23 November 1943

23 November 1943

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23 November 1943



War at Sea

German submarine U-648 sunk off the Azores


End of organised Japanese resistance on Tarawa

23 November 1943 - History

Completing the Task: 23㬘 November 1943

"This was not only worse than Guadalcanal," admitted Lieutenant Colonel Carlson, "It was the damnedest fight I've seen in 30 years of this business."

The costly counterattacks during the night of 22-23 November effectively broke the back of the Japanese defense. Had they remained in their bunkers until the bitter end, the defenders probably would have exacted a higher toll in American lives. Facing inevitable defeat in detail, however, nearly 600 Japanese chose to die by taking the offensive during the night action.

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The 2d Marine Division still had five more hours of hard fighting on Betio the morning of D+3 before the island could be conquered. Late in the morning, General Smith sent this report to Admiral Hill on Maryland:

Decisive defeat of enemy counterattack last night destroyed bulk of hostile resistance. Expect complete annihilation of enemy on Betio this date. Strongly recommend that you and your chief of staff come ashore this date to get in formation about the type of hostile resistance which will be encountered in future operations.

Meanwhile, following a systematic preliminary bombardment, the fresh troops of McLeod's LT 3/6 passed through Jones' lines and commenced their attack to the east. By now, Marine assault tactics were well refined. Led by tanks and combat engineers with flamethrowers and high explosives, the troops of 3/6 made rapid progress. Only one bunker, a well-armed complex along the north shore, provided effective opposition. McLeod took advantage of the heavy brush along the south shore to bypass the obstacle, leaving one rifle company to encircle and eventually overrun it. Momentum was maintained the remaining Japanese seemed dispirited. By 1300, McLeod reached the eastern tip of Betio, having inflicted more than 450 Japanese casualties at the loss of 34 of his Marines. McLeod's report summarized the general collapse of the Japanese defensive system in the eastern zone following the counterattacks: "At no time was there any determined defensive . . . . We used flamethrowers and could have used more. Medium tanks were excellent. My light tanks didn't fire a shot."

"Tarawa No. II," a sketch by combat artist Kerr Eby, reflects the difficulty in landing reinforcements over the long pier throughout the battle. As Gen Julian Smith personally learned, landing across Green Beach took longer but was much safer. U.S. Navy Combat Art Collection

The toughest fight of the fourth day occurred on the Red Beach One/Two border where Colonel Shoup directed the combined forces of Hays' 1/8 and Schoettel's 3/2 against the "re-entrant strongpoints. The Japanese defenders in these positions were clearly the most disciplined—and the deadliest—on the island. From these bunkers, Japanese antiboat gunners had thoroughly disrupted the landings of four different battalions, and they had very nearly killed General Smith the day before. The seaward approaches to these strongpoints were littered with wrecked LVTs and bloat ed bodies.

Major Hays finally got some flamethrowers (from Crowe's engineers when LT 2/8 was ordered to stand down), and the attack of 1/8 from the east made steady, if painstaking, progress. Major Schoettel, anxious to atone for what some perceived to be a lackluster effort on D-Day, pressed the assault of 3/2 from the west and south. To complete the circle, Shoup ordered a platoon of infantry and a pair of 75mm half tracks out to the reef to keep the defenders pinned down from the lagoon. Some of the Japanese committed hara-kari the remainder, exhausted, fought to the end. Hays' Marines had been attacking this complex ever since their bloody landing on the morning of D+1. In those 48 hours, 1/8 fired 54,450 rounds of .30-caliber rifle ammunition. But the real damage was done by the special weapons of the engineers and the direct fire of the halftracks. Capture of the largest position, a concrete pillbox near the beach, enabled easier approaches to the remaining bunkers. By 1300, it was all over.

Marines fire a M-1919A4 machine gun from an improvised "shelter" in the battlefield. Department of Defense Photo 63495

A Marine throws a hand grenade during the battle for the interior of the island. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 63455

At high noon, while the fighting in both sectors was still underway, a Navy fighter plane landed on Betio's airstrip, weaving around the Seabee trucks and graders. Nearby Marines swarmed over the plane to shake the pilot's hand. A PB2Y also landed to take out press reports and the haggard observers, including Evans Carlson and Walter Jordan.

Admiral Hill and his staff came ashore at 1245. The naval officers marveled at the great strength of the Japanese bunker system, realizing immediately the need to reconsider their preliminary bombardment policies. Admiral Hill called Betio "a little Gibraltar" and observed that "only the Marines could have made such a landing."

When Smith received the nearly simultaneous reports from Colonels Shoup and Holmes that both final objectives had been seized, he was able to share the good news with Hill. The two had worked together harmoniously to achieve this victory. Between them, they drafted a message to Admiral Turner and General Holland Smith announcing the end of organized resistance on Betio. It was 1305, about 76 hours after PFC Moore first rammed LVT 4-9 ("My Deloris") onto the seawall on Red Beach One to begin the direct assault.

The stench of death and decay was overwhelming. "Betio would be more habitable," reported Robert Sherrod, "if the Marines could leave for a few days and send a million buzzards in." Working parties sought doggedly to identify the dead often the bodies were so badly shattered or burned as to eliminate distinction between friend and foe. Chaplains worked alongside burial teams equipped with bulldozers. General Smith's administrative staff worked hard to prepare accurate casualty lists. More casualties were expected in the mop-up operations in the surrounding islands and Apamama. Particularly distressing was the report that nearly 100 en listed Marines were missing and presumed dead. The changing tides had swept many bodies of the assault troops out to sea. The first pilot ashore reported seeing scores of floating corpses, miles away, over the horizon.

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The Japanese garrison was nearly annihilated in the fighting. The Marines, supported by naval gunfire, carrier aviation, and Army Air Force units, killed 97 percent of the 4,836 troops estimated to be on Betio during the assault. Only 146 prisoners were taken, all but 17 of them Korean laborers. The Marines captured only one Japanese officer, 30-year-old Kiyoshi Ota from Nagasaki, a Special Duty Ensign in the 7th Sasebo Special Landing Force. Ensign Ota told his captors the garrison expected the landings along the south and southwest sectors instead of the northern beaches. He also thought the reef would protect the defenders throughout periods of low tide.

Shortly before General Julian Smith's announcement of victory at Betio, his Army counterpart, General Ralph Smith, signalled "Makin taken!" In three days of sharp fighting on Butaritari Island, the Army wiped out the Japanese garrison at the cost of 200 American casualties. Bad blood developed between "Howling Mad" Smith and Ralph Smith over the conduct of this operation which would have unfortunate consequences in a later amphibious campaign.

The grimy Marines on Betio took a deep breath and sank to the ground. Many had been awake since the night before the landing. As Captain Carl Hoffman recalled, "There was just no way to rest there was virtually no way to eat. Mostly it was close, hand-to-hand fighting and survival for three and a half days. It seemed like the longest period of my life." Lieutenant Lillibridge had no nourishment at all until the after noon of D+3. "One of my men mixed up a canteen cup full of hot water, chocolate, coffee, and sugar, and gave it to me, saying he thought I needed something. It was the best meal I ever had."

Incident on D+3

A small incident on the last day of the fighting on Betio cost First Sergeant Lewis J. Michelony, Jr. his sense of smell. Michelony, a member of the 1st Battalion, 6th Marines, was a former boxing champion of the Atlantic Fleet and a combat veteran of Guadalcanal. Later in the Pacific War he would receive two Silver Star Medals for conspicuous bravery. On D+3 at Tarawa, however, he every nearly lost his life.

First Sergeant Michelony accompanied two other Marines on a routine reconnaissance of an area east of Green Beach, looking for likely positions to assign the battalion mortar platoon. The area had been "cleared" by the infantry companies of the battalion the previous morning. Other Marines had passed through the complex of seemingly empty Japanese bunkers without incident. The clearing was littered with Japanese bodies and abandoned enemy equipment. The three Marines threw grenades into the first bunker they encountered without response. All was quiet.

"Suddenly, out of nowhere, all hell broke loose," recalled Michelony, "The front bunker opened fire with a machine gun, grenades hailed in from nowhere." One Marine died instantly the second escaped, leaving Michelony face down in the sand. In desperation, the first sergeant drove into the nearest bunker, tumbling through a rear entrance to land in what he thought was a pool of water. In the bunker's dim light, he discovered it was a combination of water, urine, blood, and other material, "some of it from the bodies of the dead Japanese and some from the live ones." As he spat out the foul liquid from his mouth, Michelony realized there were live Japanese in among the dead, decaying ones. The smell, taste, and fear he experienced inside the bunker were almost overpowering. "Somehow I managed to get out. To this day, I don't know how. I crawled out of this cesspool dripping wet." The scorching sun dried his utilities as though they had been heavily starched they still stank. "For months later, I could taste and smell, as well as visualize, this scene." Fifty years after the incident, retired Sergeant Major Michelony still has no sense of smell.

The Marines stared numbly at the desolation that surrounded them. Lieutenant Colonel Russell Lloyd, executive officer of the 6th Marines, took a minute to scratch out a hasty note to his wife, saying "I'm on Tarawa in the midst of the worst destruction I've ever seen." Chaplain Willard walked along Red Beach One, finally clear of enemy pillboxes. "Along the shore," he wrote, "I counted the bodies of 76 Marines staring up at me, half in, half out of the water." Robert Sherrod also took the opportunity to walk about the island. "What I saw on Betio was, I am certain, one of the greatest works of devastation wrought by man." Sherrod whistled at the proliferation of heavy machine guns and 77mm antiboat guns along the northwest shore. As he described one scene:

Amtrack Number 4-8 is jammed against the seawall barricade. Three waterlogged Marines lie beneath it. Four others are scattered nearby, and there is one hanging on a two-foot-high strand of barbed wire who does not touch the coral flat at all. Back of the 77mm gun are many hundreds of rounds of 77mm ammunition.

Other Japanese forces in the Gilberts exacted a high toll among the invasion force. Six Japanese submarines reached the area during D+2. One of these, the I-175, torpedoed the escort carrier Liscome Bay just before sunrise on 24 November off Makin. The explosion was terrific—Admiral Hill saw the flash at Tarawa, 93 miles away—and the ship sank quickly, taking 644 souls to the bottom.

The Marines on Betio conducted a joint flag-raising ceremony later that same morning. Two of the few surviving palm trees were selected as poles, but the Marines were hard put to find a British flag. Finally, Major Holland, the New Zealand officer who had proved so prophetic about the tides at Tarawa, produced a Union Jack. A field musician played the appropriate bugle calls Marines all over the small island stood and saluted. Each could reckon the cost.

At this time came the good news from Captain James Jones (brother to Major "Willie K." Jones) at Apamama. Jones' V Amphibious Corps Reconnaissance Company had landed by rubber rafts from the transport submarine Nautilus during the night of 20-21 November. The small Japanese garrison at first kept the scouts at bay. The Nautilus then surfaced and bombarded the Japanese positions with deck guns. This killed some of the defenders the remainder committed hara-kiri. The island was deemed secure by the 24th. General Julian Smith sent General Hermle and McLeod's LT 3/6 to take command of Apamama until base defense forces could arrive.

General Smith kept his promise to his assault troops at Tarawa. Amphibious transports entered the lagoon on 24 November and backloaded Combat Teams 2 and 8. To Lieutenant Lillibridge, going back on board ship after Betio was like going to heaven. "The Navy personnel were unbelievably generous and kind . . . we were treated to a full-scale turkey dinner . . . . The Navy officers helped serve the food." But Lillibridge, like many other surviving troop leaders, suffered from post-combat trauma. The lieutenant had lost over half the members of his platoon, and he was consumed with guilt.

One of the few Japanese prisoners taken on Betio this man was captured late in the battle. LtGen Julian C. Smith Collection

With the 2d Marines and 8th Marines off to Hawaii, McLeod's 3/6 enroute to Apamama, and Murray's 2/6 beginning its long trek through the other islands of the Tarawa Atoll, Major Jones' 1/6 became the last infantry unit on Betio. Its work was tedious: burying the dead, flushing out die-hard snipers, hosting visiting dignitaries.

The first of these was Major General Holland Smith. The V Amphibious Corps Commander flew to Betio on 24 November and spent an emotional afternoon viewing the carnage with Julian Smith. "Howling Mad" Smith was shaken by the experience. In his words: "The sight of our dead floating in the waters of the lagoon and lying along the blood-soaked beaches is one I will never forget. Over the pitted, blasted island hung a miasma of coral dust and death, nauseating and horrifying."

Navy Seabees managed to get their first bulldozer ashore on D-Day. With it, and the ones that followed, the Seabees built artillery revetments, smothered enemy positions, dug mass graves, and rebuilt the damaged runway—all while under fire. Marine Corps Personal Papers, LtGen Julian C. Smith Collection

Major Jones recalled that Holland Smith had tears in his eyes as he walked through the ruins. Robert Sherrod also accompanied the generals. They came upon one sight that moved all of them to tears. It was a dead Marine, leaning forward against the seawall, "one arm still supported upright by the weight of his body. On top of the seawall, just beyond his upraised hand, lies a blue and white flag, a beach marker to tell succeeding waves where to land." Holland Smith cleared his throat and said, "How can men like that ever be defeated?"

Company D, 2d Tank Battalion, was designated as the scout company for the 2d Marine Division for the Tarawa operation. Small elements of these scouts landed on Eita and Buota Islands while the fighting on Betio still raged, discovering and shadowing a sizeable Japanese force. On 23 November, Lieutenant Colonel Manley Curry's 3d Battalion, 10th Marines, landed on Eita. The battalion's pack howitzers were initially intended to augment fires on Betio when that island finally fell, the artillerymen turned their guns to support the 2d Battalion, 6th Marines, in clearing the rest of the is lands in the atoll.

"Ebb Tide—Tarawa," a sketch by Kerr Eby, evokes the tragic view of the beachhead. U.S. Navy Combat Art Collection

Lieutenant Colonel Murray's LT 2/6 boarded boats from Betio at 0500 on 24 November and landed on Buota. Murray set a fierce pace, the Marines frequently wading across the sandspits that joined the succeeding islands. Soon he was out of range of Curry's guns on Eita. Curry detached Battery G to follow Murray in trace. The Marines learned from friendly natives that a Japanese force of about 175 naval infantry was ahead on the larger island of Buariki, near the northwest point of the atoll. Murray's lead elements caught up with the enemy at dusk on 26 November. There was a sharp exchange of fire in very thick vegetation before both sides broke contact. Murray positioned his forces for an all-out assault in the morning.

The battle of Buariki on 27 November was the last engagement in the Gilberts, and it was just as deadly as each preceding encounter with the Special Naval Landing Forces. Murray attacked the Japanese defensive positions at first light, getting one salvo of supporting fire from Battery G before the lines become too intermingled in the extended melee. Here the fighting was similar to Guadalcanal: much hand-to-hand brawling in tangled underbrush. The Japanese had no elaborate defenses as on Betio, but the Imperial sea soldiers took advantage of cover and concealment, made every shot count, and fought to the last man. All 175 were slain. Murray's victory was dearly bought: 32 officers and men killed, 59 others wounded. The following day, the Marines crossed to the last remaining islet. There were no more Japanese to be found. On 28 November, Julian Smith announced "remaining enemy forces on Tarawa wiped out."

Admirals Nimitz and Spruance came to Betio just before Julian Smith's announcement. Nimitz quickly saw that the basic Japanese defenses were still intact. He directed his staff to diagnose the exact construction methods used within a month an identical set of bunkers and pillboxes was being built on the naval bombardment island of Kahoolawe in the Hawaiian Islands.

MajGen Julian C. Smith, wearing helmet liner at center, describes the nature of the recently completed conquest of Betio to Adm Chester Nimitz, facing camera, and Army LtGen Robert Richardson during their visit to the island on 27 November 1943. An exhausted Col Edson looks on at right. While they talked, the smell of death pervaded over the island. Department of Defense Photo (USMC) 65437

Admiral Nimitz paused to present the first of many combat awards to Marines of the 2d Marine Division. In time, other recognition followed. The entire division was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation. Colonel David Monroe Shoup received the Medal of Honor. Major "Jim" Crowe and his executive officer, Major Bill Chamberlin, received the Navy Cross. So did Lieutenant Colonel Herb Amey (posthumously), Major Mike Ryan, and Corporal John Spillane, the LVT crewchief and prospective baseball star who caught the Japanese hand grenades in mid-air on D-Day before his luck ran out.

Breckenridge American (Breckenridge, Tex.), Vol. 23, No. 140, Ed. 1 Friday, November 26, 1943

Daily newspaper (except Sunday) from Breckenridge, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with extensive advertising.

Physical Description

four pages : illus. page 22 x 16 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

Creation Information


This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Breckenridge Daily American and was provided by the Breckenridge Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 28 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.




Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Breckenridge Public Library

The Breckenridge Library is a part of the Breckenridge Library and Fine Arts Foundation. It is a private library providing public services to Breckenridge, Stephens County and the surrounding area. The library occupies over 7500 square feet and containing more than 27,000 titles, staffed by two employees and many volunteers.

Breckenridge American (Breckenridge, Tex.), Vol. 23, No. 142, Ed. 1 Tuesday, November 30, 1943

Daily newspaper (except Sunday) from Breckenridge, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with extensive advertising.

Physical Description

four pages : illus. page 22 x 16 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

Creation Information


This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Breckenridge Daily American and was provided by the Breckenridge Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 63 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.




Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Breckenridge Public Library

The Breckenridge Library is a part of the Breckenridge Library and Fine Arts Foundation. It is a private library providing public services to Breckenridge, Stephens County and the surrounding area. The library occupies over 7500 square feet and containing more than 27,000 titles, staffed by two employees and many volunteers.

SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22-23 November 1943

Post by Peter » 04 Jul 2019, 11:13

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by Georges JEROME » 04 Jul 2019, 13:39

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by Peter » 04 Jul 2019, 17:14

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by GregSingh » 05 Jul 2019, 10:42

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by Max Williams » 05 Jul 2019, 11:02

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by Peter » 05 Jul 2019, 11:26

I suspect that I shall have to return to the source Max, thanks.

I believe it was a translation of a German document done in the US in the late 1940's, no German language left only the interpretation, which as we all know can be dicey.

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by Waleed Y. Majeed » 05 Jul 2019, 20:27

“SS Administrative College” mentioned again: . 51077.html
And here, see the name Roy Alfred Dabnor . 20GATE.pdf
Et cetera, et cetera if you google “SS Administrative College Berlin 22/23 November 1943”. So must be a widespread mistake.

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by arthurnottheking » 19 Nov 2019, 13:46

Thank you for the references. I have bookmarked a couple of articles by Fred Vogels aready, but haven't seen this one. There're many issues with translations, as my grandpa told me. His sister lives in Berlin now and they regularly talk over Skype.

Re: SS Administrative College Berlin bombed 22/23 Nov 1943

Post by arthurnottheking » 19 Nov 2019, 15:40

Thank you for the references. I have bookmarked a couple of articles by Fred Vogels aready, but haven't seen this one. There're many issues with translations, as my grandpa told me. His sister lives in Berlin now and they regularly talk over Skype.
Fred Vogels: I don't skate or play football on my official website

German Night Fighters

German night fighters transformed aerial combat. The success of German night fighters was such that the Allies had to reform their tactics in an attempt to reduce their effectiveness.

American bombers were usually used for daylight bombing raids on Nazi Germany. RAF bombers were usually used for nighttime bombing raids. A typical raid would involve a flight coming into mainland Europe over the coast of the Netherlands en route to targets such as Cologne, Frankfurt and Nuremberg. The return journey would take the bombers over Strasbourg, Paris and back to their bases usually in East Anglia. Prior to night fighters, bombers were most at risk from anti-aircraft fire – especially if they were caught in a searchlight. Night fighters put a new dynamic into a bombing run.

Germany’s main night fighters were the Messerschmitt Bf-110G, the Junker Ju-88G6, the Dornier Do-217J and the Heinkel He-219A Uhu (Owl). Towards the end of the war, a night fighting version of the Me-262 was used. Though this was potentially a highly effective weapon, as with other weapons developed by Germany towards the end of the war, it was a case of ‘too little too late’.

The Messerschmitt Bf-110G was a very successful night fighter. With a top speed of 342 mph and a maximum ceiling of 26,000 feet, it could easily get among a formation of bombers. Equipped with 2 x 30mm and 2 x 20mm cannon with a 7.9mm machine gun, it also carried a formidable weapons load.

The Junkers Ju-88G6 was also a widely used night fighter. Unlike the Messerschmitt Bf-110G, it was equipped with the ‘Schrage Musik’ – upward-firing 2 x 20mm cannon mounted in the central fuselage. It had a maximum speed of 311 mph and a maximum ceiling of 32,500 feet. Along with the ‘Schrage Musik’, this night fighter was also equipped with 3 x 20mm cannon and 3 x 7.9mm machine guns.

The Dornier Do-217J had a maximum speed of 320 mph and a maximum ceiling of 31,170 feet. More heavily armed than the Messerschmitt Bf-110G or Junkers Ju-88G6, it was equipped with 4 x 20mm cannon, 4 x 7.9mm machine guns, and 1 x 13mm machine gun in a remote-controlled dorsal turret.

The Heinkel ‘Owl’ first flew in 1942 and on paper was a potentially fearsome opponent to nighttime bombers. However, only 268 were ever built because of the targeting of the factories by Allied bombers. It was the fastest of the propeller-driven night fighting aircraft with a top speed of 416 mph and a ceiling of 41,660 feet. It was armed with 2 x 30mm and 2 x 20mm cannon and 2 x 30mm ‘Schrage Musik’ cannon.

All the above aircraft could not fly blind at night and had to be equipped with night flying radar. In the case of the Luftwaffe, they used the Lichtenstein radar. By 1943, Germany had developed a radar shield that identified aircraft when they were miles away and gave night fighters a fix on incoming bombers so that the night fighters themselves could then use their Lichtenstein radar before attacking. At twenty-miles intervals across the coast of northern Europe, the Germans built a long-range early warning radar called ‘Freya’. This would pick up an incoming raid when it was still miles out. As the raid closed, it would be picked up by short-range radar called ‘Wurzburg’. This radar system would also have a second fix on circling night fighters and by decreasing the angle between both fixes would bring the night fighters nearer to the incoming bombers. Once they were near enough, each fighter would use its Lichtenstein radar to hunt out a target.

“If it was the flak that caused the damage and forced bomber crews to jink their aircraft, thus making accurate bombing difficult, it was the venomously efficient night fighters that were the real killers.” Flight-Lieutenant Alfred Price.

General Josef Kammhuber, commander of the Luftwaffe’s night fighting force, had developed the tactics for the night fighters. He designed a routine whereby German night fighters were brought in behind incoming bombers so that they could attack them in the rear. Once Lichtenstein had made contact, a pilot would radio in ‘Pauke’, which was the Luftwaffe equivalent of ‘Tally Ho’ – that the pilot was about to attack a target. The radar operator in each night fighter gave the pilot a running commentary of the flight path that should be taken.

“Like that of an enemy sniper, the task of the night time crew amounted to little short of cold-blooded murder. If it was possible to get within 50 yards behind and astern of a still unsuspecting victim, a favourite German tactic was the pull the fighter up on to its tail, at the same time opening fire. The battery of cannon pumped out a stream of explosive shells, to rake the raider from stem to stern. All too often the first thing the hapless bomber crew knew of the attack was the shudder as their aircraft buckled under the impact of the exploding shells.” Alfred Price

By July 1943, German night fighters had a success rate of 5%. While impressive in the sense that this was a very new way of fighting, it also meant that very many RAF bombers got through. However, the element of ‘never knowing’ was a major worry for Bomber Command crews – would we be next? The experts in the RAF swiftly found a solution to the problems of German night fighters. Logically, night fighters were only as good as their radar. If Lichtenstein could be compromised, then RAF bombers would be ain a much safer position. What was called ‘Windows’ undermined Lichtenstein by a remarkable degree. ‘Windows’ was very simple. Windows comprised of many thousands of strips of aluminium foil – 30 cms long and 1.5 cms wide – that was dropped in bundles of 2,000. German radar worked off of a system of being able to produce a bearing and an elevation for night fighters to home in on. ‘Windows’ made this impossible and each bomber dropped ‘Windows’ at one-minute intervals thus saturating radar on the ground with blips. This resulted in ‘Wurzburg’ not being able to give the night fighters the bearings they required.

23 November 1943 - History

1783 - George Washington returned home to Mount Vernon, after the disbanding of his army following the Revolutionary War.

1788 - Maryland voted to cede a 100-square-mile area for the seat of the national government. About two-thirds of the area became the District of Columbia.

1823 - The poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas" by Clement C. Moore (" 'Twas the night before Christmas. ") was published.

1834 - English architect Joseph Hansom patented his 'safety cab', better known as the Hansom cab.

1852 - The Theatre of Celestial John opened on Telegraph Hill in San Francisco, CA. It was the first Chinese theatre in the U.S.

1856 - Ralph Collier was issued a U.S. patent for the first rotary egg beater with rotating parts.

1880 - Thomas Edison incorporated the Edison Electric Light Company of Europe.

1888 - Following a quarrel with Paul Gauguin, Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh cut off part of his own earlobe.

1893 - The Engelbert Humperdinck opera "Hansel und Gretel" was first performed, in Weimar, Germany.

1913 - The Federal Reserve Bill was signed into law by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. The act established 12 Federal Reserve Banks.

1919 - The first ship designed to be used as an ambulance for the transport patients was launched. The hospital ship was named USS Relief and had 515 beds.

1922 - The British Broadcasting Corporation began daily news broadcasts.

1930 - Ruth Elizabeth Davis, an unknown actress, arrived in Hollywood, under contract to Universal Studios. Universal changed her name to Bette Davis for the movies.

1938 - "Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch" was heard for the final time on the radio.

1941 - During World War II, American forces on Wake Island surrendered to the Japanese.

1942 - Bob Hope agreed to entertain U.S. airmen in Alaska. It was the first of the traditional Christmas shows.

1943 - "Hansel and Gretel," the opera, was televised on New York's WRBG. It was the first complete opera to be televised.

1947 - John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain and William Shockley invented the transistor.

1948 - Former Japanese premier Hideki Tojo and six other Japanese war leaders were executed in Tokyo. They had been found guilty of crimes against humanity.

1951 - A National Football League (NFL) championship game was televised nationally for the first time. The Los Angeles Rams beat the Cleveland Browns 24-17. The DuMont Network had paid $75,000 for the rights to the game.

1953 - Soviet secret police chief Lavrenti Beria and six of his associates were shot for treason following a secret trial.

1954 - The Walt Disney movie "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" was released.
Disney movies, music and books

1957 - Dan Blocker made his acting debut on television in the "Restless Gun."

1965 - A 70-mph speed limit was introduced in Britain.

1968 - The crew of the U.S. Navy ship, Pueblo , was released by North Korea. The Captain of the Pueblo , Commander Lloyd M. Bucher, and 82 of his crew were held for 11 months after the ship was seized by North Korea because of suspected spying by the Americans.

1970 - In New York, the topping out ceremony for original One World Trade Center (North Tower) took place. The South Tower's ceremony took place on July 19, 1971.

1972 - The Pittsburgh Steelers beat the Oakland Raiders 13-7 in an NFL playoff game on a last-second play that was dubbed the "Immaculate Reception." Pittsburgh's Franco Harris caught a deflected pass and ran it in for the winning touchdown.

1981 - NASA approved a plan to continue the Voyager II spacecraft on a trajectory that would take it within 66,000 miles of Uranus on July 24, 1986.

1986 - The experimental airplane Voyager , piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, completed the first non-stop, around-the-world flight without refueling as it landed safely at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

1987 - Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, serving a life sentence for the attempted assassination of U.S. President Ford in 1975, escaped from the Alderson Federal Prison for Women in West Virginia. She was recaptured two days later.

1989 - Ousted Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were captured as they were attempting to flee their country.

1990 - Elections in Yugoslavia ended, leaving four of its six republics with non-Communist governments.

1995 - A fire in Dabwali, India, killed 540 people, including 170 children, during a year-end party being held near the children's school.

1995 - The bodies of 16 members of the Solar Temple religious sect were found in a clearing near Grenoble, France. 14 were presumed shot by two people who then committed suicide.

1997 - Terry Nichols was convicted by a Denver jury on charges of conspiracy and involuntary manslaughter in the 1995 federal building bombing in Oklahoma City. The bomb killed 168 people.

1998 - Guerrillas in south Lebanon fired dozens of rockets at northern Israel. Today's:

The History of the Woulfes/Wolfes in County Cork

By Paul MacCotter

The History section followed by Barbara Clarks' Cork Wolfe family tree, and Ray Gentlemen's Cork Wolfe ancestors. Cork Wolfe descendants should also refer to Kate's excellent website,

Here lived one William Woulfe, whose will was proved in 1649. He may have been the ancestor to the later Woulfes of the town, who included Judith, whose will was proved in 1688, and Aretus, who died in 1707. The latter man, in 1694, had been admitted a freeman of the corporation while seated in his own home as he was crippled. One Thomas Woulf was a wollen draper in the town in 1789. The surname eventually spread into Cork City. The wills of Philip and Margaret Wolfe were proved in the city in 1738 and 1765 respectively while a John Woulfe, a merchant, was admitted a freeman in 1773. His address was Fish Street in 1789. Other Woulfe merchants in the city in the latter year were Michael, of Bachelors Quay, Patrick, of Paul Street, and Michael Robert, of Ann Street. In 1830 the Southern Reporter records the death of "Miss Maryann Woulfe, daughter of the late Michael Woulfe, formerly an eminent merchant of this city".

It was in rural West Cork, however, that the surname chiefly flourished. Wills of John Wolf (1766) and William Wolf (1797), both of Dunmanway, are recorded, while William Woulfe senior of Coolcraheen, near Clonakilty, died in 1794. His widow, Elizabeth, lived much longer, living until 1835 in Rosscarbery. In the same year, Ellen, daughter of John Woulfe of Coolcraheen, married Stephen Daly. In the 19th century the only important landowners of the surname in the county were located in Bantry, where, in 1876, Robert and Philip Woulfe held 1,500 acres between. A smaller landholder was William John Woulfe of Skibbereen, who held 82 acres near the town. He was the father of Jaspar Travers Wolfe of Skibbereen, a solicitor, (1872-1952), the second bearer of the surname to serve as a TD (public representative) in the Irish Dáil or parliament, between the years 1927-1933.

***An important note here. As you study Woulfe and Wolfe names on this page, I'm sure you figured out that many Wolfes are later Protestant English Wolfes, and some are "Old English" (Norman) Catholic Woulfes. But, as you research migration - especially to Canada, you will find that some Catholic Woulfes dropped the "u" in their names in the new world. mw

23 November 1943 - History

Tropical cyclones forming between 5 and 30 degrees North latitude typically move toward the west. Sometimes the winds in the middle and upper levels of the atmosphere change and steer the cyclone toward the north and northwest. When tropical cyclones reach latitudes near 30 degrees North, they often move northeast.

Tropical Cyclone formation regions with mean tracks (courtesy of the NWS JetStream Online School)

Atlantic & Eastern Pacific Climatology

The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1st to November 30th, and the Eastern Pacific hurricane season runs from May 15th to November 30th. The Atlantic basin includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. The Eastern Pacific basin extends to 140°W.

The following figures and tables describe the progress of a typical hurricane season in terms of the total number of tropical systems and hurricanes produced throughout the year in the Atlantic and East Pacific basins.

In the figures, curves represent the average cumulative production of all named tropical systems, all hurricanes, and those hurricanes which were Category 3 or stronger in those basins.

For example, by the beginning of September in an average year we would expect to have had four named systems, two of which would be hurricanes and one of which would be of category 3 or greater in strength.

The tables list benchmark dates when a given number of tropical systems, hurricanes, or category 3 storms should have been generated.

The average cumulative number of Atlantic systems per year, 1966-2009

The average cumulative number of Eastern Pacific systems per year, 1971-2009

Number of Tropical Cyclones per 100 Years

The official hurricane season for the Atlantic Basin (the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico) is from 1 June to 30 November. As seen in the graph above, the peak of the season is from mid-August to late October. However, deadly hurricanes can occur anytime in the hurricane season.

Points of Origin by 10-Day Period

The figures below show the points of tropical cyclone genesis by 10-day periods during the hurricane season. These figures depict named storms only. The source years include 1851-2015 for the Atlantic and 1949-2015 for the Eastern Pacific from the HURDAT database.

Climatological Areas of Origin and Typical Hurricane Tracks by Month

The figures below show the zones of origin and tracks for different months during the hurricane season. These figures only depict average conditions. Hurricanes can originate in different locations and travel much different paths from the average. Nonetheless, having a sense of the general pattern can give you a better picture of the average hurricane season for your area.

High Resolution History Maps

All North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific tropical cyclones

Named Cyclones by Year

Bars depict number of named systems (yellow), hurricanes (red), and category 3 or greater (purple), 1850-2014
Download hires image
Download table of data (PDF)

Hurricane Return Periods

Hurricane return periods are the frequency at which a certain intensity of hurricane can be expected within a given distance of a given location (for the below images 50 nm or 58 statute miles). In simpler terms, a return period of 20 years for a major hurricane means that on average during the previous 100 years, a Category 3 or greater hurricane passed within 50 nm (58 miles) of that location about five times. We would then expect, on average, an additional five Category 3 or greater hurricanes within that radius over the next 100 years.

Note: The information on return period is generated with the 1987 HURISK program, but uses data through 2010.

Estimated return period in years for hurricanes passing
within 50 nautical miles of various locations on the U.S. Coast

Estimated return period in years for major hurricanes passing
within 50 nautical miles of various locations on the U.S. Coast

CONUS Hurricane Strikes

1950-2017 CONUS Hurricane Strikes (Courtesy of NCEI)

CONUS Hurricane Strike Density (county maps)

1900-2010 U.S. Hurricane Strikes

1900-2010 U.S. Hurricane Strikes - West Gulf

1900-2010 U.S. Hurricane Strikes - East Gulf

1900-2010 U.S. Hurricane Strikes - Southeast

1900-2010 U.S. Hurricane Strikes - Northeast

1900-2010 U.S. Major Hurricane Strikes

1900-2010 U.S. Major Hurricane Strikes - West Gulf

1900-2010 U.S. Major Hurricane Strikes - East Gulf

1900-2010 U.S. Major Hurricane Strikes - Southeast

1900-2010 U.S. Major Hurricane Strikes - Northeast

Central Pacific Climatology

The following graphs and charts describe some of the climatology of tropical cyclone activity in the area served by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center, between 140 degrees West longitude and the International Date Line and north of the equator.

Many factors affect the level of tropical cyclone activity from year to year. Among them are the state of the El Nino Southern Oscillation in the Pacific. Moderate to strong El Nino years are correlated with increased tropical cyclone activity in the Central Pacific and the occurrence of late season storms.

Continuous satellite coverage has been available in the Central Pacific since 1971 so many climatologies start with that date.Earlier accounts of tropical cyclone activity are based on land, ship, and aircraft observations as well as some non-continuous satellite data.

Hurricanes Tropical Storms Tropical Depressions Total
Total Number 58 46 59 163
Percent of All Systems 36% 28% 36%

The following charts show the storms that have come within 200 miles and 75 miles of Hawaii. Storms that do not make landfall in Hawaii can still cause considerable damage, mostly from winds and surf.

23 November 1943 - History

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January 19, 2010 - Scott Brown, a Republican reformer from Massachusetts, stuns the nation with an upset win for the special election Senate seat. He is the first Republican elected to the Senate from the state since 1972 and only Republican member of the Massachusetts Democratic congressional delegation. His election puts a halt to the 60 seat Democratic super majority in the Senate and will prevent President Obama and the Democratic leadership from pushing legislation in future votes past a Republican filibuster.

March 25, 2010 - The U.S. House of Representatives finalizes the Health Care legislation approved by the Senate, extending health benefits and insurance to most Americans. The legislation, the Affordable Care Act, passed on a partisan basis by the Democratic Majority, has caused a significant rift within the public, who disapproved of the bill, and is expected to test the Democratic Party's hold on both houses of Congress during the mid-term elections in November.

April 1, 2010 - The U.S. Census of 2010 is conducted, showing a 9.7% increase from the 2000 census for a total of 308,745,538 people. The geographic center of the population is now 2.7 miles northeast of Plato, Missouri.

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April 14, 2011 - Congress votes to pass the 2010-2011 budget after six months of negotiations, including $38 billion in fiscal year cuts. This vote was one of the first measures that showed the new dynamic of a U.S. House of Representatives in Republican hands that was focused, due to Tea Party member goals, to get the burgeoning federal deficit under control.

May 2, 2011 - Osama Bin Laden, mastermind of the 9/11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and other locations and leader of the terrorist group, Al-Queda, is killed after ten years of pursuit by United States and coalition forces during a raid by U.S. Navy Seals on his hideout location in Pakistan.

December 15, 2011 - The war in Iraq is declared over when President Obama orders the last combat troops to leave the country.

May 2, 2012 - At a New York auction house, the highest payment for a work of art, the Scream by Edvard Munch, is paid, costing $120 million dollars.

October 29, 2012 - Hurricane Sandy, taking an unusual track up the East Coast and coming to landfall on the New Jersey coast near Atlantic City and Long Island coasts of New York creates significant damage to coastal towns as well as the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island, to the estimated cost of $65.6 billion. The hurricane, at its peak a Category 2 storm, was the largest storm in recorded history by diameter at 1,100 miles.

November 6, 2012 - President Barack Obama wins a significant victory, 332 electoral votes to 206, for his second term in office against Republican challenger and businessman Mitt Romney. Congress remained status quo with divided government as the House of Representatives remained in Republican hands and the Senate in Democratic hands.

February 12, 2013 - Using a 3-D printer and cell cultures, American scientists at Cornell University grow a living ear.

April 15, 2013 - Two bombs explode near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing three and injuring hundreds in a terrorism attack coordinated by two brothers associated with radical Islam. The attack caused the shutdown of the city as police and federal officials searched and apprehended the suspects within four days of the attack.

May 17, 2013 - Congressional hearings begin on the IRS scandal of group targeting that began two years prior. The Internal Revenue Service is accused of targeting conservative groups for additional scrutiny in tax status matters, including groups like the Tea Party, whose stances include lower taxes and smaller government, plus other patriotic and religious organizations. This breach of protocol from a government agency where all U.S. citizens file taxes has caused concern from both Republican, Democrat, and independent political groups.

January 1, 2014 - Obamacare, the Affordable Care Act, goes into affect for millions of Americans, the largest expansion of the social welfare state in decades. Over 7.3 million join the system, some due to cancellations of existing healthcare policies others due to subsidies provided by the government. Premiums for policies see large increases due to expansion.

September 30, 2014 - First case of Ebola is certified in the United States, an outcome of travel from the country of Liberia and West Africa where the virus has spread to 22,000 people and killed 9,000.

November 4, 2014 - Midterm elections see large increase in Republican lawmakers with expansion of their majority to 247 seats in the House of Representatives and the taking over of the majority in the Senate with 54 seats. This will cause the Obama administration to deal with a Congress now controlled by the other party for the final two years of his term.

April 25, 2015 - Riots begin in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray, a black man, in police custody. This incident, coupled with others at the end of 2014 in Ferguson, Missouri, and more in 2015, would lead to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement and discussion of police brutality in poor, minority, and violent neighborhoods and the appropriate response of police when confronted with danger and issues on how to secure the public good.

December 2, 2015 - Islamic Terrorist inspired act in San Bernadino, California kills fourteen and follows a brutal attack against citizens in Paris in November. These attacks and others are fueled by the continual rise of ISIS in Syria, Iraq, and other countries around the world.

April 7, 2016 - American Idol, the seminal music competition that set the record for eight straight seasons, 2003-4 to 2010-11, as the Number One show on television, ended its fifteen year run. The television show was one of the most successful shows in television history, peaking in 2006 with over 31 million viewers. The program would subsequently be brought back two years later.

June 12, 2016 - Terrorist attack in Orlando, Florida, with fifty killed and fifty-three wounded, continues ISIS and Radical Islamic terrorist inspired attacks throughout the world, including major attacks in Ankara, Instanbul, Brussels, and Nice.

December 29, 2016 - Thirty-five Russian diplomats expelled from Washington by President Obama after national security report that Russia had been behind a hacking scandal to influence the national presidential election. Although no vote tallies were affected, the seriousness of continued cyber attacks against both democratic institutions and other major targets sends an international signal that these attacks represent a major threat in the digital world.

February 11, 2017 - North Korea fires ballistic missile over the Sea of Japan, testing the resolve of the world in its attempt to develop a deliverable nuclear weapon. Throughout the year, North Korea continues its provocative tests, firing its first intercontinental ballistic missile, and other nuclear tests, prompting increased sanctions.

August 25, 2017 - Disastrous hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Atlantic seaboard begins with Hurricane Harvey hitting the Houston area, causing $125 billion in damage. It is followed on September 6 with Hurricane Irma, the strongest Atlantic hurricane in history striking Florida, and on September 19, Hurricane Maria strikes Puerto Rico. Those two hurricanes cause over $150 billion in additional damages.

December 22, 2017 - President Trump signs the largest tax cut and changes in the tax code since 1986 with the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, reducing rates and simplying the tax code.

April 10, 2018 - Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg responds to a Congressional inquiry into the reason why eight-seven million customers had their private information breached by an outside British political consulting firm. By July, the market value of the firm had dropped twenty percent, losing $109 billion.

November 6, 2018 - Mid-term elections result in Democratic gains of forty seats in the U.S. House of Representatives and seven governors, but lose two seats in the U.S. Senate.

December 22, 2018 - Partial government shutdown begins after President Trump refuses to sign any spending package for Homeland Security that does not include border barrier funding in appropriations due to the status of illegal immigration and border security. Shutdown lasts for thirty-five days, the longest shutdown in United States history.

April 14, 2019 - Tiger Woods wins his 15th Major at the Masters after eleven years without a victory in one of the four major golf tournaments. On October 28, 2019, Woods ties Sam Snead for the most PGA Tournament victories in a career with 82.

May 10, 2019 - Additional tariffs against China, at twenty-five percent on $200 billion worth of Chinese goods, are announced by the Trump Administration in the continued trade war. By December, a First Phase Trade Agreement is announced, but not signed.

November 15, 2019 - Stock market closes above 28,000 in the Dow Jones Average for the first time, continuing its rise, with twenty-two record closes through the year. It would reach its highest level in history on December 27, 2019.

December 18, 2019 - President Donald Trump is impeached by the House of Representatives in a partisan vote, on two counts, Obstruction of Congress and Abuse of Power, for a perceived improper phone conversation revolving around the Ukraine, military aid, and a potential investigation into oil dealings of the son of political rival Joe Biden.


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