victory for the British -- and later U.S.-supported government forces, which led to Greece receiving American funds through the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, as well as becoming a member of NATO, which helped to define the ideological balance of power in the Aegean for the entire Cold War.  This meant that when Greece went to war (e.g., against the Persian Empire ), it took the form of an alliance going to war.  Caracalla's decree did not set in motion the processes that led to the transfer of power from Italy and the West to Greece and the East, but rather accelerated them, setting the foundations for the millennium-long rise of Greece, in the form of the Eastern Roman Empire, as a major power in Europe and the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages.  When the Byzantine Empire was rescued from a period of crisis by the resolute leadership of the three Komnenoi emperors Alexios, John and Manuel in the 12th century, Greece prospered.  From the late 8th century, the Empire began to recover from the devastating impact of successive invasions, and the reconquest of Greece began. 
The wealth of Athens attracted talented people from all over Greece, and also created a wealthy leisured class who became patrons of the arts.  Many of the most important Byzantine churches in and around Athens, for example, were built during these two centuries, and this reflects the growth of urbanisation in Greece during this period.  Demetrius I campaigns in central Greece, removes the tyrant Lachares from Athens and defeats Sparta.  This marked the end of Athens as a political actor, although it remained the largest, wealthiest and most cultivated city in Greece. 
In 1912-13 Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece drove the Ottomans out of most of their European territories in the First Balkan War but then fought over the division of the conquered Ottoman territories in the Second Balkan War (1913-14 this allowed the Ottomans to reclaim some of their lost territory).  It also gave ample opportunity for wars within Greece between different cities.  In 1952, by joining NATO, Greece clearly became part of the Western Bloc of the Cold War.  Greece also entered into an alliance with the United States and joined NATO, while relationships with its Communist northern neighbours, both pro-Soviet and neutral, became strained.  It was fought between 1944 and 1949 in Greece between the nationalist/non-Marxist forces of Greece (financially supported by Great Britain at first, and later by the United States ) and the Democratic Army of Greece (ELAS), which was the military branch of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE).  First trip of Hadrian around the Empire : Gaul, Germany, Noricum, Britain, Tarraconis, Cappadocia, Gallatia, Bythinia, Asia, Greece, Mesia, Dacia and Pannonia.  The Archaic period can be understood as the Orientalizing period, when Greece was at the fringe, but not under the sway, of the budding Neo-Assyrian Empire.  Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Helladic periods in mainland Greece.  Culture in the Cyclades is increasingly influenced by the Mycenaean civilization of mainland Greece.  It recovered quickly from the collapse of Mycenaean culture, and in 1981 excavators of a burial ground found the largest 10th-century building yet known from Greece.  The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, in the Peloponnesos of southern Greece.  The events of 1919-1922 are regarded in Greece as a particularly calamitous period of history.  In many moments of its history Greece included Epirus, Macedonia and Thrace, part of Asia Minor and Magna Graecia. 
The late Roman Republic saw a degree of oppression and misrule by several Roman governors, but now, under the firm rule of Octavian (soon to be called Augustus), the people of Greece know peace and good governance.  Generalizations about the "Dark Age Society" are generally considered false, because the various cultures throughout Greece cannot be grouped into a large "Dark Age Society" category.  After his assassination, the European powers helped turn Greece into a monarchy the first King, Otto, came from Bavaria and the second, George I, from Denmark.  Sparta, Argos and Paros hold the first documented musical competitions in Greece.  The end of the Peloponnesian War left Sparta the master of Greece, but the narrow outlook of the Spartan warrior elite did not suit them to this role. 
On the mainland of Greece and throughout the Aegean sea, another civilization, the Mycenaen, also flourishes.  The region of Greece and the Aegean Sea is fragmented into steep mountains and valleys, as well as many small islands.  About now, however, the islands and coasts of Greece and the Aegean are starting to be visited by Phoenician merchants, from Syria. 
Ancient Greek civilization in Greece and the Mediterranean.  Not everyone treats the Classical Greek and Hellenic periods as distinct, however, and some writers treat the Ancient Greek civilization as a continuum running until the advent of Christianity in the 3rd century AD.  These dates are historians' conventions and some writers treat the Ancient Greek civilization as a continuum running until the advent of Christianity in the third century AD.  Ancient Greek civilization has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, art and architecture of the modern world, particularly during the Renaissance in Western Europe and again during various neo-Classical revivals in 18th and 19th century Europe and The Americas.  This has given rise to dramatic intellectual achievements which Ancient Greek civilization one of the great civilizations of world history. 
A few of these states have become the first democracies in history the largest of these is Athens, soon to be one of the most famous centres of culture in the ancient world. 
In 222 BC, the Macedonian army defeated the Spartans and annexed their city--the first time Sparta had ever been occupied by a different state.  In 404 BC Athens sued for peace, and Sparta dictated a predictably stern settlement: Athens lost her city walls, her fleet, and all of her overseas possessions.  In 458 BC, while the Persian Wars were still ongoing, war broke out between the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League, comprising Sparta and its allies.  In 198 BC, the Second Macedonian War broke out because Rome saw Macedon as a potential ally of the Seleucid Empire, the greatest power in the east.  The First Macedonian War broke out in 212 BC, and ended inconclusively in 205 BC, but Macedon was now marked as an enemy of Rome.  The first stage of the war (known as the Archidamian War for the Spartan king, Archidamus II ) lasted until 421 BC with the signing of the Peace of Nicias.  With the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea (362 BC) the city lost its greatest leader, and his successors blundered into an unsuccessful ten-year war with Phocis.  In 346 BC, unable to prevail in its ten-year war with Phocis, Thebes called upon Philip II of Macedon for aid.  In 146 BC, after the Fourth Macedonian War, the remains of the Greek states fell definitively into the hands of Rome.  Some writers include the periods of the Greek-speaking Mycenaean civilization that collapsed about 1100 BC, though most would argue that the influential Minoan was so different from later Greek cultures that it should be classed separately.  The Greek Dark Ages (ca. 1100 BC-800 BC) refers to the period of Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century BC to the rise of the first Greek city-states in the 9th century BC and the epics of Homer and earliest writings in alphabetic Greek in the 8th century BC.  Main article: Greco-Persian WarsIn Ionia (the modern Aegean coast of Turkey) the Greek cities, which included great centres such as Miletus and Halicarnassus, were unable to maintain their independence and came under the rule of the Persian Empire in the mid 6th century BC. In 499 BC the Greeks rose in the Ionian Revolt, and Athens and some other Greek cities went to their aid. 
In Athens, by contrast, the monarchy was abolished in 683 BC, and reforms of Solon established a moderate system of aristocratic government.  This strategy required that Athens endure regular sieges, and in 430 BC it was visited with an awful plague that killed about a quarter of its people, including Pericles.  The second stage of the Peloponnesian War began in 415 BC when Athens embarked on the Sicilian Expedition to support an ally ( Segesta ) attacked by Syracuse and to conquer Sicily.  In 411 BC, an oligarchical revolt in Athens held out the chance for peace, but the Athenian navy, which remained committed to the democracy, refused to accept the change and continued fighting in Athens' name.  By the mid 5th century the League had become an Athenian Empire, symbolized by the transfer of the League's treasury from Delos to the Parthenon in 454 BC.  Map of the Delian League ("Athenian Empire") in 431 BC, just prior to the Peloponnesian War. 
After Alexander's death, his empire was torn by his generals in the ongoing conflict in the period 323-276 BC.  After several years of inconclusive campaigning, the moderate Athenian leader Nicias concluded the Peace of Nicias (421 BC).  In the Hellenistic years that followed the conquests of Alexander (323-146 BC), also known as Alexandrian, aspects of Hellenic civilization expanded to Egypt and Bactria.  Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the volcanic eruption at Thera (c. 1628-1627 BC) and earthquakes (c. 1600 BC).  These cultures disappeared in 1100 BC while the Greek-speaking Achaeans migrated in the Peloponnese during the 14 th and 13 th century.  The Mycenaean civilization started to collapse from 1200 BC. Archaeology suggests that, around 1100BC, the palace centres and outlying settlements of the Mycenaeans' highly organized culture began to be abandoned or destroyed, and by 1050BC, the recognizable features of Mycenaean culture had disappeared, and the population had decreased significantly.  With the Bronze Age (2800 BC) important cultures developed.  About this time the rise of a mercantile class (shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC) introduced class conflict into the larger cities.  At the same time the Athenian fleet landed troops in the Peloponnese, winning battles at Naupactus (429 BC) and Pylos (425 BC).  The Athenian fleet then turned to chasing the Persians out of the Aegean Sea, and in 478 BC they captured Byzantium.  In 418 BC, however, hostility between Sparta and the Athenian ally Argos led to a resumption of fighting.  In Sparta, the landed aristocracy retained their power, and the constitution of Lycurgus (about 650 BC) entrenched their power and gave Sparta a permanent militarist regime under a dual monarchy.  When the Pisistratids were overthrown, Cleisthenes established the world's first democracy (500 BC), with power being held by an assembly of all the male citizens.  In 225 BC, Macedon defeated the Egyptian fleet at Cos and brought the Aegean islands, except Rhodes, under its rule as well.  The Romans divided the region into four smaller republics, and in 146 BC Macedonia officially became a province, with its capital at Thessalonica.  Sparta remained hostile to the Achaeans, and in 227 BC invaded Achaea and seized control of the League.  From 650 BC onwards, the aristocracies had to fight not to be overthrown and replaced by populist leaders called tyrants (tyrranoi), a word which did not necessarily have the modern meaning of oppressive dictators.  After some inconclusive fighting, the two sides signed a peace in 447 BC. That peace was stipulated to last thirty years: instead it held only until 431 BC, with the onset of the Peloponnesian War.  The period from 1100 BC to the 8th century BC is a "dark age" from which no primary texts survive, and only scant archaeological evidence remains. 
The Ionian Greek cities revolted from the Persian Empire, through a chain of events, and were supported by some of the mainland cities, eventually led by Athens.  The army with which he invaded the Persian Empire was basically Macedonian, but many idealists from the Greek cities also enlisted. 
He organized the cities into the League of Corinth, and announced that he would lead an invasion of Persia to liberate the Greek cities and avenge the Persian invasions of the previous century. 
Despite his sincere admiration for Athens, the Athenian leader Demosthenes, in a series of famous speeches (philippics) roused the Greek cities to resist his advance.  Athens, Rhodes, Pergamum and other Greek states retained substantial independence, and joined the Aetolian League as a means of defending it and restoring democracy in their states, where as they saw Macedon as a tyrannical kingdom because of the fact they had not adopted democracy.  In the third phase (commonly called the "Third Round" by the communists), guerrilla forces controlled by the KKE fought against the internationally recognized Greek government which was formed after elections were boycotted by the KKE. Although the involvement of the KKE in the uprisings was universally known, the party remained legal until 1948, continuing to coordinate attacks from its Athens offices until proscription.  The Greek government then proceeded, as the Nazi forces came towards the capital of Athens, to leave for Crete and then Cairo. 
The Greek city-states and the kingdom of Macedon were no match for the rising power of Rome, and by 146 BCE, after a series of wars, the Romans were in complete control of the region.  Greek culture was a powerful influence in the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of Europe.  Some writers include the periods of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations, while others argue that these civilizations were so different from later Greek cultures that they should be classed separately.  At the end of this period of stagnation, the Greek civilization was engulfed in a renaissance that spread the Greek world as far as the Black Sea and Spain. 
He swept south again, captured Thebes, and razed the city to the ground as a warning to the Greek cities that his power could no longer be resisted.  The Greeks both at home and abroad organized themselves into independent communities, and the city (polis) became the basic unit of Greek government. 
First Crete, then in short order the other Greek city-states, adopted the formal practice of pederasty. 
Ancient cities continue to thrive, remaining centres of Roman-Greek civilization. 
Thucydides, the great ancient historian of the 5th century bce, wrote a sketch of Greek history from the Trojan War to his own day, in which he notoriously fails, in the appropriate chapter, to signal any kind of dramatic rupture. (He does, however, speak of Greece "settling down gradually" and colonizing Italy, Sicily, and what is now western Turkey.  …imports were Black-Figure shards from Greece, an Etruscan clay mold, and wine amphorae from a Greek colony in southern France. 
The imperialistic aggression of Athens was disapproved of by Sparta and the other states that formed the Peloponnesian League and is considered to have been an underlying cause of the Peloponnesian War between Sparta and Greece which lasted from 431 to 404 BC and left Athens defeated.  The earliest cities date from about 2000 BC. People from the north are said to have invaded Greece several times, especially in the centuries immediately preceding 2000 BC, but precise dates and evidence for these invasions are lacking.  Philip of Macedon invaded Greece and defeated the Theban and Athenian armies in 338 BC. Philip was murdered in 336 BC and his son, Alexander, who became Alexander the Great, continued to rule Greece.  By 500 BC, many more civilizations would later form around the area in Greece.  In 371 BC the Spartans were defeated by Thebans who were also unable to successfully rule Greece. 
In the period 2000-1000 BC major advances in Aegean civilization occurred on the island of Crete and on the Greek mainland the two civilizations that developed were the Minoan in Crete and the Mycenaean on the mainland.  After 1600 BC the inhabitants of the Greek mainland came into contact with the Minoans and the first stage of civilization in Europe began.  The Aeolians and Ionians came first and finally the Dorians overthrew the Achaeans in about 1100 BC. There are few records of the period 1100-700 BC, but it is believed that during this time the Greeks established their own political, religious, artistic and intellectual identity.  Greeks are still hiding their cash under the mattress in times of crisis and they are still facing hard choices imposed by foreign powers, as the island of Melos faced in 416 BC.  By 700 BC they had developed their own alphabet, the basis of Greek democracy had emerged and the style of pottery, art and architecture was distinct from that of the Minoans and Mycenaeans.  From 750 BC onwards many Greeks moved out of the Aegean and settled along the coasts of the Mediterranean and of the Black Sea.  The first known Greek philosopher was Thales of Miletus who lived round about 600 BC.  It extended from 700 to 500 BC and was marked by growth and development in all aspects of Greek life and culture. 
RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(28 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)
Main keywords of the article below: civilization, kingdoms, history, 8th, ancient, longer, light, scholars, bc, romans, emerged, fell, world, greece, modern, end, greek, "hellenistic", lasted, call, century, 146, regarded, timeline, coming, normally.
The civilization of Ancient Greece emerged into the light of world history in the 8th century BC. Normally it is regarded as coming to an end when Greece fell to the Romans, in 146 BC. However, major Greek (or "Hellenistic", as modern scholars call them) kingdoms lasted longer than this.  Ancient Greece Timeline Timeline Description: Ancient Greece is called the birthplace of the modern city and state, with stores and meeting places as well as homes, farms, and governments.  This is a timeline of Ancient Greece from its emergence around 800 BC to its subjection to the Roman Empire in 146 BC. 
Draco was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece.  The art and architecture of ancient Greece have had an enormous impact on later cultures, from ancient times to the present day.  The civilization of ancient Greece has been immensely influential on subsequent world history.  The history of Ancient Greece falls into four major divisions.  Politically, however, Ancient Greece was divided amongst several hundred independent city states (poleis).  The period of Thucydides ' Pentecontaetia in ancient Greece.  Ancient Greece consisted of many small territories, each with its own dialect, cultural peculiarities, and identity. 
The Ghandara style of northern India similarly embodied the artistic heritage of two quite different civilizations, ancient India and Greece, and had a large impact on the Buddhist art of northern India, central Asia and Eastern Asia.  As a culture (as opposed to a political force), Greek civilization lasted longer still, continuing right to the end of the ancient world.  The Sicilian Wars, or Greco-Punic Wars, were a series of conflicts fought between Ancient Carthage and the Greek city-states led by Syracuse, Sicily, over control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean.  In the West, following the Italian Renaissance (after c. 1400), the technical brilliance of Greek (and its offspring, Roman) art and architecture stimulated artists to look to these ancient models for inspiration. 
Ancient Greek civilization in Greece and the Mediterranean.  The Peloponnesian War was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.  The Lelantine War is the modern name for a military conflict between the two ancient Greek city-states Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea which took place in the early Archaic period.  The Second Messenian War was a war between the Ancient Greek states of Messenia and Sparta.  The geographical coverage of Ancient Greek civilization changed markedly during its history. 
The archaic period in Greece (800 BCE - 480 BCE) is a period of Ancient Greek history.  The many Greek city-states each had their own political systems, usually revolving around one of the five basic types known in ancient Greece: Democracy, Tyranny, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy.  The Athenian surrender left Sparta as the sole dominant city-state in ancient Greece.  Mycenaean Greece (c. 1600 BC - c. 1100 BC) is a cultural period of Ancient Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in.  The pottery styles of ancient Greece help archaeologists and historians today understand the history and economic patterns of that far-off time.  His studies included the development of the use of the gnomon for measuring land in ancient Greece the first prediction of the motion of the planets and the precept that the universe runs on laws or patterns which may be deduced from observation.  Philip II of Macedon was king of the region directly north of ancient Greece.  The Classical Age was characterized by most of the cultural wonders that we associate with ancient Greece.  He is considered the father of the scientific method, and the third greatest philosopher of ancient Greece after Plato and Socrates.  In 2003 a 2,400-year-old headless marble statue was found along with 14 columns depicting eagles, one of the symbols of Hypsistos Zeus, the chief deity of ancient Greece. (AP, 8/2/03) c400-300BC The Greeks founded Neopolis (Naples), their "New City" in the 4th century B.C. They carved blocks of tufa stone to build the city structures and left behind cavernous quarries. 
It ends with the annexation of Greece to the Roman Empire in 146 BC. Below is a timeline of the most important dates and events that occurred throughout this period. 776 BC: Date of the first recorded Olympic Games. 757 BC: The start of the First Messenian War, resulting in the subjugation of Messenia to Sparta and the creation of helots. 725 BC: The Lelantine War between the Ancient Greek city - states of Chalcis and Eretria, fighting over the fertile Lelantine Plain. 
This war, between Rome and the Seleucid Empire, was largely fought in and around Greece and formerly Greek territory.  The Hellenistic Age in Greece followed the Classical Age and preceded the incorporation of the Greek empire within the Roman. 
Persia, a great power to the east of Greece with its capital in modern-day Iran, was the ancient world's superpower.  Events connected with the religious life of ancient and classical Greece. 
The Amphictyonic League of Delphi was an international organization of Greek city-states that swore to uphold and defend the safety of Delphi, an ancient sacred site and home of the Oracle.  The Parthenon of Athens, paid for with funds from the treasury of the Delian League, was the masterwork of the sculptor Phidias, and helped secure Athens' reputation as the greatest city in the ancient Greek world. 
The timeline of Ancient Greece begins in the 8th century BC when Greece managed to emerge from the Dark Ages after the fall of the Mycenaean civilization.  The device had been hidden in an envelope originally sent by mail on June 18 to minister Michalis Chryssohoidis' political office. (AP, 6/26/10) 2010 Jun 29, In Greece fewer than 20,000 people took to the streets to protest a planned overhaul of the state pension system. (Econ, 7/3/10, p.50) 2010 Jul 19, A Greek journalist was gunned down outside his home in Athens, in an attack police say is linked to a domestic terrorist group (Sect of Revolutionaries).  Minister of State Theodoros Roussopoulos, who is also the government spokesman, said he was stepping down in order to defend himself against a "malicious and totally groundless attack." (AP, 10/23/08) 2008 Nov 24, China's President Hu Jintao arrived in Greece for a three-day visit timed to coincide with the signing of a 831.2 million euro ($1 billion) port deal. (AP, 11/24/08) 2008 Dec 6, Greek police shot and killed Alexis Grigoropoulos (15). 
Her arrival triggered protests attended by some 50,000 demonstrators in Athens. (AP, 10/9/12) 2012 Oct 18, In Greece hundreds of youths pelted riot police with petrol bombs, bottles and chunks of marble as yet another Greek anti-austerity demonstration descended into violence.  On board were eight activists and two crew members. (AP, 7/5/11) 2011 Jul 5, In Greece Pro-Palestinian activists from an international flotilla banned from setting sail for Gaza by Greek authorities occupied the Spanish Embassy in Athens. (AFP, 7/5/11) 2011 Jul 16, The Greek oil tanker 'Aegean Star' belonging to the Endeavour Marine Agency company and flying a Liberian flag was hijacked, 30 nautical miles off the coast of Nigeria.  Political scandals and a messy divorce forced Papandreou and his party from office. (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B6)(AP, 6/18/99) 1989 Jul 2, In Greece PM Tzannis Tzannetakis (1927-2010) began leading a coalition government for that included his conservative New Democracy party and the Greek Communist Party. (AP, 4/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tzannis_Tzannetakis) 1989 Oct 12, Greek PM Tzannis Tzannetakis resigned when the Synaspismos withdrew its support.  The cost to the farm owners could pass euro1 million ($1.27 million). (AP, 8/30/10) 2010 Sep 1, In Greece a smoking ban went into effect outlawing smoking in enclosed public areas and prohibiting tobacco advertising. 42% of the Greek population over age 15 smoked, well above the European average of 29%. (SFC, 9/1/10, p.A2) 2010 Sep 29, Anti-austerity protests erupted across Europe.  In 2002 Pavlos Serifis was arrested in connection with the murder. (AP, 12/23/00)(SFC, 7/5/02, p.A9) 1975 In Greece the November 17 terrorist group began a series of killings and bombings. (SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)(www.emergency.com/nov17rpt.htm) 1976 May 1, Alexandros Panagoulis (b.1939), Greek politician and poet, died in a car crash possibly rigged by his enemies. 
The Parthenon was destroyed in the war between Turks and Venetians. (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A26)(MC, 9/26/01) 1687 Sep 28, Venetians took Athens from the Turks. (MC, 9/28/01) 1715 The Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnesus from the Venetians. (AM, May/Jun 97 p.56) 1821 Mar 25, Greece gained independence from Turkey (National Day). (MC, 3/25/02) 1821 Mar 28, Greek Independence Day celebrates the liberation of Southern Greece from Turkish domination. 
The city's traffic police chief said that the "millions" of frogs were probably looking for food. (AP, 5/26/10) 2010 Jun 9, Libya and Greece signed an accord that paves the way for "strategic cooperation" between the two countries during the Greek premier's visit to the oil-rich country.  Scully's body was found burned and beheaded. (AP, 10/8/02) 2002 Oct 13, In Greece opposition conservatives claimed victory in local elections, but appeared to fall short of gaining a powerful protest vote against the long-governing Socialists. (AP, 10/14/02) 2002 Oct 18, According to Greek scientists, the length of a man's index finger can accurately predict the length of his penis. 
Second group of tribes (Dorians) enters Greece and destroys Mycenean civilization many Achaeans emigrate to Asia Minor & become known as Ionian Greeks others resist and stay on at Athens.  It became renowned for its elegant flat-faced marble figurines. (SFC, 1/10/06, p.D7)(AP, 12/31/06) 2200BC In Greece Indo-European invaders, speaking the earliest form of Greek, entered the mainland. (eawc, p.2) 2000-1500 The Minoan civilization, named after the Cretan ruler Minos, reached its height with central power in Knossos on the isle of Crete.  Some 8,000 people also thronged the streets in Thessaloniki. (AFP, 2/15/15) 2015 Feb 16, Greece offered to accept conditions on an extension to its loan agreements with the euro zone, and even an inspection by the European Commission, at a fraught meeting in Brussels. (Reuters, 2/18/15) 2015 Feb 17, Greek PM Alexis Tsipras nominated Prokopis Pavlopoulos (64), a conservative lawmaker and former interior minister, to be the country's next president.  The custom was introduced concurrently with the introduction of naked athletics, oiling the body for exercise so as to highlight its beauty. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnopaedia) c650BC The time of Archilochus, poet. (WUD, 1994, p.78) c650BC Greece began using the drachma for currency. (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F4) 650-500BC The age of the tyrants. (eawc, p.6) 645BC Archilochus (b.
680BC), Greek poet (Archilochos, Archilocos), died about this time. 
Saint Augustus, formerly a Neo-Platonist, brought some of his ideas into Christian theism. (V.D. -H.K.p.93)(HNQ, 5/11/98) 393AD The ancient Olympic Games were held at intervals beginning in 776 BC until about 393 AD when they were abolished by Roman emperor Theodosius I after Greece lost its independence.  Delphi: A History of the Centre of the Ancient World." (Econ, 6/14/14, p.77) 2015 Jan 2, In Greece a couple and their 12-year-old son were stabbed to death in their apartment in Thessaloniki. 
Samos was the site of the Temple of Hera, one of the 7 ancient Wonders of the World. (SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T10) c525BC Greek drama grew out of the Dionysian festivals. (eawc, p.9) 525-465BC Aeschylus is credited with being the inventor of drama and for introducing a second actor into the plays held every year in Athens in honor of Dionysus.  The subject was studied by Prof. Wilbur Richard Knorr (d.1997 at 51) of Stanford who wrote: "The Evolution of Euclidean Elements," "Ancient Sources of the Medieval Tradition of Mechanics," "The Ancient Tradition of Geometric Problems," and "Textual Studies in Ancient and Medieval Geometry." (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A24)(SFEC, 3/30/97, p.D5) 399BC Feb 15, Socrates was condemned to death on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods into Greek thought. 
The time that most people think of when they think of ancient Greece can be referred to as the Classical Period.  The period of ancient Greece between about 2700 and 2500 years ago is remembered as the Archaic Period, meaning very old.  While we can trace the history of humans living in Greece to over ten thousand years ago, the civilization we think of as ancient Greece can be said to have begun about 2700 years ago.  The history of ancient Greece spans hundreds of years and ranges from Europe to India.  The history of Ancient Greece can be divided up into different periods.  The Athenians built the Parthenon during the Classical Period, the most famous symbol of all ancient Greece.  There were three main forms of government used in ancient Greece by various city-states.  Prompt: Ancient Greece was separated into hundreds of small city-states, or areas made up of a large city and smaller surrounding towns.  This made it easy for the Romans to take over Greece afterwards, ending the era we know as ancient Greece.  By comparison, ancient Greece stretches back over three thousand years in the past.  These are the events that help shape the culture of Ancient Greece.  This is an excellent packet to review major events of Ancient Greece.  Today this is the most famous surviving building of Ancient Greece.  This was when ancient Greece was at its most powerful and influential.  The last era in ancient Greece started with the conquests of Alexander the Great. 
The Persians fought to bring Greece into their empire, while the Greeks fought to keep the Persians out.  While the Greeks were strong enough to take over the Persian Empire, they fell to the Romans and the ancient Greek era ended.  In 431 BC the Peloponnesian War begins - Sparta and her allies vs Athens and her allies.The Peloponnesian War reshaped the Ancient Greek world.  The Ancient Greek civilization begins its decline and the Ancient Romans start to gain power.  Read and analyze the following sources about the evolution of government in ancient Greek city-states.  The Archaic Period came to a close with the Persian Wars, a series of conflicts fought between the ancient Greeks and the nearby Persian Empire.  Ancient Greek history began nearly three thousand years ago. 
While not the first democratic city in Greece, Athens is certainly the most referenced and probably the most successful model.  The wealth that this commerce brought Athens enabled it to become the leading city of Greece, both in politics and culture. 
Due to the economic importance of the two participating cities, the conflict spread considerably, with many further city states joining either side, resulting in much of Greece being at war.  The second Persian invasion of Greece occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.  The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece.  Political unity was not an option, unless imposed from outside (which first occurred when Philip II, king of Macedonia, conquered the city-states of Greece in the mid-4th century BC.)  As time went by, most city-states of Greece did in fact give up a measure of their much-prized independence to form alliances with one another, against joint enemies.  From that time until well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece and Rome was the dominant strand in Western civilization.  Culture in the Cyclades is increasingly influenced by the Mycenaean civilization of mainland Greece. 
Through the mediation of the Romans, therefore, Greek civilization came to be the founding culture of Western civilization.  The Byzantine Empire inherited Classical Greek culture from the Hellenistic world, without Latin intermediation, and the preservation of classical Greek learning in medieval Byzantine tradition further exerted strong influence on the Slavs and later on the Islamic civilization of the Golden Age.  His empire spread Greek culture and Language all over the Mediterranean Sea and into Asia.  From an early stage in their history, therefore, many Greeks looked to the sea for their livelihood. 
Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.  The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I.  The Persian invasion would end at the Battle of Marathon when the Greeks miraculously defeated a much larger army.  At the ensuing Battle of Plataea, the Greek infantry again proved its superiority, inflicting a severe defeat on the Persians and killing Mardonius in the process.  The distinctive Persian art of the medieval period incorporated the plasticity of Greek art and solidity of Mesopotamian. 
The fact that the Greek world was fragmented into hundreds of small city-states, with only a few thousand citizens each, meant that wars, though frequent, were limited the scale.  In contrast to political developments in Mesopotamian city-states, more than two thousand years before, kings early on lost most of their power in Greek city-state, and in many cases vanished altogether.  Every four years all Greek city-states sent their young men and women to compete in the Olympic Games.  The first Olympic Games were held in the Greek city of Olympia. 
Many Greek city-states were situated on the coast, or on a small island.  Many citizens' assembly gained more and more power, however, and in the fifth century BC many states were full-blown democracies(the word "democracy" is based on the Greek word for common people, "demos".)  The scale of Greek warfare increased somewhat in the 6th century BC, when groups of city-sates formed alliances.  The Pythagoreans were another group of early Greek thinkers (6th-5th century BC). 
The Romans had emerged over the past century and expanded their lands. in 146 B.C. the Romans defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Corinth.  In any case, the Roman conquest carried many features of Greek civilization to far-flung parts of the Mediterranean world and Western Europe.  Greek civilization had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire.  Through the Roman Empire, much Greek culture came to Western Europe. 
The League of Corinth, a federation of Greek states, was founded by Philip II to boost support against Persia. 
First trip of Hadrian around the Empire : Gaul, Germany, Noricum, Britain, Tarraconis, Cappadocia, Gallatia, Bythinia, Asia, Greece, Mesia, Dacia and Pannonia.  Its origins were in the land of Greece and the islands of the Aegean Sea, plus the west coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey).  The Second Persian war began when Persia's King Xerxes led an invasion force into Greece.  The historian Thucydides describes the Lelantine War as exceptional, the only war in Greece between the mythical Trojan War and the Persian Wars of the early 5th century BC in which allied cities rather than single ones were involved. 
There it mingled with the more ancient cultures of that region to form a hybrid civilization which scholars label " Hellenistic " civilization.  Keep this helpful timeline in hand to remind yourself of the significant periods of time and essential events that took place throughout this important part of world history. 
Red Figure ware was a major part of Greek culture, and how it presented itself to the world examples of this art form have been found thousands of miles from Greece in almost every direction.  The war between the Greek city-states of Sparta and Athens was all-consuming.  It pulled nearly every Greek city-state into the war as an ally first of one side and then the other.  In the course of the war, the Romans subjugated most of the remaining Greek city-states.  The First Punic War, between Rome and Carthage, largely closed the western Mediterranean to Greek or Hellenistic interference. 
Exekias was a Greek vase painter who worked in the black figure technique in the Keramikios district of Athens during this time period.  It corresponds with the period of the height of democracy, the flowering of Greek tragedy in the hands of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the architectural marvels, like the Parthenon, at Athens.  The Greek Dark Age or Ages' (ca. 1200 BC-800 BC) are terms which have regularly been used to refer to the period of Greek history from the presumed.  Anaximander was one of the earliest Greek thinkers at the start of the Axial Age, the period from approximately 700 BC to 200 BC, during which.  From 510 to 479 BC, it was actively in conflict with the Greek city-states, and for more than two centuries thereafter was a major influence on Greek affairs.  Attalos was the king of Pergamon, a Greek city-state in Asia Minor, who ruled largely as a benevolent tyrant.  Greek mercenaries under command of Cyrus king of Persia win the battle, but Cyrus is killed, rendering their victory irrelevant.  Battle of Marathon - outnumbered 2-1, and Greeks still beat King Darius and Persions.  At the battle of Thermopylae, 300 Spartans and 5000 other Greek hoplites held off an army of half a million Persians and allies for four days.  Judas Maccabee and his sons resolve to rebel against the Antiochid Greeks who ruled the western Persian empire at this time. 
During the Byzantine Period Greek and Roman Empire history were back in geographically Greek hands, again.  Later, Greek history combined with the history of the Roman Empire. 
He promoted Greek culture and ideas both in his own city and throughout the Hellenistic world.  The Persian Wars brought together 175 Greek city-states into a unified confederation to prevent a renewed Persian invasion. 
Macedon's control of northern Greece, and of many city-states in southern Greece, was assured by the end of the war.  During this time the language and culture of Greece spread throughout the world.  Between the palatial urban civilizations of the Mycenaean period and the Dark Age, there may have been environmental disasters in Greece, as well as elsewhere in the Mediterranean world. 
The Persian Revolt, as it is known, was the first time the unified province of ancient Persis, after voluntary submission to the Assyrians and. 
The anarchist Revolutionary Struggle group later claimed responsibility. (AP, 4/10/14)(AP, 4/25/14) 2014 Apr 15, Greek coast guard officials shot dead a man believed to be a migrant smuggler as they tried to intercept him on his speedboat heading towards neighboring Turkey. (Reuters, 4/15/14) 2014 May 2, In Greece some 5,000 farmers' market vendors blocked traffic in central Athens and continued giving away food as part of anti-government protests.  Greek culture then entered unto a "Dark Age" period characterized by the disappearance of writing and a decline in architecture that lasted to about 800BC. (eawc, p.5) 1100-1000BC The first Greek tribes settled on Crete around the 11th century BC. (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A17) c800BC In Greece increased trade and governmental defense fortifications allowed for the emergence of city-states to emerge from tribal communities.  He was jailed in 1975 for life for his part in the 1967-74 dictatorship. (AP, 8/16/10) 2010 Aug 26, Two Greek fighter jets crashed in mid-air during a training exercise south of the island of Crete, killing one of the three crew members and leaving the other two injured. (AP, 8/26/10) 2010 Aug 28, In northern Greece break-ins over the last 24 hours at two fur farms near the city of Kastoria set more than 50,000 minks on the loose.  In 2010 the Greek Supreme Court posthumously acquitted the six executed politicians and soldiers. (AP, 10/21/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1922_in_Greece) 1923 Jul 24, The Treaty of Lausanne, which settled the boundaries of modern Greece and Turkey, was concluded in Switzerland.  The two Greek men, aged 22 and 24, were arrested in central Athens after a parcel bomb addressed to the Mexican embassy in Athens exploded at a mail delivery service. (AP, 11/1/10) 2010 Nov 2, In Greece bombs exploded at the Swiss and Russian embassies in Athens. 
In 2001 David Brewer authored "The Greek War of Independence." (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.A20) 1821 Jun 19, The Ottomans defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Dragasani. (HN, 6/19/98) 1821 Oct 5, Greek rebels captured Tripolitza, the main Turkish fort in the Peloponnesian area of Greece. (HN, 10/5/98) 1821 The Greek hero Athanasios Diakos was run through with a spit and roasted alive over an open fire.  Bulgaria defeated Greek and Serbian troops. (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html) 1913 Jul 1, Serbia and Greece declared war on Bulgaria. (MC, 7/1/02) 1913 Jul 10, Rumania entered the Second Balkan War and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined the general assault on Bulgaria.  From 1942 Greeks celebrated From 1942 Greeks celebrated October 28 as Ohi Day (No Day). (www.ultimatehistoryproject.com/oxi-day.html)(AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98) 1940 Dec 13, Hitler issued preparations for Operation Martita, the German invasion of Greece. (HN, 12/13/98) 1940 The occupying Germans started transporting the 50,000 Jews of Thessaloniki to Auschwitz.  His work included "Zorba the Greek." (HN, 12/2/00) 1887 Feb 18, Nikos Kazantzakis, Greek writer, was born. (MC, 2/18/02) 1888 Feb 13, Georgios Papandreou, Greek prefect of Lesbos, minister, premier, was born. (MC, 2/13/02) 1891 Apr 11, A Jewish tailor's daughter (8) disappeared in Greece.  In 2007 he was still in Canada after some 30 appeals and reviews. (http://tinyurl.com/35olct)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.48)(www.skyjack.co.il/chronology.htm) 1969 John Latsis (1910-2003), Greek shipping magnate, established Petrola, the 1st export-oriented oil refinery in Greece. (SFC, 4/18/03, p.A24) 1970 Apr 13, Greek composer Mikis Theodorakis (b.1925) was allowed to go into exile.  The MV Blida was released on Nov 3 after a bag full of money was parachuted down to the pirates from a plane. (Econ, 2/5/11, p.69)(AFP, 10/12/11)(AP, 11/3/11)(AFP, 11/20/11) 2011 Jan 3, A Greek ministry statement said experts from Greece and the U.S. have found rough axes and other tools, thought to be between 130,000 and 700,000 years, old close to shelters on the south coast of Crete.  The alleged attacker (60) was arrested after being injured by falling from a balcony of the building. (AP, 1/2/15) 2015 Jan 3, Greek police arrested convicted terrorist Christodoulos Xiros, who had failed to return to prison while on a furlough almost a year ago. (AP, 1/3/15) 2015 Jan 4, Forces loyal to Libya's internationally recognized government launched air strikes on the country's biggest steel plant at Misrata.  The driver said his brakes had failed. (AP, 10/9/14) 2014 Oct 15, Concerns that the Greek government could collapse next year, putting its bailout program in danger, caused a massive sell-off in the country's stock and bond markets, with the main stock index down 9.8 percent. (AP, 10/15/14) 2014 Nov 11, Greek police said a man (48) was arrested in Karyes, administrative center of Mount Athos, the 1,000-year-old Greek Orthodox monastic community. 
Public transport was not affected. (AP, 7/9/14) 2014 Jul 11, Greek authorities said at least two people have drowned and about a further 20 are missing after a boat carrying immigrants trying to enter the country illegally sank off the Aegean Sea island of Samos. (AP, 7/11/14) 2014 Jul 16, Greek police arrested one of the country's most wanted men during a shootout in Athens' central tourist district that left four people wounded.  Such a move required a change in the constitution. (Econ, 7/8/06, p.46) 2006 Jul 25, Greek protesters toppled a statue of President Truman and clashed with police during demonstrations against the fighting in Lebanon. (AP, 7/25/06) 2006 Jul 27, Greek authorities said 5 schoolchildren have been charged with killing an 11-year-old boy who disappeared five months ago.  The League continued even after the end of the Greco-Persian War and transformed into a naval empire with Athens as its leader. (eawc, p.11)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.19) 474BC The Etruscans were routed by the Greeks of Syracuse in a sea battle off Cumae near Naples. (NG, 6/1988, p.739) c470/469BC Jun 5, Socrates (d.399BC) was born in Athens.  In 1997 Greek archeologists claimed to have discovered the island cave where he worked. (WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A9)(WUD, 1994, p.492)(USAT, 1/15/97, p.9A)(LSA, Spg/97, p.14)(EEE, p.12) 479BC Aug 27, A combined Greek army stopped the Persians at the battle at Plataea. (V.D. -H.K.p.49)(NG, Aug., 1974, p.174) 478BC Athens led other Greek states in the formation of the Delian League to provide money for a common defense against Persia.  It depicted the battle of the gods of Olympus against the giants. (WSJ, 10/27/07, p.W14) 167BC Rome presented to Athens the island of Delos, whose prosperous slave and commodities market brought large profits. (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7) 160BC-125BC Hipparchus, Greek mathematician and astronomer, often called the father of modern astronomy.  All five people aboard the C-130 transport plane were killed. (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A1)(www.cnn.com/WORLD/9712/20/greece.plane.pm/) 1998 Jan 24, From Turkey it was reported that an estimated 50,000 illegal immigrants move from Turkey to Greece each year across a sparsely populated 80 mile border. (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A8) 1998 Mar 26, A 2-day storm closed the Athens airport and left much of the capital without electricity.  Ilie Kareli (42) was found fatally injured in his cell last week after a severe beating. (AP, 4/1/14) 2014 Apr 4, European Union foreign ministers gathered in Athens for two days of an informal meeting where attention focused on the crisis in Ukraine and the civil war in Syria. (AP, 4/5/14) 2014 Apr 9, Greece announced it was returning to international bond markets for the first time in four years.  Customs and tax office workers were also on strike, while about 350 pensioners demonstrated outside the Finance Ministry against pension cuts and tax increases. (AP, 9/28/11) 2011 Sep 30, In Greece a man (36) wanted for possible ties to the domestic Revolutionary Struggle terror group handed himself to Athens prosecutors and will go on trial next week.  Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments. (AP, 1/6/09) 2009 Jan 12, In Greece 3 gunmen had grabbed Periklis Panagopoulos (74), founder of one of Greece's largest ferry operators, and his driver in the southern Athens suburb of Vouliagmeni.  In 2003 Patroklos Tselentis testified that he drove the getaway motorcycle. (AP, 3/26/03)(http://tinyurl.com/yzu4sj) 1987 Apr 24, In Greece 18 people, including 12 U.S. military personnel, were injured when a roadside bomb exploded in the port of Piraeus the guerrilla group November 17 claimed responsibility.  Makarezos, the junta's chief economic policymaker, served as deputy prime minister and minister for coordination under dictator George Papadopoulos. (AP, 8/6/09) 2009 Aug 23, In Greece a raging fire bore down on Athens' northern suburbs, prompting panicked residents to battle the flames with tree limbs and buckets, and police to order 10,000 people to evacuate one town immediately.  He left a note accusing his fellow students of picking on him. (AP, 4/10/09) 2009 May 1, May Day protesters clashed with riot police in Germany, Turkey and Greece, while thousands angry at the government's responses to the global financial crisis took to the streets in France.  The march was organized by the European Social Forum, which was holding a four-day meeting on the outskirts of Athens. (AP, 5/6/06) 2006 May 20, Lordi, a Finnish metal band with monster masks and apocalyptic lyrics, won the Eurovision contest in Greece. (AP, 5/21/06) 2006 May 23, Warplanes from Greece and Turkey collided over the Aegean Sea island of Karpathos as they shadowed each other.  The fires ignited late on Aug 21 by today they were reported across an area more than 25 miles (40 kilometers) wide. (AP, 8/23/09) 2009 Aug 26, In Greece the fires around Athens were put out or contained to small areas after razing 80 square miles (210 square km) of forest and hillside scrub, an area more than three times the size of Manhattan. 
The 2nd most important sculptor, Myron, is renowned for his statue of the discus thrower. (eawc, p.10) 499BC Athens and Eretria supported an Ionian revolt against Persian rule. (AP, 7/9/05) 496BC Sophocles (d.406BC), the 2nd Greek dramatist after Aeschylus, was born about this time.  Angry youths smashed shop windows, attacked banks and hurled bottles at police in small but violent protests in Spain and Denmark, while cars were set alight outside a consulate in France. (AP, 12/11/08) 2008 Dec 12, Greek youths hurled rocks and Molotov cocktails at riot police in Athens, who responded with stun grenades and tear gas.  Thucydides, who was stricken but recovered, described the plague in Athens (likely an outbreak of typhus fever) in Book 2 of his History of the Peloponnesian War. (NH, 6/97, p.11)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P8) 429BC Pericles (b.490BC), Athenian statesman, died of the plague. (WUD, 1994, p.1071)(NH, 6/97, p.10) 427BC May 21, Plato (d.347BC), Greek philosopher, was born. 
The Independent Greeks won 13 seats. (AFP, 1/25/15)(Reuters, 1/26/15) 2015 Jan 26, Greek left-wing leader Alexis Tsipras was sworn in as the prime minister of a new hardline, anti-bailout government determined to face down international lenders and end nearly five years of tough economic measures. (Reuters, 1/26/15) 2015 Jan 26, Greek singer Demis Roussos (b.1946) died in Athens.  The island has been separated from the mainland for about five million years, so whoever made the tools must have traveled there by sea, a distance of at least 40 miles. (AP, 1/4/11) 2011 Jan 16, Greek authorities said a ship carrying a reported 263 migrants has sunk west of the island of Corfu and 22 passengers are missing.  He had abandoned a future as a monk to fight for Greek independence. (SFEM, 3/14/99, p.28) 1822 Dec 14, The Congress of Verona ended, ignoring the Greek war of independence. (AP, 12/14/02) 1822 There was a massacre of Greeks on the island of Chios. 
Six British and six Greek men, including two bar owners, were also charged in the incident, which took place at Laganas beach. (Reuters, 7/14/08) 2008 Aug 3, In Greece Athanassios Arvanitis (31) beheaded his girlfriend and her dog on the island of Santorini and then escaped in a patrol car.  They contributed letters to the Roman alphabet, religious concepts and artistic talent as well as mythology. (eawc, p.8) c600BC The Greeks established the trading colony of Massalia, later Marseilles, and imported wine to the Celts in exchange for iron, copper, tin, salt and slaves. (NGM, 5/77) 600BC-500BC Greece in the 6th century BC used a writing system, Boustrephedon, that featured alternate lines read in opposite directions.  The Boeotians won the battle but Epaminondas died from a javelin wound. (ON, 9/06, p.3) 360BC Greek philosopher Plato, in his "dialogues" from about this time, said an island he called Atlantis "in a single day and night. disappeared into the depths of the sea."  The remaining represented 13 countries, the largest international participation of any sporting event up to that time. (ON, 8/07, p.5) 1897 The Greeks were defeated by Turkey at Velestino in their war over the independence of Crete. (WSJ, 8/6/98, p.A13) 1898 Mar 23, Georgios Grivas, Greek General, opposition leader on Cyprus, was born. (SS, 3/23/02) 1899 Sir Arthur Evans discovered the center of Minoan civilization on the island of Crete.  In Lysistrata he described how Greek women abstained from sex until their men stopped fighting in the Peloponnesian war. (EEE, p.12)(SFC,11/8/97, p.A10) 447BC Athens under Pericles initiated a reconstruction program that included the construction of the Parthenon on the Acropolis. (WSJ, 2/19/02, p.A22) 447-432 The marble friezes of the Parthenon were carved. (AM, 5/01, p.14) 444BC Ikos of Tarentum won the Olympic Pentathlon.  His music included the film score for Zorba the Greek (1964). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikis_Theodorakis) 1971 Feb 20, Young people protested having to cut their long hair in Athens, Greece. (HN, 2/20/98) 1971 Sep 20, George Seferis (b.1900), Nobel Prize-winning (1963) Greek poet, died.  At least one person was killed. (SFC, 3/27/98, p.A14) 1998 Apr 22, Constantine Karamanlis (Caramanlis), statesman, died at age 91. (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4) 1998 May 9, Archbishop Christodoulos was enthroned in Athens as the new head of the Greek Orthodox Church.  He believed in the transmigration of souls, and is said to have discovered the mathematical ratios in musical harmonics. (V.D. -H.K.p.34) 573BC Nemea, 70 miles from Athens, became the site for the Olympic games. (SFC, 9/25/00, p.A6) c566BC-c468BC Simonides, a Greek poet, was also called Simonides of Ceos.  The hellish slave labor silver mines at Laurium supported Athens. (SFC, 7/14/96, p.T7)(AM, Jul-Aug/99, p.12)(SFEM, 1/30/00, p.10) 434BC The Greek philosopher Anaxagoras suggested that the sun is just a ball of fire about as large as the Peloponnesus, floating in the air about 4,000 miles above the Earth.  The first, last, and only Intercalated Games are held in Athens, as the Greeks plan to hold interim Games between Olympics every four years.  Thermopylae: The Battle That Changed the World." (HN, 8/9/98)(SFEC, 11/29/98, BR p.3)(WSJ, 11/11/06, p.P11) 480 BC Sep 20, Themistocles and his Greek fleet won one of history's first decisive naval victories over Xerxes' Persian force off Salamis.  The Greeks initiated the war when Persia, the strongest power in western Asia, established rule over Greek-speaking cities in Asia Minor. (HFA, '96, p.38)(V.D. -H.K.p.49)(SFC, 7/14/96, p.T7)(eawc, p.10) 490BC Sep 12, Athenian and Plataean Hoplites commanded by General Miltiades drove back a Persian invasion force under General Datis at Marathon. (HN, 9/12/98) 490BC Empedocles (d.430BC), Greek philosopher, was born. 
In 2006 Greek divers raised the wreckage of a Stuka bomber, believed to be one of the lost planes. (AP, 10/6/06) 1943 Sep 24, German forces executed 117 Italian officers on the Greek island of Cephalonia.  Roupa was still at large. (AP, 7/16/14) 2014 Jul 25, Campaigners on the Greek island of Crete launched a seaborne protest against the destruction of Syrian chemical agents in the Mediterranean.  The Baltic Sky set off from Gabes, Tunisia, last month with the explosives and 8,000 detonators and fuses destined for Sudan. (AP, 6/23/03) 2003 Jul 8, Antonis Samarakis (84), Greek writer and children's rights activist, died.  The dictatorship ended in 1974. (AP, 11/25/97)(SFC, 6/28/99, p.A19)(SFC, 11/15/00, p.B6) 1974 Jul 15, Greek troops and the Greek Cypriot National Guard staged a military coup on Cyprus and archbishop-president Makarios fled. 
The clashes with police came at the start of a two-day strike called by unions furious that the new euro28 billion ($40 billion) austerity program will slap taxes on minimum wage earners and other struggling Greeks. (AP, 6/28/11) 2011 Jun 28, Pro-Palestinian activists, who plan to breach Israel's sea blockade of the Gaza Strip, said that they had increased security around their docked flotilla after an alleged act of sabotage on one of the vessels in a Greek port.  They went on to rule major ports at Ashkelon and Ashdod, now cities in Israel, and at Gaza, now part of the Palestinian territory known as the Gaza Strip. (AP, 7/8/11) 1184BC Jun 11, Greeks finally captured Troy. 
It dates to around 340 BC, during the reign of Philip II of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great. (AP, 6/1/06) 340-265 Zeno of Citium, aka Zeno the Stoic, was born in Cyprus. (WUD, 1994, p.1660) 359BC-336BC Philip II ruled the Greek kingdom of Macedonia.  Greek doctors and railway employees walked out, Spanish workers shut down trains and buses, and one man even blocked the Irish parliament with a cement truck to decry the country's enormous bank bailouts. (AP, 9/29/10) 2010 Oct 2, China offered to buy Greek government bonds in a show of support for the country whose debt burden triggered a crisis for the euro zone and required an international bailout.  The gun used in the attack had not been used in previous terrorist attacks. (AP, 11/2/13) 2013 Nov 3, The Greek government backed away from allowing retailers to trade on any Sunday after opposition from small retailers and the Orthodox Church.  The Socialists took 38.1 percent, or 102 seats, a loss of 15 and the party's lowest number of parliament seats in 30 years. (AP, 9/16/07)(AP, 9/17/07) 2007 Oct 17, A Greek-flagged cargo ship carrying coal sank in the northern Greek port of Thessaloniki after colliding with Panama-flagged Dubai Guardian.  His often high-pitched pop serenades won him household recognition in the 1970s and 1980s across Europe and beyond and who sold more than 60 million records. (AP, 1/26/15) 2015 Jan 26, In southeastern Spain a Greek F-16 fighter jet crashed into a hangar at the Los Llanos military base while it was participating in NATO maneuvers.  The Socialists were expected to maintain their grip on Parliament. (SFC, 10/12/98, p.A10) 1998 Dec 24, In Tbilisi, Georgia, gunmen killed Greek diplomat Anastasius Mizitrasos. (SFC, 12/25/98, p.A19) 1999 Jan 8, George Skiadopoulos (25), a Greek seaman, murdered and mutilated his American girlfriend, former model Julie Scully (31) of Mansfield, N.J. Scully's body was found burned and beheaded.  Ataturk had proposed that the Turkish mainland should be Turk (Muslim) and that the islands should be Greek (Christian). (WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W11) 1936 A military government took power. (SFC, 4/23/98, p.B4) 1838 Gustav Schwab, German historian, authored his compendium "Die Sagen des Klassischen Altertums" (Stories from Classical Antiquity).  Knossos and the Prophets of Modernism." (WSJ, 6/26/98, p.W9)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.AW9)(Econ, 5/16/09, p.91) 1900 Mar 13, George Seferis (d.1991), Greek poet, was born. (HN, 3/13/01) 1900 Greeks from the island of Kefalonia began to migrate to Manchuria after 1900 and flourished in the liquor and property business.  He became a shipping magnate worth $500 million when he died in 1975. (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49) 1933 Apr 29, Constantine Cavafy (b.1863), Greek poet, died in Alexandria, Egypt.  More than 50 out of 1,620 migrants held at the detention center of Amygdaleza, near Athens, were arrested over the clashes. (Reuters, 8/11/13) 2013 Aug 13, Greek student Thanassis Kanaoutis (19) died after an argument with a bus ticket inspector in Athens.  His works were all in dialogue form and include: the "Apology," the "Symposium," the "Phaedo," the "Phaedrus," and the "Republic." (EEE, p.12)(SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2) 342BC Menander (c.
291), Greek playwright, was born about this time in Athens.  It was known as the "New York Atlantis". (HC, Internet, 3/3/98)(SC, 3/3/02) 1895 Feb, Georgios Averoff, a Greek philanthropist, agreed to pay for the rebuilding of the Panathenaic stadium in Athens for the upcoming revival of the Olympics. (ON, 8/07, p.5) 1896 Mar 25, The 1st modern Olympic Games officially opened in Athens.  He wrote a letter to the king of Ahhiyawa (thought to be Mycenaean Greeks) and mentioned that Wilusa was once a bone of contention. (Arch, 5/04, p.40) 1250BC Some scholars believe that the Mycenaeans waged a successful war with the Trojans of western Asia Minor. (eawc, p.5) 1250-1000BC Troy VIIa, another discernible era on the site of the Trojan War. 
RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(21 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)
REMEMBERING TO FORGET: THE BATTLE OF OENOE
The battle of Oenoe is a notoriously intractable problem for the history of the Pentecontaetia. Pausanias is our only source. He identifies a painting of the Athenians and Spartans on the verge of combat in the Stoa Poikile as a depiction of a battle in Argive Oenoe (1.15.1). Later, he cites the same battle as the occasion for an Argive statue group at Delphi, but here acknowledges the participation of the Argives as well (10.10.4). Both monuments were erected on a magnificent scale in the mid-fifth century (Bommelaer, Shear, and Camp), which suggests that Oenoe was a major engagement fought during the Athenian-Argive alliance against Sparta (462/1-451 B.C.). The problem is that no other source mentions the battle. How could an event be significant enough to warrant such commemoration and yet fail to be attested until the second century A.D.? Solutions turn on what is thought the most reliable piece of evidence, the name Oenoe. Some simply insert the battle into a broadly Thucydidean timeline, but qualify that it must have been a small affair, quickly celebrated and then forgotten (Meiggs, Badian, Bollansée, and Develin). Others offer more creative solutions with the result that almost any military exercise associated with any town called Oenoe (or even the nymph of the same name) has been adduced as the event celebrated in one or both monuments (Jeffery, Francis and Vickers, Taylor, Sommerstein, Stansbury-O’Donnell, and Castriota). All preserve the name by ignoring other facts gleaned from Pausanias or the archaeological record. No answer has proven satisfactory.
I argue that too much faith has been placed in the name Oenoe. Most assume that it appeared on the monuments themselves. This was certainly not the case for the Argive statue group. Pausanias specifically cites “the Argives” as his source, which points to an oral tradition, not an inscription. Indeed, the inscription survives and it reads simply “The Argives dedicated it to Apollo” (FD III 1.90). There is no lacuna, and similarly terse inscriptions are not uncommon at Delphi (see the Samian Apollo [FD III 4.455] or the Chian Altar [FD III 3.212]). In the case of the Stoa Poikile, two classical references strongly imply that no labels appeared on the paintings contained within ([Dem] 59.94 and Aeschin. 3.186). The name is ultimately a product of oral tradition. It may be correct nonetheless, but since over a century of debate fixated on the name has led nowhere, I suggest we abandon it and find a known battle that fits the other clues – a major mid-fifth-century engagement in which the Spartans, Argives, and Athenians took part. The battle of Tanagra (458/7 B.C.) immediately suggests itself.
Scholars have ignored this possibility and understandably so, since Thucydides is quite clear that the Athenians and Argives lost this battle (1.107-108 see also Hdt. 9.35.2). But monuments are products of memory, not history. Plato’s Menexenus, aping the popular epitaphioi logoi, characterizes the battle as a draw (242a-b see also Diod. 11.80.6 and Justin 3.6.8-9) Aristodemus even calls it an Athenian victory (FGrHist 104 F1.12). I am not suggesting Thucydides is wrong, merely that the Athenians and Argives may not have conceded their defeat at the time. The results of battles were often disputed, and monuments were the weapons of choice in such disputes. I maintain that our commemorations represented Athenian and Argive counterclaims to the victory at Tanagra. By the imperial period, however, Thucydides’ sober assessment had prevailed. Plutarch (Cim. 17.4-8 and Per. 10.1-3) and, more importantly, Pausanias himself (3.11.8 and 5.10.4) identify the battle as a Spartan victory. The inherent contradiction of a victory monument for a recognized defeat made our commemorations particularly prone to invention. Over time a less objectionable (albeit less famous) event was substituted, the battle of Oenoe. My conclusions suggest a simple solution to this vexed historical problem and provide a vantage point from which to consider the dynamic interaction between history and memory.
The Persian Wars
Darius conquers Miletus shortly after the foundation of democracy.
Histiaeus and Aristagoras, who are leading Miletians, rebel against Persian rule.
Histiaeus is taken to Susa by the Persians, so he sends a message to Aristagoras by tattooing a messenger's head and letting his hair grow out.
He told the messenger to tell Aristagoras to shave the messenger's head.
The revolt begins in 499 bc and Athens (Ionian) agrees to help and sends 20 ships.
Sparta (Dorian) refuses to help.
The revolt ends in disaster by 494 bc the Persians end the revolt.
This gives the Persians an excuse to invade Greece because of Athens' involvement.
Athens Improves Their Navy
The Laurion Silver Mines have been producing silver and lead since the early Bronze Age.
The Athenians find a huge vein of silver, making Athens extremely wealthy.
The Athenians use the money to create a navy to prepare for another Persian invasion.
They create about 20 triremes every year.
Triremes have three levels of rowers, making them the fastest boat at that time.
This huge navy leads directly to the Athenian Empire.
Battle at Marathon
The Persian army is the largest army the world has seen up to this point with 25,000 troops in 600 ships,
The Greek forces are only 10,000 troops (9,000 Athenians + 1,000 others). They fight without the Spartans.
Miltiades is the leader of the Athenian army.
The Persians are annihilated, but the remaining fleet begins to sail towards Athens.
Persian War Part I
Darius I decides to invade Greece because the Athenians had sent 20 ships to help out the Ionian rebellion.
In 492 bc the Persians come across in Thrace and Macedonia to test the waters.
The actual invasion occurs in 490 bc.
The Persians are the most feared in the ancient world.
They have an elite bodyguard called the Immortals, who are about two-hundred in number.
The Persians sail across and lose, but the Garrisons remain on the islands.
The Greeks begin ostracism as a means to prevent another invasion.
The Greeks ostracize someone every year from 488 bc to the invasion.
Battle at Salamis
The Athenians know they can not defend Athens.
The women, children, and elderly are evacuated to the island The Persians sack Athens and burn it to the ground.
By bringing the Persians down to Athens, the Greeks force the Persians to commit to their navy.
The Greeks use the same narrow path tactics from Thermopylae at Salamis, but on water with their navy.
Soldiers stand on top of triremes to break the oars of the Persian triremes.
They also attach battering rams in the front of the triremes to sink the Persian boats.
The Greeks lose at Thermopylae, but win at Salamis.
Battle at Thermopylae
There are 500,000 troops and non-combatants of the Persian forces.
There are 6,000-7,000 troops of the Greek Forces, including Leonidas and his 300 Spartans.
The Greeks did not expect to win this battle, they are trying to stall the Persians so that Greek cities have more time to prepare and evacuate.
This site is chosen because the mountains closed in on both sides.
The pass would only let through ten men at a time, so the fighting would be ten against ten despite the size of their armies.
The Greeks are betrayed byPhocian, who shows the Persians a secret path around the Spartans.
All the Spartans, including Leonidas, are killed.
Persian War Part II
The Persian navy follows the route of their land troops around the Aegean sea, supporting the army as they go.
The Persians need to cross the Hellespont, the divide between Asia and Europe.
They lash together the boats and create a bridge for the army.
A storm sinks about half of the Persian boats.
Battle at Plataea
The Persians think that their numbers will overwhelm the Greeks, but the Greeks use strategy to make the Persian's numbers insignificant and the Persians lose.
The Persians leave Greece, but the Greeks know that the Persians intend to come back.
To view a larger version of the image please click the image to open it in a new window.
In the period of the Pentecontaetia and the Peloponnesian War the main historian that needs to be examined is Thucydides. Through Thucydides we have detailed account of most of the Peloponnesian war (Thucydides account of the Peloponnesian War cuts off mid sentence near the end of the war), and an abbreviated account of the period comprising of the Pentecontaetia. The Pentecontaetia comprises of the fifty years between the end of the Persian Wars and the start of the Peloponnesian War. After the final victory of the Greeks in the Persian Wars the Hellenic League that had composed of all the Greek states did not immediately disband. Instead, under the guidance of Athens and the leadership of Sparta it sought to take revenge of the Greek states that had fought on the side of the Persians. Soon though, other Greeks states asked Athens to take over the league, when Athens accepted a new league was constituted, the Delian League. This league would change over time and eventually become what can only be called the Athenian Empire. Each state in the league agreed to contribute money in order to build ships to protect the interests of the league. Athens and Sparta began to become openly hostile to each other and in 460 BCE, the Spartans and Athenians went to war against each other in what is called the First Peloponnesian War. This war only lasted until 445 BCE, and the war solved very little of what was becoming a power struggle in Greece between Athens and Sparta.
In 450 BCE a formal peace was declared between the Delian League and the Persian Empire in a peace agreement known as the Peace of Callias. The peace of Callias removed the need for the Delian League, and many of its members began to balk at its continued existence. The Athenians, who had agreed to a thirty-year peace with the Peloponnesian states, used this period to redesign the league to suit their purposes and quell dissent. The broker of the Peace of Callias, Pericles proposed rebuilding the temples in Athens that had been destroyed during the Second Persian War. The focus of Pericles building program was on the acropolis. The crowning jewel in Pericles plan to build a complex of temples on the acropolis was the Parthenon. In 447 BCE work on the Parthenon began, it was not completed until 432 BCE. There was a spirit of humanism and rationalism that was incorporated into the Periclian building program, but these ideas of humanism and rationalism found other outlets in Athens, particularly in philosophy.
As the Athenian Empire developed and the fleet that brought Athens its great wealth through trade grew, the importance of the men of the lower classes, those who were rowers on the great triremes grew. Contrary to popular belief, slaves were not used as rowers on triremes as coordination was necessary for success. One discontented rower could disrupt a complex maneuver in the middle of a sea battle, spelling death for all those aboard. For that reason it was imperative that the rowers on board the trireme be content. During wartime Athens maintained a fleet of 100 ships, each manned by 200 men. It is important to note that in the Ancient Greek world periods of peace were rare, Athens was no exception to this and was almost constantly at war. On top of this, another 200 trireme were kept in reserve, with often more than 100 being commissioned. The role that these common citizens played in the defense of their city made their say important. This is reflected by the growing influence of the lower classes in the assembly during this period.
To view a larger version of the image please click the image to open it in a new window.
While Athens was enriching itself with the support of its allies, other prominent Greek states, particularly Sparta and Corinth began to feel threatened by Athens growing imperial power. Event though the scene was largely set for war, war was slow to come about. In explaining the origins of the war Thucydides tries to argue that it was Athens abuse of power that brought the Greek states to war, however most modern historians feel that this is a rather simplistic explanation. Modern historians place more importance on economic factors. There was no single spark that started the war, but rather a series of minor military clashes in 431 BCE between Athens and the small city of Plataea. In 431 BCE, the Thebans tried to seize the city claiming that it was in their sphere of influence. The Plataeans held out against the Thebans initial attack but required help from Athens to maintain their defenses. The Athenians sent a small contingent of men to Plataea to reinforce the city. This brought Sparta into the war as Sparta was an ally of Thebes. Thucydides notes that enthusiasm for a large war was high all throughout Greece. In Athens Pericles, who some might argue was responsible for creating the situation for war in order to gain glory for himself, wanted Athens to rely entirely on her sea power to prevail against Sparta. Pericles strategy called for the Athenians to abandon all their agricultural territory outside of the Long Wall between Athens and the port of Piraeus. The city would then be supplied via the sea through Athens powerful navy. This strategy was smart in that it would deny the Spartans the opportunity to win the land battle they would need to win the war, however it failed to take one thing into account, plague.
In the summer of 430 BCE the ships supplying Athens with grain brought something unexpected, plague. With all the Athenians crowed together in the city the plague spread like wildfire. It is estimate the plague robbed Athens of a third of its population. Thucydides, oddly, gives us a rather good account of the plague in Athens. This is strange, as no author to this point in history had ever attempted to describe the ravages of plague in such a scientific manner. Despite the incredibly description of the plague that Thucydides provides, modern scholars have been unable to agree on what the plague is. The plague robbed Athens of its manpower, wealth and even its political leadership. Pericles, perhaps Athens greatest leader would succumb to the ravages of the plague in 429 BCE. With the loss of Pericles, Athens lost perhaps the only leader capable of weathering and successfully winning the Peloponnesian War. With Pericles death the new leaders that assumed control via the assembly simple pandered to the whims of the people. Thus Athens began to see the dark side of democracy through demagogues.
In 421 BCE, the deaths of some of the more infamous demagogues allowed Athens to conclude peace with Sparta for a set period of time. However, during the peace both sides conducted activities that were in direct defiance of the peace. At the beginning of the war, Pericles had warned the Athenians not to attempt to expand Athens holdings, as new territory might be too much to handle during a period of warfare. Segesta, a small city and ally of Athens in Sicily, asked for Athenian help against their neighbour Syracuse. Athens only decided to listen to Segesta and send support, because gaining control over Syracuse would given Athens access to a large grain producing region. When the expedition sent by Athens arrived in Syracuse they attempted to siege the city in 414 BCE. On September 3rd the Athenians lost the battle for the harbour at Syracuse and on September 9th they suffered their final defeat at sea and were forced to retreat by land. The Syracusans captured the retreating army and slaughtered both generals in charge. The Sicilian Expedition was a colossal failure for Athens as Athens lost both ships and men in a pointless expedition against a power that was not even involved in the Peloponnesian War. The only the thing that the Sicilian Expedition managed to do was bring Syracuse into the war on the side of the Spartans.
In 411 BCE Athens was able to win a critical battle for control of the Hellespont against the Spartans at Cyzicus. The victory was so one sided that the Spartans actually offered the Athenians peace terms after the battle, the Athenians under the influence of the demagogues refused and opted to continue the war. Ironically, at this point in the conflict, both the Spartans and the Athenians, so desperate for money were actually receiving funds from the Persians. After the battle of Cyzicus Thucydides history breaks off mid sentence. This is unfortunate at the other sources in the period are not nearly as exceptional as Thucydides and their accounts are largely one sided. The Athenians were to have one more victory before their final defeat. At Arginusae the Athenians were able to defeat the Spartans in a naval battle, however a storm prevented the Athenian commander from retrieving the troops that have fallen overboard during the battle. The generals who won the battle expected to come home to Athens and bask in the glory of their victory however, upon arriving home they were condemned for failing to pick up the Athenians that had fallen overboard. The generals were tried on mass, contrary to Athenian law, and executed before the public. Athens was nearing the end.
The Athenians final defeat in the Peloponnesian war would come almost entirely from neglect and internal dissention. In 405 BCE, the Athenians met the Spartans under their commander Lysander at Aegospotmai. Of the 180 Athenian ships engaged in the battle, only 20 survived. With nothing now to stand in the way of a naval blockade and all out siege of Athens Lysander began to put pressure on the cities food supply. The Athenians held out for eight months but were eventually force to capitulate in 405 BCE. The terms of surrender forced upon the Athenians were not as devastating as some of the Greek states had demanded. Thebes had wanted to the entire city torn down, brick by brick. Contributing to the light punishment that Athens received was the fact that immediately after her defeat, all the over Greek city-states began to view each other suspiciously. The Athenians were necessary for the balance of power in Greece, so instead of being destroyed they were made allies of Sparta and force to limit their fleet to 12 ships.
In the century that followed the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, Thebes and Athens would contest with each other for power in Greece. Though democracy had ended in Athens during the Peloponnesian War it would be restored shortly after the end of the war. Although Athens recovered from the Peloponnesian War it would never have the power it had enjoyed at the start of the Peloponnesian War again. As the three major city-states in Greece squabbled for power a new power began to emerge in north that would bring an end to the era of the autonomous polis.
Rise and Fall Heaven&trade Copyright © 2005 HeavenGames&trade LLC. All Rights Reserved.
Please obtain written permission from HeavenGames if you wish to use our site's content and graphics on other sites or publications. Rise and Fall: Civilizations at War® is a game by Midway. Rise and Fall® and Rise and Fall: Civilizations at War® are registered trademarks owned by Midway Home Entertainment, Inc.
Plague of war: Athens, Sparta, and the struggle for ancient Greece
Thucydides’ meditation on the Peloponnesian War and his innovative appeal to human nature to explain the ever-present condition of wars and conflicts has, since antiquity, mesmerized students and scholars of history alike. The book under review narrates these defining years in Western civilization described by Thucydides and is part of the series “Ancient Warfare and Civilization” which aims to explore the decisive events of the ancient world. The author, Jennifer T. Roberts, has previously published widely on Greek history, and delivers in this study a tour de force through a century and a half, taking the reader from the Persian Wars to the Battle of Mantinea, allocating most of the chapters to treating the bitter struggle between Athens and Sparta in the last quarter of the fifth century. The question is whether we really need a new interpretation of a war so widely summarized and analyzed. The answer is a rather surprising yes.
The book consists of 21 chapters (including an introduction and epilogue), a timeline, a note on sources, a glossary, an index, 11 maps, 15 illustrations and a “cast of characters”. After a personal preface in which Roberts touches on both her parents’ participation in the Second World War and the modern relevance of the Peloponnesian War, she moves on to an introductory chapter where she presents Thucydides’ thesis on the inevitability of the war, i.e. the so-called ‘Thucydidean trap’, to which she will keep returning throughout the narrative. In chapters 1 and 2, Roberts situates the Peloponnesian War in its deeper historical, political and social context and quite cleverly uses Aristagoras’ request to the Greek mainland during the Ionian Revolt to introduce a conservative militaristic Sparta and a democratic naval Athens. By the end of the second chapter, we have journeyed through the Persian Wars, the Delian League and the Athenian Empire.
Chapter 3 discusses the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, beginning with Thucydides’ well-known statement that Athenian power and Spartan fear was the real cause. This is followed by a summary of the immediate causes, i.e. the Athenian involvement with Epidamnus, Corcyra, Potidaea and Corinth. Chapters 4 to 16 cover the actual war from 431 to 404. Roberts focuses on informed battle narratives and the tactical and strategical decisions, and occasionally brings in sections on cultural, philosophical and literary developments to supplement Thucydides. Especially noteworthy is Roberts’ treatment of the catastrophic Athenian expedition to Sicily, which stands out as one of the most intriguing and exciting discussions of the book. Over the course of two chapters, by closely following the superb narrative of Thucydides, Roberts shows how Athenian hubris started with hope and optimism but ended with sorrow and regret.
The expedition was the beginning of the end for Athens, which quickly found its democracy temporally overthrown by oligarchs, and we would then expect a narrative ending with the Athenian disaster at Aegospotami and the capitulation in 404. However, Roberts instead uses the final three chapters to describe the continuous conflicts between the Greeks down to the emergence of Philip II. Roberts shows that Sparta preferred to be feared rather than loved and that this approach created a new power in Boeotia that was to be the immediate cause of Sparta’s downfall. In the epilogue, Roberts concludes that these repeated armed conflicts created no winners, only losers, thus following the ending remark of Xenophon in Hellenica who found the untenable situation in 362 confusing and uncertain.
For several reasons, this book is a great read. First, Roberts alludes to the Thucydidean trap, i.e. that a rising power must clash with an established one, but argues that we should abandon any concept of determinism and instead stress the importance of chance, miscalculations and willful and uncontrollable allies (neither Sparta nor Athens wanted a war) as important factors that made the war fairly avoidable.
Second, Roberts argues that we should prolong the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Leuctra, thus regarding the years 431-371 as one long coherent military struggle that would eventually cause the downfall of not only Sparta but the entire Greek world. By not awarding the victory to Sparta and by including the Corinthian War, the King’s Peace, the Second Athenian Confederacy, the Rise of Thebes, and the battles of Leuctra and Mantinea in the same historical framework, Roberts argues that 404 was just a point in a continuum and that the Peloponnesian War in the same vein as the Second World War and the Cold War only led to further conflicts. Athens was therefore never really defeated, and Sparta was never wholly triumphant. Rather, it was, according to Roberts, the latter’s aggression in the aftermath of 404 that seriously weakened the Greeks and made it possible for Philip II to succeed at Chaeronea in 338.
Roberts’ alternate approach reminds us not to blindly follow Thucydides’ periodization, and by including thePentecontaetia and the 33 years after the Peloponnesian War, Roberts makes it easier for the reader to rethink the entire historical context and better judge the causes and consequences of the war. Nonetheless, most readers will still see the period from Archidamus’ annual invasions to the destruction of Athens’ long walls as a clearly defined and rounded military conflict, which makes it extremely important for Roberts to be even more precise on the specific rewards of this new periodization of the war. For example, if it is possible to rethink a well-established periodization set by Thucydides and Xenophon, why not push the narrative to 362 or 338? Also, even Roberts herself is not able to follow her approach consistently. She uses 14 chapters on the years 431-404 but only two chapters (18 and 19) on the subsequent years down to 371. If all the years belong to the same framework, as Roberts argues, one would also expect them to be equally prioritized. This inconsistency can also be seen on the final pages, where both Leuctra (p. 361: ‘the Peloponnesian War seemed, at last, to have ended’) and Cnidus (p. 367: ‘only now did the Peloponnesian War come to an end’) are considered the true end of the war and it is concluded that ‘the wars of the fourth century grew out of the Peloponnesian War’ (p. 368). Despite these rather mixed messages, Roberts is still to be applauded for spinning a well-known narrative in a new direction.
Third, Roberts manages to successfully interweave cultural events and milestones into the narrative as the story progresses. This includes, for example, the merits of Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, the Sophists, Plato and Aristotle, which are often placed in the end of a chapter to show how the war was reflected in contemporary tragedies, comedies or philosophical treatises (see e.g. pp. 297-319, where an entire chapter is devoted to the pre-Socratics, political thinking and the trial of Socrates, or pp. 346-354, on the schools of Isocrates, Plato and Aristotle). This approach ensures that the reader never gets tired of the bloodshed, as it slows down the narrative and it adds something more to the military narrative of Thucydides. One particular pleasure is how Roberts uses the plays of Aristophanes such as Peace (see pp. 157-9), Frogs (pp. 180-83) and Lysistrata (pp. 232-35) as a live commentary on the historical and political development of Athens while the chronological progressive military narrative proceeds.
No review is complete without some remarks on the less satisfactory elements. Roberts prefers in many chapters to paraphrase Thucydides extremely closely (see e.g. the affair at Pylos, pp. 121-128) and in such cases the student would be more rewarded by reading the primary sources directly. Her prioritization comes also at the expense of in-depth analysis of issues and problems related to the events and of deeper discussions of source-critical and historiographical issues, particularly those sources that form our basis after 411, i.e. Xenophon and Diodorus Siculus. In Roberts’ defense, there is an introductory note on the sources and she does include wider discussions of certain events, e.g. on the cause of the Athenian failure at Sicily (pp. 218-19) and the reasons why Sparta refused to destroy of the city of Athens in 404 (pp. 286-7). However, I would have preferred to have running comments on these issues placed in the text or in footnotes throughout the narrative, as seen, for example, in the way Roberts uses 16 lines in a footnote on the historiographical issues related to the number of Mytilenean deaths during their revolt in 428-7 (p. 107 n. 16).
To conclude, Roberts has written a clear and straightforward account of those formative events that created Greek supremacy but also crippled and ruined the Greek world. The chapters are clear, condensed and written with an engaging flow from start to finish. The way Roberts manages to spin the so-called ‘Thucydidean trap’ in her own favor, the prolongation of the Peloponnesian War to 371 to underline that war has no winners but only losers, and the interweaving of cultural landmarks to create an even broader framework, are but a few reasons why this book is recommendable. This book is for lay readers, students and academics seeking a tightly written account of the defining years of Greek history. The way the chapters are structured also means the book could be relevant in courses on Greek history, functioning as a textbook along with primary sources. Roberts is careful not to overwhelm the reader with too much information and begins each chapter with a brief synopsis indicating the essential events that will be covered. This helps the reader to navigate the numerous Greek names, city states and battles throughout but also underlines that the book may place itself between several types of readers: some lay readers will perhaps find it too comprehensive, some novices will likely need more historiographical analysis and experienced historians will have heard it all before. However, those seeking an enjoyable narrative based on Thucydides’ masterpiece will not be disappointed.
Timeline of the Pentecontaetia (480)
479—Rebuilding of Athens: Although the Greeks were victorious in the Persian War, many Greeks believed that the Persians would retaliate. This led Athens to rebuild its long walls that were razed by the Persian Army during the occupation of Attica in 480.
478𠅏ormation of the Delian League: Athens and other city states form a coalition against Persia.
477—The Conquest of Eion: Cimon, the son of Miltiades of Marathon fame, led Athens to numerous victorious campaigns and war profits. In 477, he led an army against Persian-occupied Eion in northern Greece. Athens was able to benefit from this invasion since the region was rich in timber, which was critical to building Athens&apos burgeoning naval fleet.
476—The Conquest of Scyros: The invasions continued with success on a par with Cimon&aposs prior campaigns. In 476, Athens fought against the pirates of Scyros, as the Delian League wanted to reduce piracy around the region and capture the important materials for itself.
469—Operation in Asia Minor and the Battle of Eurymedon: From the beginning of 469 to 466, the Delian league led an army to Asia Minor against Persia. Cimon persuaded Greek settlements on the Carian and Lycian coast to rebel against Persia. This led the Persian army to mobilize a force to fight Cimon in the Battle of Eurymedon in Pamphylia. Cimon was able to defeat the Persian army swiftly and the war profits were used to finance Athens&apos city walls.
465—Operations in Northern Greece: Athens&apos powers and desire for expansion grow. In 465, after cleruchizing the Chersonese, they tried to gain control of Thasos. Thucydides wrote that Sparta contemplated an invasion of Attica in order to help free Thasos. However, in the aftermath of a catastrophic earthquake and subsequent helot uprising in Sparta, no attack—if indeed such was projected—was launched.
461—The Debate in Athens over Helping Sparta: With a legion of Helots rebelling against Sparta, Athens offered Sparta their help by sending a force of 4,000 Hoplites to suppress the rebels. According to Thucydides, Sparta decided to dismiss Cimon&aposs Athenian Army, because they felt that Athens would convince the Helots on Ithome to form a coalition and besiege Sparta. Spartans did not feel comfortable with such a large Athenian force inside their city. If the Athenians were to turn their backs on Sparta, the city would not be able to protect itself. At this point, Sparta acknowledged that Athens might be getting too powerful. According to Thucydides, the Athenians were deeply offended by their removal from Ithome. They denounced their original treaty with Sparta made during the Greco-Persian Wars, then proceeded to make an alliance with Argos, a major enemy of the Spartans.
460𠅊thens&apos Clash with Corinth over Megara: Megarians joined the Delian League due to a war between Megara and Corinth. This angered the Corinthians. Even using Athens&apos weakest soldiers, being the old and young men who were left behind in the city, they were able to win the war against Corinth with ease.
460—The Athenian Expedition to Egypt: Athens led a coalition with the Egyptians to rebel against Persia. However, their six-year expedition did not lead to much success against Persia, as 100 Athenian ships were destroyed in the Delta region.
458—The Long Walls: The construction of the long walls gave Athens a major military advantage by forming a barrier around the city-state and its harbors, which allowed their ships to access waterways without threat from outside forces. Two walls were constructed from the city to the sea, one to Phaleron and the other to Piraeus. Athens relied on these long walls to protect itself from invasion, while sending off its superior vessels to bombard opponents&apos cities.
458—The Battle of Tanagra: According to Thucydides, the Spartans, motivated by ethnic solidarity, sent out 1500 Hoplites and an additional 10,000 from their allies&apos forces to suppress the Phocians&apos army invading Doris. The Spartans were victorious, but they found themselves stuck in this foreign land. Athens, suspecting a plot by the Spartans to overthrow the democracy and to prevent the building of the Long Walls, then attacked the Spartans at Tanagra in Boeotia with a force of 14,000. The Spartans were victorious in this battle.
457—The Battle of Oenophyta: After the Spartans returned home from Tanagra, the Athenians conquered Boetia and Phocis after a battle at Oenophyta. They then proceeded to tear down Tanagra&aposs fortifications.
450—The Peace of Callias𠅊lthough this peace treaty is subject to scholarly debate, allegedly Athens and Persia agreed to a ceasefire. 
447𠅊thens&apos forces were defeated at Coronea, causing the Athenian army to flee Boeotia.
446—The Peloponnesian Invasion of Attica: Athens continued their indirect war with Sparta by attempting to gain control of Delphi. City-states such as Megara and Euboea began to rebel against Athens and the Delian League when the Spartan Army invaded Athenian territory.
445—The Thirty-Year Peace Between Athens and Sparta: After losing Attica, Boeotia and Megara, Athens agreed to a thirty-year peace in return for all the conquered areas in the Peloponnesian region. From this point on, all future conflicts between Athens and Sparta were resolved under arbitration.
447𠅊thenian Colonization and the Colony of Brea: With the 30-year peace treaty, Athens was able to concentrate attention towards growth rather than war. From 447, the Delian League was able to influence city-states near the Mediterranean to join and pay tribute (phoro). This helped the region because the tributes paid by each and every city-state were reduced with the increasing number of members joining the league.
441—The Samian Revolt: Athens decided to besiege Samos after their revolt in 441. However, Persia decided to take the opportunity to support Samos even though they have signed the Peace of Callias with Athens. Athens would eventually spend 1200 talents to fund the war through the Delian League&aposs treasury. Some scholars believed that Sparta might have aided Samos as well, but decided to pull out, having signed the Thirty-year peace treaty.
437—The Foundation of Amphipolis: With vast resources, especially timber for ship building, Athens founded the city of Amphipolis on the Strymon River. Amphipolis was immensely important to Athens since it controlled many trading routes.
432—The Potidaean Affair: Athens was threatened by the possibility of a revolt at Potidaea, plotted by Corinth and Macedon. After fighting in Macedon, which ended when the two countries came to terms with each other, Athens came to Potidaea. They had previously demanded that Potidaea tear down their long walls and banish Corinth ambassadors. However, by the time Athens reached Potidaea, the residents were in full revolt and prepared to fight Athens with support from the Corinthian army. The Corinthians was also able to influence the Spartans to join the cause, since Sparta didn&apost want to lose such an affluent ally. The fighting concluded with an Athenian victory.
432—The Megarian Decree: With Sparta&aposs aid, Megara urged Athens to drop their decree against them since it was hurting their economy they were forbidden to use Athens&apos markets and harbors. Athens claimed that Megarians insulted them by trespassing on land sacred to Demeter and murdering an Athenian ambassador. However, most scholars believe [ citation needed ] it was an act of vengeance when Megara revolted during the early parts of the Pentecontaetia.
432—Peloponnesian War—This marked the end of the Pentecontaetia, as Athens and Sparta engaged in all-out war, which eventually led to the demise of the Athenian Empire.
Democracy in Athens during the Pentecontaetia
After the exile of Cimon in Athens, his rivals Ephialtes and Pericles implemented democratic social reforms. In 462, Ephialtes challenged the Areopagus, claiming that they were abusing their powers. Part of the reform was to introduce "graphe paranomon" or public protest against illegal decrees. Any citizen would have the right to challenge a previous degree instilled by the Areopagus and claim it as invalid. The assembly would have to conduct a "dokimasia" or examination of state officials before they enter office. Opportunities for citizens to join the office were increased tremendously when 500 members were added. Transferring the powers of the Areopagus to all Athenian citizens enabled a more democratic society.
These democratic ideals are reflected in the use of personal names without a Patronymic on inscriptions of casualty lists from around this time, such as those of the tribe Erechtheis dated to 460/459BC  and the Argive dead at the Battle of Tanagra (457 BC).  Without the Patronymic or demotic it would have been impossible to identify the particular individual being referred to when multiplicity of the same name occurred, thus both reducing the impact of the long list and ensuring that individuals are deprived of their social context. 
After Ephialtes death, his younger partner Pericles continued with reforms, transforming Athens into the most democratic city-state of Ancient Greece. During 450, he implemented a state salary of two obols per day for jurors to increase public participation from citizens. However, this system caused an outrage from the elites, claiming that the poor were uneducated and incapable of governing.
Increasing Tensions Leading to War
Thucydides offers us a unique perspective to view the Peloponnesian War since he actually took part in the conflict. This first-hand experience allows a look into the mind of a person at the center of the ordeal. The conflict between Athens and Sparta is in Thucydides’ eyes an inevitable confrontation of the two major powers. The beginning of this tension begins during the incipient stages of the Athenian empire following the defeat of Persia during a period called the “pentekontaetia”. The pentekontaetia began in 479 and ended with the outbreak of war. With great confidence in their military abilities, perhaps a bit of instilled machoism, and the need for an anti-Persian alliance, Athens begins recruiting various Greek city-states into an alliance called the Delian League. The growth of Athenian power through the Delian League is centered on a growing navy, the rebuilding of the walls that protect the city from land-based attackers, and an aggressive push to extend their influence which included a few skirmishes with other powers. Thucydides writes about how this period of growth was an inevitable cause of war, “Their supremacy grew during the interval between the present war and the Persian wars, through their military and political actions recounted below against the barbarians, against their own allies in revolt, and against the Peloponnesians whom they encountered on various occasions.” (1.97 )
Athenian naval supremacy was a great fear of Sparta and her allies. While the Spartans combat prowess was unmatched on land, when it came to the sea Athens was the clear victor. This split seemed to have already been accepted by the Spartans many years earlier, however the aggressiveness and effectiveness of Athenian naval warfare had yet to be fully realized. According to Thucydides following the defeat of Persia, Athens begins to reconstruct the long walls which connected the main city of Athens to the port of Piraeus around 478. “Spartan feeling was at that time very friendly towards Athens on account of the patriotism which she had displayed in the struggle with Mede. Still the defeat of their wishes could not but cause them secret annoyance.” (1.92 ) The Spartan annoyance stems partly from the long walls being a major deterrent to land based, non-siege tactics which the Spartans were particularly adept at, but also from the way in which the deal was brokered.
Thucydides writes of Themistocles, an envoy to Sparta, who in 479 changed the tide of history by hiding the facts regarding the construction of the walls around Athens and those of the Piraeus. In Themistocles’speech to the Spartan assembly Thucydides points out that at this point Athenian independence was highlighted. “Wherever they had deliberated with the Spartans, they had proved themselves to be in judgment second to none.” (1.91 ) This is an important step because Themistocles articulates that Athens is an independent state with its own agenda that brushed over that of others. This is a very important point in the lead up to the Peloponnesian War because one man is credited with making the split. Themistocles through his cunningness asserts an independent and strong Athenian identity. He makes it clear after the walls have been secured (ensuring Athenian strength) that Athens is independent and is making self-interested decisions. Furthermore, Themistocles also predicts that the growth in Athenian power will be centered on the sea. 𠇏or he first ventured to tell them to stick to the sea and forthwith began to lay the foundations of the empire.” (1.93 ) Thucydides credits Themistocles with the determining point in which Athens becomes an empire creating the divide between Sparta and Athens.
The Pentecontaetia Timeline - History
**** UPDATED 19 SEPTEMBER 2020 **** Manuscript accepted for publication on 18 September 2020. P. more **** UPDATED 19 SEPTEMBER 2020 ****
Manuscript accepted for publication on 18 September 2020. Pre-print removed at request of the Publisher.
The Ancient Athenians possessed two and, at times, three separate calendars from the 6th to 1st Centuries BCE.
Though long known that the Ancient Greeks used the Moon, Sun, and Stars to organize their lives, how the Athenian Calendars actually functioned has eluded scholars since studies began.
Consequently, translating Ancient Athenian dates preserved in manuscripts and inscriptions into precise Julian and Gregorian equivalents has proven at best problematic and at worst simply impossible.
The present study reviews this very specialized topic in the field of Classical Studies, outlines the history of its competing scholarship, and the difficulties faced when trying to decipher ancient calendar dates.
The author proposes a definitive solution for Classicists and Ancient Historians to unlock the methodologies behind these calendars: astronomy.
After reviewing the basics of amateur stargazing and the methodologies of tackling Positional or Spherical Astronomy, he then locates both the key celestial objects Ancient Athenians used to set their lunisolar and stellar reckonings as well the location from which in Attica they recorded their motions.
Such efforts have proven impossible without access to readily available technology and crafted algorithms.
Lastly, the work provides a series of test cases from both Ancient Greek Historians and several inscriptions from the Fifth to Second Century BCE to test the theory and demonstrate the hypothesis sound.
One simply cannot overstate the significance of unlocking the Ancient Athenian Calendars.
Translating Ancient Athenian Calendar equations into Julian and Gregorian equivalents will not only assist historians to date numerous historical events with greater precision but also aid in the restorations of missing text and then definitively date numerous Attic Inscriptions that have vexed epigraphists.