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Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever
The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever is a medium-sized gundog bred primarily for hunting. It is often referred to as a "toller". It is the smallest of the retrievers, and is often mistaken for a small Golden Retriever. Tollers are intelligent, eager to please, alert, and energetic.  The name "toller" is derived from their ability to lure waterfowl within gunshot range. The breed originated in Yarmouth County, Nova Scotia, Canada.  The American Kennel Club ranks the toller as the 87th most popular dog breed. 
10 Duck Penises
Did you know that duck penises are shaped like corkscrews? They are stored in sacs under their bodies, but when a duck penis is erect, it can become up to 20 centimeters (8 in) long. That&rsquos about a quarter of the length of the animal&rsquos entire body. To put that in perspective, that would be like a human having a forearm-sized member. To make this even more bizarre, it&rsquos helpful to know that 97 percent of bird species don&rsquot even have a penis.
To make things even worse, the penises of ducks are sharp and full of backward-pointing spikes. They are specifically made to stab into the female duck painfully. The spikes dig into the female duck&rsquos vagina like a hundred sharp hooks to prevent escape.
Also, a difference between the penis of a mammal (such as a human) and a duck is that the duck everts his penis directly into the vagina instead of getting an erection before sex. The male duck just mounts the female and then stabs her in one motion, as though using a grappling hook. 
The set form a regular series diminishing in size from 30 cm to 2 cm in length. The larger weights have handles cast on to the bodies, and the smaller have rings attached to them. The group of weights also included stone weights in the shape of ducks. The weights represent the earliest known uncontested example of the Aramaic numeral system.  Eight of the lions are represented with the only known inscriptions from the short reign of Shalmaneser V.  Other similar bronze lion weights were excavated at Abydos in western Turkey (also in the British Museum  ) and the Iranian site of Susa by the French archaeologist Jacques de Morgan (now in the Louvre in Paris). 
There are two known systems of weights and measures from the ancient Middle East. One system was based on a weight called the mina which could be broken down into sixty smaller weights called shekels. These lion weights, however, come from a different system which was based on the heavy mina which weighed about a kilogram. This system was still being used in the Persian period and is thought to have been used for weighing metals.
The weights were discovered by Austen Henry Layard in his earliest excavations at Nimrud (1845–51). A pair of lamassu were found at a gateway, one of which had fallen against the other and had broken into several pieces. After lifting the statue, Layard's team discovered under it sixteen lion weights.  The artefacts were first deciphered by Edwin Norris, who confirmed that they had originally been used as weights. 
8 Things You May Not Know About Louis Zamperini
1. He was a juvenile delinquent.
Born in January 1917 to Italian immigrant parents, Zamperini spent his youth as one of Torrance, California’s most notorious troublemakers. A smoker at age 5 and a drinker by 8, he built an adolescent criminal empire based around stealing anything that wasn’t nailed down from neighbors and local businesses. Zamperini blackened the eyes of any kids that dared challenge him, deflated a teacher’s car tires after she disciplined him and once even lobbed tomatoes at a cop. Family members were convinced he was headed for prison or the streets, but he finally abandoned his life of petty crime in high school, when a group of girls charmed him into joining the school’s track team. Encouraged by his older brother, Pete, he soon became one of southern California’s top athletes, and achieved a national high school record after blazing through a mile run in only 4 minutes, 21 seconds.
Zamperini competing in a 1939 track meet (Credit/AP Photos)
2. He met Adolf Hitler at the 1936 Olympics.
After graduating high school, Zamperini set his sights on competing in the 1936 Olympic games. Switching from his preferred 1,500 meters to the 5,000 meters, the “Torrance Tornado” made a good showing at the U.S. trials and became the youngest distance runner to ever make the Olympic team. At age 19 he was still too inexperienced to mount a challenge for gold, but during a Berlin Olympiad held in the shadow of the burgeoning Nazi empire, he finished eighth in his race and won over the crowd by laying down one of the fastest final laps in the history of the event. Among the impressed spectators was none other than Adolf Hitler, who shook Zamperini’s hand from his box and said, 𠇊h, you’re the boy with the fast finish.” Despite winning congratulations from the German 𠇏uhrer,” Zamperini wasn’t above getting into trouble during the Olympics. Before leaving Berlin, he was nearly shot while trying to swipe a Nazi flag from the Reich Chancellery as a souvenir.
3. He was a leading candidate to break the 4-minute barrier in the mile run.
Following his strong showing at the 1936 Olympics, Zamperini shattered collegiate records at the University of Southern California and became one its most celebrated student athletes. At the time, a sub-4-minute mile was considered a near-impossible feat, but as Zamperini’s profile grew, many began to whisper that he might be the man to pull it off. Former world record holder Glenn Cunningham tapped him to be “the next mile champion” in 1938, and Zamperini responded by going undefeated during his 1939 track season. He planned on gunning for gold and a potential miracle mile at the 1940 Olympics, but the contest was called off after the start of World War II. With his Olympic dream temporarily dashed, Zamperini enlisted in the Army Air Corps in 1941.
Zamperini inspects his damaged B-24 bomber
4. He cheated death several times while serving as a B-24 bombardier.
During World War II, Zamperini served as a B-24 Liberator bombardier in the Army Air Corps’ 372nd Bomb Squadron. From his perch in the nose of a craft nicknamed “Super Man,” he flew several missions including a famous December 1942 air raid on Wake Island, after which his plane nearly ran out of fuel before limping back to Midway Atoll. During a subsequent bombing run over the tiny island of Nauru, Japanese Zero fighter planes attacked Zamperini’s B-24, seriously wounding several crewmen and killing one. Leaking hydraulic fluid, the shredded B-24 only narrowly avoided disaster during an emergency landing at the island of Funafuti. Zamperini and his crewmates later learned that their plane had been riddled with nearly 600 holes from enemy gunfire and shrapnel.
5. He spent 47 days lost at sea.
On May 27, 1943, Zamperini and his crew were participating in a search and rescue mission over the Pacific when their plane suddenly lost power to two of its engines and careened into the sea. Only three of the ship’s 11 crewmen survived: Zamperini, pilot Russell Allen Phillips and tail gunner Francis McNamara. Adrift on a pair of life rafts with only meager provisions, the trio spent the next several weeks braving blistering heat, hunger, dehydration and circling packs of sharks. On one occasion, machine gunners from a passing Japanese bomber strafed the airmen, deflating one of their rafts and leaving the other on the verge of ruin. Zamperini and his fellow castaways survived on rainwater and the occasional captured bird or fish, but all soon saw their weight drop below 100 pounds, and McNamara perished after 33 days at sea. Zamperini and Phillips remained adrift for another two weeks before being captured by the Japanese Navy near the Marshall Islands. By then, the men had drifted an astonishing 2,000 miles.
Former guards at the Ofuna prisoner of war camp in Japan bid farewell to liberated U.S. prisoners (Credit: Fox Photos/Getty Images)
6. He endured daily torment as a prisoner of war.
After being held for some six weeks on the island of Kwajalein, Zamperini was shipped to the Japanese mainland and eventually confined to three different interrogation centers and POW camps. Over the next two years, he suffered from disease, exposure, starvation, and near-daily beatings from guards. Japanese corporal Mutsuhiro Watanabe, nicknamed “the Bird” by the POWs, took particular glee in torturing the runner. During stints at the Omori and Naoetsu prison camps, Mutsuhiro pummeled Zamperini with clubs, belts and fists and regularly threatened to kill him. On one occasion, he had Zamperini hold a heavy wooden beam above his head and threatened to shoot him if he dropped it on another, he forced Zamperini and other American prisoners to punch each other until they were nearly all knocked unconscious. Speaking of Mutsuhiro, Zamperini would later say he kept a watch out for him “like I was looking for a lion loose in the jungle.”
Old Stone Fort State Park
Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park consists of two discontiguous parcels of land along the Duck River west of the town of Manchester in Coffee County, Tennessee. Human occupation of the park dates back to at least ca. 6000 BCE, at which time the region was home to small, mobile bands of Native Americans. Over subsequent millennia the land saw the construction of ancient Native American earthworks, historic industries, and Civil War troop movements. Historic Euro-American interest in preservation of the area was piqued not only by the ancient ruins of the Old Stone Fort itself, but also by recreational opportunities afforded in waterfalls and pools along the Duck River. Together these natural and cultural features combined to attract both locals and visitors, and embed the area as a focal point within the early development of Manchester. Plans to develop the area into a State Park were formalized in April of 1966, with the purchase of 466 acres of what was by then the Chumbley estate by the Tennessee Department of Conservation.
The historic centerpiece of the park is site 40CF1, the Old Stone Fort. This ancient Native American earthwork enclosure overlooks the confluence of the Duck and Little Duck Rivers, and originates in the Middle Woodland period of regional prehistory (ca. 100 BCE – 500 CE). During the eighteenth through mid-twentieth centuries the origins of the earthworks presented an enigma to scholars and visitors, leading to speculation that the site was constructed by Spanish explorers, ancient giants, Norse, Welsh, Romans, and the Lost Tribe of Israel, among others. Early interpretations of the site often focused on the possibility that the raised walls, position on the landform, and associated canal to the south presented the remnants of defensive fortifications. No archaeological evidence identified to date supports these interpretations, and today the site is understood to present an ancient Native American ritual enclosure.
Duck Dynasty Wife Bares All About Her 14-Month Affair, Abortion & Sexual Abuse Trauma
A&E’s hit show Duck Dynasty is best known for its burly beards, camo wardrobes and Uncle Si’s turquoise sweet tea cup. Since the show first aired in 2012, America has fallen in love with the tight-knit Robertson clan and their deeply rooted Christian values. The show has brought a half-decade of wholesome entertainment from the “celebrities” that prove the family who prays together, stays together.
That foundation of prayer and faith has seen many of the family’s members through their roughest times.
Alan Robertson is the “beardless brother,” who traded in his duck call and the Duck Commander dynasty for a different call as a minister in his local church. Nonetheless, he’s still a prominent member of the family—being the oldest brother to Jase, Willy and Jep.
Al’s Duck Dynasty wife, Lisa, recently opened up about some of the painful circumstances that the family has had to rely on their faith to overcome.
“From about the age of seven, I was sexually molested until I was 14,” Lisa explained. “And I think that was what triggered the bad thoughts and how I related to men, and thought of myself.”
Lisa said the abuse stopped on the day of her grandfather’s funeral when she threatened to tell her dad if her abuser pursued her again.
“I knew that my dad would kill him, is really the reason why I never told my dad,” she said. “I didn’t want him to be in prison.”
At 15, Lisa began dating Al, who was 17 at the time. He didn’t know back then what she had been through, or that she had been abused. Looking back, Al says he “piled on” to her trauma by taking advantage of her and saying, “Hey, if you love me, you’ll do this.”
Having been in love with Al since the 6th grade, Lisa felt that giving him what he wanted would solidify the relationship. But things didn’t last. The two broke up, and at the age of 16, Lisa got pregnant with another guy.
She terminated the pregnancy, and to this day believes it was the “worst mistake” she has ever made.
“I took a life. That should not be my choice,” she said. “I have forgiven myself. I have found redemption through Christ. But there’s not a day that goes by that I don’t think about it, and the child I could have had.”
After individually committing their lives to Christ, Al and Lisa eventually got back together—this time on a “new path”— and five years later, they were married.
Shortly thereafter, Lisa had an “emotional affair” with a member of the church where Al was a minister.
The couple worked through things together, and ultimately kept the affair a secret—hoping that if they swept it under the rug, it would just disappear.
Running away from their problems proved to be the opposite of progressive. Fourteen years into their marriage, Lisa had a lengthy physical affair.
“When we had been married 14 years, Lisa had an affair that lasted 14 months with a guy locally,” Al said. “She didn’t tell me. And this is what got us to, finally, the breaking point.”
They knew that there was no way to repair their marriage on their own, but it’s their faith in Christ that led them to find comfort in knowing that it could be “fixed.”
They sought the help of a counselor, and as Lisa explains, “the very first time we sat down with her it was almost like a burden was lifted.”
“I loved Lisa in spite of everything that had happened,” Al said. “The question was, could I not only forgive her, but could we move forward and then live the forgiveness?”
Al said it wasn’t easy, but he made a vow to forgive his Duck Dynasty wife and in the 15 years since, he hasn’t broken it.
“I said, ‘God, I’m going to make this step. I need to forgive Lisa and forgive myself, and I need to hold that forgiveness,’” he said. “And 15 years into this, I’ve never used what she has done or what I have done to hurt her or hurt me.”
The Robertsons hope that sharing some of the pain, brokenness and redemption they’ve experienced will help to encourage others.
“Molestation takes place in families way too much. We need to talk about it more,” Lisa said. “We need to teach our children what is safe and what’s not safe, and our grandchildren. I talk to mine about it all the time. Of course I think they think I’m weird—‘Do you know what a safe touch is?’ ‘Yes, ma’am.’”
“We need to talk about abortion. We need to say out loud and on purpose, ‘It’s murder. It’s wrong. It’s sinful,’” Lisa continued. “We need to talk about affairs… We need to talk about it and help people overcome these things whenever it happens.”
Medieval Europe inherited the Roman system, with its Greek, Babylonian, and Egyptian roots. It soon proliferated through daily use and language variations into a great number of national and regional variants, with elements borrowed from the Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian, and Arabic influences and original contributions growing out of the needs of medieval life.
A determined effort by the Holy Roman emperor Charlemagne and many other medieval kings to impose uniformity at the beginning of the 9th century was in vain differing usages hardened. The great trade fairs, such as those in Champagne during the 12th and 13th centuries, enforced rigid uniformity on merchants of all nationalities within the fairgrounds and had some effect on standardizing differences among regions, but the variations remained. A good example is the ell, the universal measure for wool cloth, the great trading staple of the Middle Ages. The ell of Champagne, two feet six inches, measured against an iron standard in the hands of the Keeper of the Fair, was accepted by Ypres and Ghent, both in modern Belgium by Arras, in modern France and by the other great cloth-manufacturing cities of northwestern Europe, even though their bolts varied in length. In several other parts of Europe, the ell itself varied, however. There were hundreds of thousands of such examples among measuring units throughout Europe.
10 Prehistoric, Carnivorous Birds That Are Thankfully Extinct
Millions of years ago, Earth was quite a dangerous place. Everything from huge dinosaurs to giant centipedes roamed in full glory. If humans of our size existed during those times, they would probably be relatively equivalent to the size of present-day ants as compared to the prehistoric creatures.
So, it comes as no surprise that even birds of those days are the stuff that our nightmares are made up of. Thankfully, none of those prehistoric birds exists now. Just to remind how big and dangerous they were, here is a list of ten such prehistoric, carnivorous birds that are now thankfully extinct.
1. Pelagornis sandersi – flying bird, wingspan twenty to twenty-four feet
Image Source: 1,2
Pelagornis sandersi was the largest flying bird known to have lived on Earth. It had an estimated wingspan of twenty to twenty-four feet which is more than twice the size of the largest living, flying bird. The fossil was first unearthed in 1983 near Charleston, South Carolina. It was named Pelagornis sandersi in honor of retired Charleston Museum curator, Albert Sanders, who led the team that did the fossil’s excavation.
This extinct seabird was an apex predator and used to fly over the ocean to catch its prey. It was an incredibly efficient glider. Its long, slender wings helped it stay aloft despite its enormous size. To catch its prey, Pelagornis sandersi possessed a beak with bizarre, tooth-like spikes. These spikes, also known as pseudo-teeth, lined their upper and lower jaw. They were conical and pointed and were used to pierce the body of the prey which consisted primarily of fish and squid.(1,2)
2. Argentavis – flying bird, wingspan 16.7 – 19.9 feet
Note: The picture is just for representation purpose to compare the size of Argentavis magnificens with a human. Image Source: Wangyonglee/Wikimedia Commons
Before the discovery of Pelagornis sandersi, Argentavis magnificens was hailed as the largest flying bird to have ever existed. Also known as the “giant teratorn”, Argentavis had an estimated wingspan of 16.7–19.9 feet. Fossils of this extinct species have been obtained mainly from central and northwestern Argentina.
Argentavis lived and searched for food in territories measuring probably more than 500 square kilometers. It was more of a scavenger than a predator. It is possible that it usually chased other carnivores and consumed their kills. Argentavis had a large slender bill with a hooked tip and a wide gape.
When hunting actively, Argentavis swooped from high above down onto their prey, grabbed, killed, and swallowed it without landing. Its skull structure suggests that it ate most of its prey whole rather than tearing off the flesh into pieces.(source)
3. Pelagornis Chilensis – flying bird, wingspan seventeen feet
Image Source: nationalgeographic.com
Pelagornis chilensis was part of a prehistoric group known as the “bony-toothed birds” which existed between five and ten million years ago. It used to soar above the ocean and mountains of what is now Chile. This pseudo-tooth bird had a wingspan of sixteen to seventeen feet.
The only known fossil specimen of Pelagornis chilensis was discovered by an amateur collector in the Atacama desert at a site near El Morro. The fossil shows there are twenty tooth-like bone extensions (pseudo-teeth) on the bill. The giant bird used these pseudo-teeth to snatch fish and squid from water’s surface and swallow them whole.(1,2)
4. Teratornis – flying bird, wingspan eleven to twelve feet
Image Source: Charles Knight / Field Museum of Natural History
Teratornis was a huge North American bird of prey. Fossils of more than one hundred individuals have been found in California, Oregon, Arizona, Florida, and southern Nevada. With a wingspan of eleven to twelve feet, this prehistoric bird stood thirty inches tall.
Teratornis preyed on creatures up to the size of a small rabbit and swallowed them whole. It used its feet to hold the prey while it tore off and ate pieces. But, the grip was not as forceful as many other birds of prey. Teratornis merriami became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene, some 10,000 years ago.(1,2)
5. Haast’s eagle – flying bird, wingspan 8.5 feet to 9.8 feet
Image Source: www.nzgeo.com
Haast’s eagles were one of the largest known true raptors. In length and weight, Haast’s eagle was larger than the largest living vultures. Haast’s eagle was first described by Julius von Haast in 1871 from remains discovered by F. Fuller in a location that was a former marsh. The species was the largest eagle known to have existed even in those times. This large bird lived in the South Island of New Zealand and became extinct around 1400 CE.
Haast’s eagles preyed on large, flightless bird species. It even preyed on the moa which was up to fifteen times the weight of the eagle. Attacking at the speed of up to eighty kilometers per hour (fifty miles per hour), it seized the prey’s pelvis with the talons of one foot and killed it with a blow delivered to the head or neck with the talons of the other foot. Its striking force was equivalent to a cinder block falling from the top of an eight-story building. The large beak was used to rip into the internal organs of its prey, causing it to die by blood loss.(source)
Duck Dynasty Family Suffers Tragic Loss, Family Member Succumbs to Cancer
Duck Dynasty family just faced a tough time that tested their strength as one, the death of a family member. On Monday Chris Howard, Korie Robertson's mother posted an announcement about the passing away of Glenn Durham, her cousin.
"This past week one of my cousins lost his battle with cancer and gained his heavenly reward," she stated on her Instagram account, according to I Have the Truth.
Glenn suffered some time battling against his illness until he finally succumbed to cancer. He spent the last hours of his life listening to the word of God through his computer. His sister even told Chrys that Glenn signaled for a pen before his last breath, as though he was taking down notes while listening with his eyes closed.
The tragic death brought the whole family into mourning as the Robertsons are known by Duck Dynasty viewers as a large close-knit family. Missy, a family member even said on her blog that out of the eight houses on their street, they occupy four which they call "Robertson Row," a cul-de-sac.
John and Chrys Howard made several Duck Dynasty appearances. They are parents to Korie Robertson who happens to be the wife of Willie Robertson, Chief Executive Officer of the Duck Commander.
The Duck Dynasty family is also known as devout Christians. They have a testimony of drawing closely together in support when the need arises.
Glenn being a member of the family was a concrete example of what a devout Christian is. He spent his life looking for chances to share the word of God, preaching the gospel whenever there is an opportunity.
Chrys added on her post that Glenn is a precious example for everyone. She said that up to her cousin's last breath, he tried to learn more about God and to share his knowledge with others.
"Thank you, Glenn Durham, for fearlessly doing that your whole life," Chrys ended her Instagram post, as Mr. Conservative reported.