Douglas O-53 Havoc

Douglas O-53 Havoc

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Douglas O-53 Havoc

The Douglas O-53 Havoc was to have been a heavy observation aircraft based on the A-20 Havoc, but a large order was cancelled before any had been built.

On 2 October 1940 an order was placed for 1,489 O-53 observation aircraft, with serials 41-3670 to 41-5158. These were to be similar to the A-20B and built alongside them on the Long Beach production line. The A-20B was powered by two 1,600hp Wright R-2600-11 engines and had a modified glazed nose.

The order was cancelled before a single aircraft had been built, after the USAAF decided it no longer required heavy observation types. This ended the long line of Douglas observation aircraft that had begun with the O-2 biplane of 1924.

Douglas A-20 Havoc / Boston

The Douglas A-20 Havoc served Allied forces through most of World War 2, fighting for British, American and Soviet forces. The type saw extensive use, proving itself a war-winner capable of withstanding a great deal of punishment but living up to its namesake in turn thanks to its speed and inherent firepower. Her crews put the aircraft through its paces with production topping over 7,000 units and several major production variants. Built as a light bomber but operated more or less as a heavy fighter, the Havoc proved a successful addition to the Douglas company line and the Allied war effort as a whole before being eventually replaced by the more capable Douglas A-26 Invader in the attack/light bombing role and Northrop P-61 Black Widow in the night-fighter role.

Historical Snapshot

The Douglas DB-7/A-20 Havoc was the most-produced attack bomber during World War II. A total of 7,477 DB-7/A-20s were built, most at Douglas, although 380 were built at the Boeing plant in Seattle, Wash. The Havoc was a mid-wing, twin-engine, three-place medium bomber that earned a reputation for getting its crews home, even when both crew and aircraft suffered crippling blows. It was called the &ldquoBoston&rdquo when in service with England&rsquos Royal Air Force.

It entered production when, despite official neutrality in 1938, there was little doubt in the United States that the country should support its allies, Britain and France. The French saw the secret bomber project at the Douglas Santa Monica, Calif., facility and ordered the first 107 DB-7s they were to be delivered to the French Purchasing Commission at Santa Monica starting in October, with deliveries made by ship to Casablanca. The French then ordered another 270 DB-7s. Before the fall of France in June 1940, half had been accepted, but many were still en route. Sixteen had been diverted to Belgium&rsquos Aviation Militaire.

The United Kingdom took over 162 of the DB-7s intended for France as well as Belgium, which also had fallen. By the time the United States entered World War II at the end of 1941, British Havocs and Bostons had already performed well for most of the year against German targets in North Africa and Europe. The U.S. Army Air Corps designated the plane the A-20 Havoc, and it served in every theater of the war.

More than half of the DB-7/A-20s built went into service in other countries, predominantly the Soviet Union. Versions also included the F-3 photoreconnaissance aircraft and the P-70 night fighter.

This is the origin of the 21-gun salute

Posted On March 05, 2021 06:46:00

If you ever attend a military funeral or memorial ceremony, you may notice a group of men and women proudly holding rifles. Then, at a specific time, they aim their weapons up to the sky and fire, usually causing a slight stir in the crowd, even though everyone was expecting it to happen.

Don’t worry — those rounds are just blanks.

This practice is quite common throughout the world and, as with many traditions, it has a practical origin. Back when ships carried cannons, it was universally understood that immediately after firing, these weapons were rendered ineffective for a period of time — after all, reloading took a while. So, in order to demonstrate peaceful intent, ships would turn their cannons to the sky and discharge, telling those ashore that a ship’s weapons weren’t live.

Nobody knows why ships were designed, at one point, to carry precisely seven cannon. Some theorize that it’s related to the seven phases of the moon, others think it has to do with the biblical week, and some say it’s simply because seven is a lucky freakin’ number.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt, embarked on Indianapolis, receives a 21-gun salute from Coast Guard Cutter Mojave, during the presidential fleet, 1934.

The cannon in shore batteries (with ample stores of dry, usable gunpowder) would fire three shots in return for every single shot they heard coming from the sea. For all you math geniuses out there, that equals 21 cannon shots. Upon hearing the return fire, ships at sea knew that the harbor was friendly — and the 21-gun salute was born.

It isn’t always 21, though. During a funeral ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery, the POTUS, former presidents, and presidents elect receive the traditional 21-gun salute. Other high-ranking officials, however, like the Secretary of Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and military officers in command over multiple branches, receive a 19-gun salute.

Members of the honor guard’s rifle team fire off a salute to remember twelve veterans during a burial at sea ceremony held aboard the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76). (Photo by Photographer’s Mate Airman Christine Singh)

Although hearing the 21-gun salute typically means you’re mourning the loss of a fellow patriot, know that this is a practice rooted in peace and history. With this salute, the fallen join those who gave us traditions so long ago.

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Variants [ edit | edit source ]

Servicing an A-20 bomber, Langley Field, Va., July 1942

A-20 leaves the assembly line at the Long Beach, 1942

Boston I & II The Royal Air Force agreed to take up the balance of the now-frustrated French order which was diverted to the UK, and the bombers were given the service name "Boston" with the further designation of "Mark I" or "Mark II" according to the earlier or later engine type. Havoc I The aircraft was generally unsuitable for use by the RAF since its range was too limited for daylight raids on Germany. Many of the Boston Mk II, plus some re-engined Mk Is, were converted for nighttime duties - either as intruders with 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) of bombs, or as night fighters with AI Mk IV radar. These were known collectively as Havoc Mk I. A total of 181 Bostons were converted to Havocs. In interdiction raids, Havoc intruders caused considerable damage to German targets. Havoc-Pandora Twenty Havocs were converted into "intruder" aircraft, carrying the Long Aerial Mine (LAM), an explosive charge trailed on a long cable in the path of enemy aircraft in the hope of scoring a hit. Trials conducted with lone Handley Page Harrows dropping LAMs into the stream of German bombers were not successful, and the Havocs were converted back to Mk I intruders. Havoc I Turbinlite Havoc fitted with a 2,700 million candela searchlight in the nose the batteries for it carried in the bomb bay. A radar operator sat in the after fuselage. They were unarmed, and they were supposed to illuminate targets for accompanying Hawker Hurricane fighters, but in practice the conspicuous light made them easy targets for German gunners. A total of 31 aircraft were converted. DB-7A / Havoc II The French Purchasing Commission ordered 200 more bombers, to be fitted with 1,600 hp (1,195 kW) Wright R-2600-A5B Twin Cyclone engines. These were designated as the DB-7A by Douglas Aircraft. None of these were delivered before the fall of France, and hence they were sent to the UK instead. These were converted into night fighters by the addition of 12 0.303 inch machine guns in their noses and extra fuel tanks. The had a top speed of 344 mph (550 km/h) at higher altitudes. A total of 39 aircraft were used briefly as Turbinlites. DB-7B / Boston III The DB-7B was the first batch of this model to be ordered directly by the Royal Air Force. This was done in February 1940. These were powered by the same engines as the DB-7A, with better armor protection. Importantly, these had larger fuel tanks and they were suitable for use by the RAF as light bombers. This was the batch for which the name "Boston" was first assigned, but since the DB-7s intended for France entered service in the RAF first, the aircraft in this order were called the Boston Mk III. Among other combat missions, they took part in the attacks on the German warships Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen during their dash through the English Channel (Operation Cerberus) and the raid on Dieppe ("Operation Jubilee"). Three hundred Boston III were produced and delivered and some of them were converted for use as night fighters. DB-73 A variation on the DB-7B/Boston III built for a French government order and featuring French instruments and secondary equipment of the 480 DB-73s ordered by France, 240 were built by under license by the Boeing Company in Seattle. ⎘] None were delivered, due to the fall of France, the DB-73 block was ordered by the RAF, after conversion to the Boston III configuration. However, following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, 151 DB-73s were provided to the USSR. Following the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, a further 356 DB-73s were taken up by the USAAF, which transferred 22 to the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) for use in the South West Pacific theatre. Australian sources usually list these aircraft as DB-7B. ⎙] DB-7C This was a Dutch Air Force version intended for service in the Dutch East Indies, but the Japanese conquest of the East Indies was complete before they were delivered. Part of this order was stranded in Australia in the so-called "lost convoy", and the first 31 Bostons were assembled at Richmond Airbase in New South Wales and flown by the 22 Squadron of the RAAF during the campaign against Buna, Gona, and Lae, New Guinea. The assembly of these 31 bombers was hampered by the fact that their manuals and instrument panels were printed in Dutch. The rest of this order were sent to the Soviet Union which received 3,125 of the Douglas DB-7 series. Α]

T30 triple launcher for 4.5 in (114 mm) rockets, which were also carried by P-47s.

When shipments to the UK finally resumed, they were delivered under the terms of the Lend-Lease program. These aircraft were actually refitted A-20Cs known as the Boston IIIA. A-20 The original American indifference to the Model 7B was overcome by the improvements made for the French and British, and the United States Army Air Corps ordered two models, the A-20 for high-altitude bombing and the A-20A for low and medium altitude combat. Both were similar to the DB-7B. The A-20 was to be fitted with turbosupercharged Wright R-2600-7 engines, but these were bulky and the prototype suffered cooling problems, so the remainder were completed with the two-stage supercharged R-2600-11, 59 as P-70 fighters and 3 as F-3 reconnaissance aircraft. One A-20 was evaluated by the U.S. Navy as the BD-1, while the U.S. Marine Corps flew eight as the BD-2. A-20A The U.S. Army ordered 123 A-20As with R-2600-3 engines, and 20 more with the more powerful R-2600-11. They entered service in the spring 1941. The Army liked the A-20A because of its good performance and because it had no adverse handling characteristics. Nine of them were transferred to the RAAF in 1943. The USAAF used the British name Havoc for the A-20A, while the RAAF referred them as Bostons. A-20B The A-20B received the first really large order from the Army Air Corps: 999 aircraft. These resembled the DB-7A rather than the DB-7B, with light armor and stepped rather than slanted glazing in their noses. In practice, 665 of these were exported to the Soviet Union, so only about one-third of them few served with the USAAF.

A-20C being serviced at Langley Field, Virginia, 1942.

A-20C The A-20C was an attempt to develop a standard, international version of the DB-7/A-20/Boston, produced from 1941. It reverted to the slanting nose glass, and it had RF-2600-23 engines, self-sealing fuel tanks, and additional protective armor. These were equipped to carry an external 2,000 lb (907 kg) aerial torpedo. A total of 948 were built for Britain and the Soviet Union, but many were retained by the USAAF after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The Soviet A-20s were often fitted out with turrets of indigenous design. ⎚]

A-20G Havoc displayed at the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force.

A-20G The A-20G, delivered from February 1943, would be the most produced of all the series - 2850 were built. The glazed nose was replaced by a solid nose containing four 20 mm (.79 in) Hispano cannon and two .50 in M2 Browning machine guns, making the aircraft slightly longer than previous versions. After the first batch of 250, the unreliable cannon were replaced by more machine guns. Some had a wider fuselage to accommodate a power driven gun turret. Many A-20Gs were delivered to the Soviet Union. The powerplant was the 1,600 hp (1,200 kW) R-2600-23. US A-20Gs were used on low-level sorties in the New Guinea theatre. A-20H The A-20H was the same as A-20G, continued with the 1,700 hp (1,270 kW) R-2600-29. 412 of these were built. The takeoff weight was raised to 24,170 lb (10,960 kg). ZB-20H In 1948, the last surviving A-20H in United States service was redesignated "B-20" with the elimination of the 'A for Attack' category, and was given the "Z" prefix as being obsolete. ⎛] A-20J / Boston IV The A-20J carried an additional bombardier in an extended acrylic glass nose section. These were intended to lead bombing formations, with the following standard A-20s dropping their bombs when signaled by the leader. A total of 450 were built, 169 for the RAF which designated them Boston Mk IV from the summer of 1944 onwards. A-20K / Boston V The A-20K (Boston Mk V in RAF parlance) was the final production version of the A-20 series, the same as the A-20J except for R-2600-29s instead of -23s.

P-70 In October 1940, the USAAC felt a need for long-range fighters more than attack bombers, sixty of the production run of A-20s were converted to P-70 night fighters, all delivered by September 1942. They were equipped with SCR-540 radar (a copy of the British AI Mk IV), the glazed nose often painted black to reduce glare and hide the details of the radar set, and had four 20 mm (.79 in) forward-firing cannon, each provided with 120 rounds, in a tray in the lower part of the bomb bay, while the upper part held an additional 250 gal (946 ltr) fuel tank. In 1943, between June and October, 13 A-20Cs and 51 A-20Gs were converted to P-70A. Differences were to be found in the armament, with the 20mm cannon package replaced by an A-20G gun nose with six .50 caliber guns installed, the SCR-540 radar installation being carried in the bomb bay with the transmitting antenna protruding between the nose guns. Further P-70 variants were produced from A-20G and J variants. The singular airframe P-70B-1 (converted from an A-20G) and subsequent P-70B-2s (converted from A-20Gs and Js) had American centimetric radar (SCR-720 or SCR-729) fitted. The P-70s and P-70As saw combat only in the Pacific during World War II and only with the USAAF. The P-70B-1 and P-70B-2 aircraft never saw combat but served as night fighter aircrew trainers in the US in Florida and later in California. All P-70s were retired from service by 1945. F-3A The F-3A was a conversion of forty-six A-20J and K models for night-time photographic reconnaissance (F-3 were three conversions of the original A-20). This variant was employed in the European Theater by the 155th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron which began its deployment as the 423rd Night Fighter Squadron. The 423rd was converted to its photo mission as the 155th Photo Reconnaissance Squadron in part because of knowledge of night fighter tactics which could be used to defend against German aircraft. Although the armament was removed, the crew of three was retained, consisting of a pilot, observer, and navigator. The first Allied aircraft to land at Itazuke, Japan after the August 1945 surrender was an F-3A.

BD-1 One A-20A was bought in 1940 by the United States Navy for evaluation for use by the United States Marine Corps. The Navy/Marine Corps did not have any priority on the production lines, so the DB was not put into service. BD-2 In 1942, eight former Army A-20Bs were diverted to the United States Navy for use as high-speed target tugs. Despite the addition of the target-towing equipment and the removal of all armament and the provision to carry bombs, the aircraft were still designated BD in the Bomber sequence. They were withdrawn from service in 1946. O-53 An observation/reconnaissance version of the A-20B powered by two 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) R-2600-7 engines. The original order for 1,489 aircraft was canceled and none were built.

Douglas A-20G Havoc

Initial design work for the A-20 began in 1936 as a private venture of the Douglas Company to design a light attack and reconnaissance aircraft. Work was delayed by a series of major design changes that increased the size of the aircraft, gave it larger engines and focused the design as a bomber. First flown in October 1938 the aircraft attracted the interest of the French Air Force and the first orders actually came from France rather then the U.S. Army. France and Belgium briefly used the aircraft before those countries fell to the Germans. Many of the aircraft were diverted to Britain where they were operated under the names Boston and Havoc. The U.S. Army adopted the British name Havoc when they began receiving their A-20s after 1939. The A-20G was the most produced version of the Havoc and was optimized for low altitude attacks using a battery of six nose mounted machine guns and parachute equipped bombs called “parafrags.”

Maximum Speed

Service Ceiling


89 th Bombardment Squadron, 3 rd Bombardment Group, Fifth Air Force, Nadzab, New Guinea, 1944

Douglas A-20 / DB-7 / Boston / Havoc

The original DB-7 was built as a private venture, produced to the order of the French government. The first production DB-7 flew on 17 August 1939. When France fell the undelivered aircraft outstanding from French contracts were taken over by the British government and given the name Boston. Production for the RAF, USAAF, US Navy and Russia ceased on 20 September 1944 after well over 7,000 had been built. Russia received twice as many as the RAF and only some 800 less than the US Army.

As delivered to the RAF from the French contracts, the Boston I was powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S3G-4G engines. It was used mainly for training duties, although some were converted for night fighting and given the British name Havoc. The A-20 was the first of the series built to a US Army specification and was powered by two 1,112kW Wright R-2600-7 Cyclone engines with exhaust-driven turbo-superchargers. It was fitted with American armament and equipment.

As the Boston II for the RAF, the A-20 had R-2600-A5B engines and British armament. Those converted into night fighters became Havocs each with a lengthened nose fitted with 12 forward-firing 7.62mm guns, AI radar and other special equipment depending on the sub-variant - one carried a high-power searchlight in the nose. As an intruder it carried a crew of three and full armament and bombs.

The A-20A for the USAAC/USAAF was powered by two 1,192kW Wright R-2600-11 engines with integral two-speed superchargers. The A-20B was an experimental development of the A-20A, armed with two 12.7mm guns firing forward, one 12.7mm upper flexible gun, one 7.62mm lower flexible gun, and one 7.62mm gun in the tail of each engine nacelle, firing aft. Nacelle guns were remotely controlled by a foot trigger in the rear compartment. The A-20C was powered by two similarly rated R-2600-23 engines. Armament comprised four fixed guns (two on each side of the transparent nose), two on a flexible mounting in the rear cockpit, and one in the lower rear-firing position - all 7.62mm (A20G) or 7.69mm (British Boston Ill). Ejector-type exhaust stacks replaced the collector rings used on the earlier models and range was increased by the addition of a self-sealing fuel tank in the forward and rear bomb-bay compartments. Provision was also made on some aircraft to carry a 900kg naval torpedo.

The Boston III was powered by R-2600-A5B engines and carried a crew of four as a bomber. The Boston IIIA was similar but built by Boeing. Some Boston III/IIIA were fitted as intruders with four 20mm cannon under the forward fuselage, four 7.69mm guns in the nose, and two 7.69mm guns in the upper flexible position.

Following the experimental XA-20E, with a 37mm nose cannon and General Electric turrets, the A-20G appeared. This was similar to the A-20C except that the transparent bombardier nose was replaced by a solid nose fitted (in earlier versions) with four 20mm cannon and two 12.7mm machine-guns and ultimately with six 12.7mm guns. A few also had a single 12.7mm upper flexible gun, but this was soon replaced by a power-driven turret armed with two 12.7mm guns. Thicker armour for increased crew protection on ground-attack missions was also added.

The A-20H was powered by two 1,267kW R-2600-29 engines and incorporated minor improvements. The A-20J was identical to the later version of the A-20G except that the attack nose was replaced by a moulded-plastic bombardier's nose incorporating bombing controls and flight navigation instruments. One in ten A-20G were completed as A-20J to serve as squadron lead planes. Armament consisted of two 12.7mm machine-guns (one in each side of the transparent nose), two in the power-operated dorsal turret and one in the lower rear firing position.

The A-20K was identical to the A-20H except that the attack nose was replaced by a bombardier's nose, as with the A-20J. The British Boston V was similar. Special US versions of the A-20 appeared as the P-70 night fighter with R-2600-11 engines and armed with four 20mm cannon mounted in a fairing beneath the fuselage bomb bay the P-70A conversion of the A-20G with R-2600-23 engines and six 12.7mm machine-guns in a solid nose and dorsal and lower guns the P-70B development of the P-70A for training, with six 12.7mm 'package' guns and special radar (converted A-20G/J) the F-3A night photographic-reconnaissance conversion of the A-20J/K and BD-1/2 target tugs for the US Navy.

A radar-equipped night-fighter version of the Havoc was also produced for the USAAF, known as the P-70 "Nighthawk". 163 were manufactured as an interim measure until the aircraft the AAF really wanted, the Northrop P-61 "Black Widow", became available. The P-70 was never regarded as entirely satisfactory because, being derived from an attack-bomber, it's engines were optimized for operation at low-to-medium altitudes, and their power output fell off at higher altitudes.

Lew, did you know Don Reed pilot a20 later colonel reed. He was my mothers second husband, Purple Heart winner and injured in the 46th over North Africa. I think it was at kasserine pass?


There is an A-20 Havoc on display in the museum at Wright Patterson Air Force Base. I have heard that there are 3 known to exist of the 10,ooo + built. (Most went to the Russians. There were 3 A-20 bomb groups in Europe, the 409th, 410th, and the 416th. I'm not sure about the Pacific. In Europe they were part of the 9th Air Force. I lost an uncle (pilot) 12-25-44 shot down over Germany.

I lost an uncle Sept 6, 1945, when his A20 went down off the Okinawa coast. He and his crew members were never recovered. I wish I could find more info on this incident.

I found an A-20G in the moumtains of Papua New Guinea. I have pictures of it. I found the remains of its 3 crew members. It was quite an experience. I found it in 1971.

I live near Valognes in Normandie ,andd I'm just starting research about this A20 shoot during WWII and downed at Tamerville .
Regards ,

I flew him overhead (low level) the field in 1991 which all will know, no longer exists. Father is no longer with us but looks down and keeps an eye. RB

On July 4th, 1942 the first offensive mission flown over Europe by the USAAF during World War II was carried out in these aircraft.

It has always struck me as odd that this particular airplane should have been so successful and so widely used, and yet at the same time be so forgotten. I'm not sure if a single example exists anywhere in the world.

My Father loved flying in this airplane, He said it was so well armed and fast that when German Fighters attacked him they we shocked at all the fire power that the A-20 could throw back at them and usually would only make one pass.
He got hit over Valgones France on D-Day June 6 1944 by German 88 flack guns and all of the crew except him perished. He Bailed out but was captured and spent the rest of the war in several different prison camps. His tombstone carries these words" Major Michael Walek
Loving Father and Husband
Veteran of WWII , Korea and Vietnam" He was a true American..

One of my most prized possessions is the revolver, holster, military records, and photo of a gunner (from Alabama) with his pilot standing in front of an A-20.

does it have a rear gun that was so tight that you had to lay down??

My father served in the RAF as ground engineer service personel for this aircraft during ww2 at RAF West Malling, Kent. I flew him overhead (low level) the field in 1991 which all will know, no longer exists. Father is no longer with us but looks down and keeps an eye. RB

My wife's dad went down in one off of New Guinie(ran out fuel on the way back from a mission-they never recovered his body god bless his brave soul!

Douglas O-53 Havoc - History

Revell's 1/48 scale
Douglas A-20G/J Havoc

Italeri's 1/48 A-20B / Boston III is available online from


I like Pin Up art a lot, and I like building models, therefore I enjoy the opportunity of building a model with a gracious girl in the body. Having the PYN decals it was just a matter of time this kit had its chance.

Initially I just wanted to display a nice cockpit and engines, then I found the turret assembly in the fuselage was not of my liking. I decided to change the socket a little bit with a ring acting as a base to place the turret at the end. At some point I found enough information to challenge myself and the project went to a 16 months endeavor, after countless of hours and plastic pieces this is the result. Behold the A-20H-5 Havoc, Miss Be Haven, 312th Bomber Group, 388th Bomber Squadron.

At the end I used the following items to finish this project:

Eduard 1/48 A 20G Cockpit details.

Eduard 1/48 A 20G Undercarriage details.

Eduard 1/48 Position Lights.

True Details 1/48 A20 Wheels set.

PYN 1/48 A 20 Havoc Hussies Part 1 Decals

Mike Grant 1/48 Instruments and Placards Decals.

Quickboost 1/48 Machine gun barrels.

MV Products 1/48 Position lights lenses.Scale Aircraft Conversions 1/48 A20 Main Landing Gear.

Evergreen White Styrene card several thicknesses.

Wire of several different gauges.


The cockpit was enhanced with the Eduard set, an armored glass behind the windshield, placards from Mike Grant, an open side window and a pair of pieces to show the opening of the rear compartment, the A20 had an armored protection for the pilot behind his head, that plate could be folded or removed, the removal of it left a rectangular opening behind the pilot that is not usually shown in the models of this bird.

The nose was improved with plastic to show the armor for the pilot, the access panel to the nose cheek gun and other details, the final model was very tail heavy, fortunately this nose had room enough for counterbalance.

Rear section was detailed with plastic card.

I built a mounting for the machine gun and initially I was thinking on the feeding belt, later I discarded the belt for the sake of visibility.

Landing gear bays were also detailed with the Eduard set, plastic pieces and wires. I had to relocate the landing gear to a more proper position and made some compromises to show the (what it seems to be) oil cooler tunnel and structural detail and make possible to close the halves with the base portion of the metal landing gear already glued. The trick worked at the end and I was satisfied with the results.

I used a painting technique I call &ldquotexture layering&rdquo to create the ribbons on the fabric of the control surfaces, here the visual effect is enhanced by the shiny cote, the final flat finish makes these ribbons very subtle. National markings and the white markings were also painted. Transparent plastic from an old toothbrush was used to make the lights on
the wingtips.

Engines were detailed with plastic, wire and paint, the crankcases were refined since the molds have plastic ridges in the position of the data placards. These were added with decals from Mike Grant. The propeller governors were made with plastic card.

Tail control surfaces received trim tab actuators, horizontal control surfaces were cut and positioned slightly dropped. Tail light was also detailed with internal structure and a photoetched piece from the Eduard´s Position lights fret.

Finally I got to the beginning of the project, I used the main pieces of the Martin turret but I made my own replacements to detail it.

All machine gun barrels were replaced with the ones from Quickboost and I made a frame to display the turret with plastic card. Mike Grant placards helped to enhance the look of the turret control.

Painting and Markings

The painting was done mainly with Testors and Model Master enamels, except for the Neutral Gray that was from Polly Scale acrylic paint, the coloring involved several shades of the colors, using ANA 613, Faded OD, White, Black and Yellow to shade the OD color. I used Euro I Dk. Green for the Medium Green also shading it to be tuned with the overall look.

Fabric surfaces were painted with lighter colors to show the contrast. Gloss coat is Future Floor Finish, and the final flat finish is Testors Dullcote. I make my washes with ink thinned with water and liquid soap and some stains were also done with diluted ink with brush and airbrush. Exhaust stains are a combination of discolored paint in the finish, airbrushing inks and pastels.


As usual, with each project I try to use new techniques and improve old ones, this model is the most complete I´ve finished so far, a lot of details were included but not explained here, some of them were designed through educated guesses since I couldn´t find all of the period pictures I would´ve liked, but if I had to wait until having everything I might never finish a project, maybe some decisions are not the most proper ones, but I have to leave room for the artistic license to interpret a concept.

I hope you enjoy these images and have fun looking for the details I didn´t explain here.

In order to distinguish fighters from bombers, night fighters were given their own designation, Havoc. The first variant of the plane, equipped with an airborne radar, was named the Havoc Mk.I.

Another variant of the night ground-attack aircraft was given the name Havoc Mk.I Intruder (originally «Havoc Mk.IV»). Its main purpose was to attack German airfields on the coast of the English Channel at night, destroying enemy planes in the air and on the ground.

Alterations of the prototype bomber were few. The navigator's cockpit and the nose glazing remained intact. The gun and bomb armament was also left unchanged. Up to 1,100 kg of bombs could be suspended under the aircraft. Flame arresters were installed in the engine exhaust pipes.

Havoc Mk.I Intruders were used to block enemy airfields at night. The aircraft would fly over an airfield and concentrate its fire on planes that were taking off or landing, as well as on parking areas, hangars, and airfield equipment. From time to time, it would drop bombs, usually of a small-calibre, fragmentation type. Usually, a single Intruder would join formation with a group of enemy bombers returning from a combat mission, and they would lead it out to their airfield. After the landing lights were switched on, the Intruder's crew would attack the enemy air base.

Often, an Intruder would pretend to be a German aircraft that had dropped behind its group: it would fire signal flares over an enemy airfield and turn on its navigation lights as if about to land. If the ruse was successful, the night runway lights would be turned on on the ground, and sometimes the ground crew would even illuminate the runway with a searchlight. Then the Intruder would immediately attack the airfield which had revealed itself.

A bombing run while enemy aircraft were landing was particularly effective. In the process, they managed not only to destroy enemy planes on the ground but also cause panic among the anti-aircraft gunners, who would then open fire on all machines in the air, including their own. Sometimes, after several of these raids in a row, the Germans would even open fire on their own aircraft, assuming they were British «blockers».

I love this photo. Love old bombers. This however looks less like "being serviced" and more like "Hey guys, lets pose you to look like you're working on the plane so this photographer can get a nice shot."

Check out the TIF file - its like 130mb but VERY detailed.

I was just going to say, looks like a photo of guys pretending to be working, more then anything else.

They look a bit posed but I don't think "being serviced" is really the right phrase here anyways. Seems to me more like they may be pre-flighting the aircraft before a flight. You have flight crew giving it a look over, wearing their green uni's and ground crew helping pull the props through to be sure there's no hydraulic lock before start up. The guy in green holding the prop is kind of in the way, but pulling those old radials through is slow business anyways. Also, the plane is really clean! No bugs on the windows or wings, cowls and cowl flaps look clean and even a fresh life jacket, or whatever that yellow thing is in the window. Iɽ imagine just before a flight, youɽ just toss that jacket into your station, jump out, and help inspect the plane.

Looks a bit posed for the photo, but again, being serviced isn't the right phrase from the looks of it.

I love this photo. Love old bombers.

And the guy holding the prop is wearing a flight helmet for some reason.

Immediate first thing that came to my mind lol. I've been in way too many of these "hey look like you're doing something so we can take a picture" shots to not recognize that face/pose.

Does Anyone know what has happened to that bomber?

Because i'm a crazy person when it comes to these things. here is an alternative angle, as show in the library of congress record of a series of three photos:

All we've got to work with is 1942, camo paint scheme, and a tail number ending in 35 (assuming 2, 3 or 6 before the 35?). 1941/2 models with a full glass canopy over the front are likely the C model (A-20C), not the A-20J as noted in the post. Js were around later in the war. The camo scheme appears to be the UK type scheme as shown here on a British Hurricane and Spitfire.

Most of the American bombers that were based in the UK, early in the war, were just simple brown. Its probably a bomber that was intended to be sent to the UK for loan/lend-lease so we can then search for "A-20C BO" - UK referred to the A-20 as the Boston, not the Havoc. Photo taken in 1942 means the airframe was made in 1941 or 1942

"A-20C BO" gets us results of the photo posted here on reddit, adjusting to "a-20C BO 41" gets us the below where we find the photo!

Douglas A-20C-BO Havoc/41-19635

Allocated to the Royal Air Force but not delivered.

Delivered to the United States Army Air Force.

Written off, 3 Jun 1944 at Pueblo, CO

This was probably at the Pueblo Army Air Base, what is now Pueblo Memorial Airport. So as other said, scrapped. Odds are it never saw action as getting it BACK from the UK would have been a pain for a small bomber like this.

Watch the video: Havoc 1553 MST with GTR37 EFI Blackout Edition (June 2022).


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